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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#1
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243840/conjugal-intimacy-gender-and-modernity-in-contemporary-china
#2
Jieyu Liu, Eona Bell, Jiayu Zhang
The new generation of modernity theorists have forecast the democratization of gender relations within intimate relationships in late-modern times. Chinese society has undergone rapid and dramatic changes in its unique trajectory of political, social and economic reform. Using China as an example of a region which has been largely ignored in contemporary social theory, this article enters the debate to contest the extent to which conjugal relationships are democratized in line with modernity. We further test the assertion that modern marriages are characterized by increased self-disclosure and communication between partners...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242032/gene-phenotypes-the-role-can-t-be-ignored-in-etiology-of-dental-caries
#3
Feng Chen, Lu Gao, Peiqi Meng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241426/causal-inference-with-measurement-error-in-outcomes-bias-analysis-and-estimation-methods
#4
Di Shu, Grace Y Yi
Inverse probability weighting estimation has been popularly used to consistently estimate the average treatment effect. Its validity, however, is challenged by the presence of error-prone variables. In this paper, we explore the inverse probability weighting estimation with mismeasured outcome variables. We study the impact of measurement error for both continuous and discrete outcome variables and reveal interesting consequences of the naive analysis which ignores measurement error. When a continuous outcome variable is mismeasured under an additive measurement error model, the naive analysis may still yield a consistent estimator; when the outcome is binary, we derive the asymptotic bias in a closed-form...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239602/improving-estimates-of-nitrogen-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment-of-cropping-systems-at-the-scale-of-an-agricultural-territory
#5
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237488/clinical-reminder-alert-fatigue-in-healthcare-a-systematic-literature-review-protocol-using-qualitative-evidence
#6
Ruth Backman, Susan Bayliss, David Moore, Ian Litchfield
BACKGROUND: Integrated reminders within clinical systems have become more prevalent due to the use of electronic health records and evidence demonstrating an increase in compliance within practice. Clinical reminders are assessed for effectiveness on an individual basis, rather than in combination with existing prompts for other conditions. The growing number of prompts may be counter-productive as healthcare professionals are increasingly suffering from "reminder fatigue" meaning many reminders are ignored...
December 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237442/factors-impacting-the-illness-trajectory-of-post-infectious-fatigue-syndrome-a-qualitative-study-of-adults-experiences
#7
Eva Stormorken, Leonard A Jason, Marit Kirkevold
BACKGROUND: Post-infectious fatigue syndrome (PIFS), also known as post-viral fatigue syndrome, is a complex condition resulting in physical, cognitive, emotional, neurological, vocational and/or role performance disabilities in varying degrees that changes over time. The needs for health care resources are high, and costly, as is the economic burden on the affected individuals. Many factors may impact the trajectory, and frequently PIFS develops into a chronic condition. Health professionals lack understanding and knowledge, which results in delayed diagnosis, lack of recognition, appropriate treatment, support and practical help...
December 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236875/quality-of-the-record-of-data-on-fatal-workplace-injuries-in-brazil
#8
Adriana Galdino, Vilma Sousa Santana, Silvia Ferrite
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of the data on fatal workplace injuries in Brazil, in the Mortality Information System (SIM) and the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN-AT), analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution between 2007 and 2012. METHODS: We identified fields related to fatal workplace injuries, which were examined for completeness and the use of the "ignored" option. From the SIM, we extracted the records of deaths from external causes, which require the completing of the <acidtrab> field about their relation with work...
December 11, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236679/assessing-public-metabolomics-metadata-towards-improving-quality
#9
João D Ferreira, Bruno Inácio, Reza M Salek, Francisco M Couto
Public resources need to be appropriately annotated with metadata in order to make them discoverable, reproducible and traceable, further enabling them to be interoperable or integrated with other datasets. While data-sharing policies exist to promote the annotation process by data owners, these guidelines are still largely ignored. In this manuscript, we analyse automatic measures of metadata quality, and suggest their application as a mean to encourage data owners to increase the metadata quality of their resources and submissions, thereby contributing to higher quality data, improved data sharing, and the overall accountability of scientific publications...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234159/evolution-of-reproductive-parasites-with-direct-fitness-benefits
#10
Roman Zug, Peter Hammerstein
Maternally inherited symbionts such as Wolbachia have long been seen mainly as reproductive parasites, with deleterious effects on host fitness. It is becoming clear, however, that, frequently, these symbionts also have beneficial effects on host fitness, either along with reproductive parasitism or not. Using the examples of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and male-killing (MK), we here analyze the effect of direct fitness benefits on the evolution of reproductive parasites. By means of a simple theoretical framework, we synthesize and extend earlier modeling approaches for CI and MK, which usually ignore fitness benefits...
December 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233850/ltr_retriever-a-highly-accurate-and-sensitive-program-for-identification-of-long-terminal-repeat-retrotransposons
#11
Shujun Ou, Ning Jiang
Long terminal-repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are prevalent in plant genomes. Identification of LTR-RTs is critical for achieving high-quality gene annotation. Based on the well-conserved structure, multiple programs were developed for de novo identification of LTR-RTs; however, these programs are associated with low specificity and high false discovery rate (FDR). Here we report LTR_retriever, a multithreading empowered Perl program that identifies LTR-RTs and generates high-quality LTR libraries from genomic sequences...
December 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233155/a-meta-model-for-computer-executable-dynamic-clinical-safety-checklists
#12
Shan Nan, Pieter Van Gorp, Xudong Lu, Uzay Kaymak, Hendrikus Korsten, Richard Vdovjak, Huilong Duan
BACKGROUND: Safety checklist is a type of cognitive tool enforcing short term memory of medical workers with the purpose of reducing medical errors caused by overlook and ignorance. To facilitate the daily use of safety checklists, computerized systems embedded in the clinical workflow and adapted to patient-context are increasingly developed. However, the current hard-coded approach of implementing checklists in these systems increase the cognitive efforts of clinical experts and coding efforts for informaticists...
December 12, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233135/biotic-and-abiotic-drivers-of-intraspecific-trait-variation-within-plant-populations-of-three-herbaceous-plant-species-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#13
Kenny Helsen, Kamal P Acharya, Jörg Brunet, Sara A O Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Martin Hermy, Annette Kolb, Isgard H Lemke, Jonathan Lenoir, Jan Plue, Kris Verheyen, Pieter De Frenne, Bente J Graae
BACKGROUND: The importance of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is increasingly acknowledged among plant ecologists. However, our understanding of what drives ITV between individual plants (ITVBI) at the population level is still limited. Contrasting theoretical hypotheses state that ITVBI can be either suppressed (stress-reduced plasticity hypothesis) or enhanced (stress-induced variability hypothesis) under high abiotic stress. Similarly, other hypotheses predict either suppressed (niche packing hypothesis) or enhanced ITVBI (individual variation hypothesis) under high niche packing in species rich communities...
December 12, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233060/ignoring-theory-and-misinterpreting-evidence-the-false-belief-in-fear-appeals
#14
Gerjo Kok, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Loes T E Kessels, Gill A Ten Hoor, Robert A C Ruiter
Use of fear appeals assumes that when people are emotionally confronted with the negative effects of their behavior they will change that behavior. That reasoning is simple and intuitive, but only true under specific, rare circumstances. Risk-perception theories predict that if people will experience a threat, they want to counter that threat. However, how they do so is determined by their coping efficacy level: if efficacy is high, they may change their behavior in the suggested direction; if efficacy is low, they react defensively...
December 12, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232978/primary-health-care-reform-dilemmatic-space-and-risk-of-burnout-among-health-workers
#15
Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Ronald Labonté, Sara Javanparast, Angela Lawless
Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout...
February 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232755/-effect-of-the-age-related-corneal-elasticity-on-applanation-tonometry
#16
Karsten Sperlich, Stephan Reiß, Sebastian Bohn, Heinrich Stolz, Rudolf F Guthoff, Anselm Jünemann, Oliver Stachs
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is accepted to be one important criterion for glaucoma and is usually measured by applanation or rebound tonometry. The individual uncertainty due to central cornea thickness (CCT) is thereby corrected, while the error induced by age-related elastic modulus (EM) change of the cornea is ignored. To investigate its influence on IOP measurement, we derive a model including also the elastic modulus. Our approach is based on known equations from experimental physics and several assumptions being justified in this paper...
December 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232195/crossover-design-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-studies-on-motor-learning-potential-pitfalls-and-difficulties-in-interpretation-of-findings
#17
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Crossover designs are used by a high proportion of studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning. These designs necessitate attention to aspects of data collection and analysis to take account of design-related confounds including order, carryover, and period effects. In this systematic review, we appraised the method sections of crossover-designed tDCS studies of motor learning and discussed the strategies adopted to address these factors. A systematic search of 10 databases was performed and 19 research papers, including 21 experimental studies, were identified...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231876/consistently-sampled-correlation-filters-with-space-anisotropic-regularization-for-visual-tracking
#18
Guokai Shi, Tingfa Xu, Jie Guo, Jiqiang Luo, Yuankun Li
Most existing correlation filter-based tracking algorithms, which use fixed patches and cyclic shifts as training and detection measures, assume that the training samples are reliable and ignore the inconsistencies between training samples and detection samples. We propose to construct and study a consistently sampled correlation filter with space anisotropic regularization (CSSAR) to solve these two problems simultaneously. Our approach constructs a spatiotemporally consistent sample strategy to alleviate the redundancies in training samples caused by the cyclical shifts, eliminate the inconsistencies between training samples and detection samples, and introduce space anisotropic regularization to constrain the correlation filter for alleviating drift caused by occlusion...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231769/liver-transplantation-beyond-or-downstaging-within-the-milan-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Sean R Rudnick, Mark W Russo
Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). The Milan criteria became standard criteria but expansion beyond the Milan criteria (tumor size and number) have resulted in similar post-transplant outcomes, thus suggesting LT is a viable treatment option for HCC presenting beyond the Milan criteria Areas covered: Expanded criteria and the use of downstaging therapies to meet Milan criteria are reviewed. Surrogates of tumor biology (including biomarkers and response to therapy) are described in detail...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231176/tensorcalculator-exploring-the-evolution-of-mechanical-stress-in-the-ccmv-capsid
#20
Olga Kononova, Farkhad Maksudov, Kenneth A Marx, Valeri Barsegov
A new computational methodology for accurate numerical calculation of the Cauchy stress tensor, stress invariants, principal stress components, von Mises and Tresca tensors is developed. The methodology is based on the atomic stress approach which permits the calculation of stress tensors, widely used in continuum mechanics modeling of materials properties, using the output from the MD simulations of discrete atomic and Cα-based coarse-grained structural models of biological particles. The methodology mapped into software package TensorCalculator was successfully applied to the empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle virus (CCMV) shell to explore the evolution of mechanical stress in this mechanically-tested specific example of a soft virus capsid...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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