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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324792/tolerance-of-uncertainty-conceptual-analysis-integrative-model-and-implications-for-healthcare
#1
REVIEW
Marij A Hillen, Caitlin M Gutheil, Tania D Strout, Ellen M A Smets, Paul K J Han
RATIONALE: Uncertainty tolerance (UT) is an important, well-studied phenomenon in health care and many other important domains of life, yet its conceptualization and measurement by researchers in various disciplines have varied substantially and its essential nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the meaning and logical coherence of UT as conceptualized by developers of UT measures, and 2) develop an integrative conceptual model to guide future empirical research regarding the nature, causes, and effects of UT...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#2
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324623/authors-response-to-comment-on-guidelines-for-use-of-the-approximate-beta-poisson-dose-response-model-previously-published-guidelines-continue-to-be-ignored
#3
Gang Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319460/power-and-sample-size-for-the-s-t-repeated-measures-design-combined-with-a-linear-mixed-effects-model-allowing-for-missing-data
#4
Toshiro Tango
Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319233/addressing-the-physician-shortage-the-peril-of-ignoring-demography
#5
Darrell G Kirch, Kate Petelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319040/modelling-plexcitons-of-periodic-gold-nanorod-arrays-with-molecular-components
#6
Bo Liu, Hongdan Yan, Rainer Stosch, Benedikt Wolfram, Martin Bröring, Andrey Bakin, Meinhard Schilling, Peter Lemmens
Plasmonic or exciton/plasmon (plexcitonic) systems are presently described based on electromagnetic models, ignoring the need for an improved microscopic understanding. This is based on the fact that a full quantum mechanical approach on a micrometer scale still represents a considerable challenge. In this paper we report on the experimental observation of plexcitons in 2D gold nanorod array systems coupled to dye molecules and we provide a description of the experimental data using a quantum model. We show that treating the collective behavior in the array as being represented by a single quasiparticle is a suitable approximation that offers the opportunity to avoid the complicated calculation of long-distance interactions between the individual nanoparticles of the plexcitonic, periodic system...
March 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318580/the-canadian-national-dairy-study-2015-adoption-of-milking-practices-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#7
E Belage, S Dufour, C Bauman, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318270/prediction-of-stable-ground-state-lithium-polyhydrides-under-high-pressures
#8
Yangmei Chen, Hua Y Geng, Xiaozhen Yan, Yi Sun, Qiang Wu, Xiangrong Chen
Hydrogen-rich compounds are important for understanding the dissociation of dense molecular hydrogen, as well as searching for room temperature Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductors. A recent high pressure experiment reported the successful synthesis of novel insulating lithium polyhydrides above 130 GPa. However, the results are in sharp contrast to a previous theoretical prediction by the PBE functional that around this pressure range all lithium polyhydrides (LiHn (n = 2-8)) should be metallic...
March 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317584/dealing-with-microscopic-peritoneal-metastases-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-surgical-challenge
#9
REVIEW
Henri Azaïs, Juan Pablo Estevez, Périne Foucher, Yohan Kerbage, Serge Mordon, Pierre Collinet
Understanding biology and progression mechanisms of peritoneal metastases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a cornerstone in the knowledge and the comprehensive management of the disease. Despite clinical remission after the association of complete cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, peritoneal recurrence still occurs in 60% of patients. Eligible studies, published from 1980 to June 2016, were retrieved through ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE, Cochrane databases and bibliography searches...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317505/evaluations-and-perceptions-of-others-evaluations-of-negative-alcohol-related-consequences-predict-negative-alcohol-related-consequences-among-college-drinkers
#10
Dipali Venkataraman Rinker, Chelsie M Young, Heather Krieger, Jordanna Lembo, Clayton Neighbors
OBJECTIVE: A key assumption when assessing alcohol-related problems is that these problems are considered negative. A growing literature suggests that college drinkers do not perceive all measured consequences to be negative. Research has established the impact of others' beliefs on personal beliefs and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of perceptions of others' evaluations (POE) of consequences on one's own evaluations and subsequent experiences of consequences...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#11
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315054/a-preliminary-investigation-of-noise-impact-within-metro-stations-in-the-urban-city-of-guangzhou-china
#12
Peng Wang, Yimin Wang, Chao Zou, Jixing Guo
The noise in the metro station is synthesized from a variety of different noise sources. Excessive noise exposure will bring serious impacts on humans' health. To alleviate the shortage of the urban land, most metro stations are planning to develop convenience stores and shopping malls. In order to evaluate the potential noise impact on humans' comfort in the metro stations, this study selected four representative stations of Guangzhou Metro Line 1 to carry out a preliminary questionnaire survey of 226 respondents for the perception and perform a noise measurement...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314920/-new-antibiotics-standstill-or-progress
#13
J Rademacher, T Welte
The development of resistance to antibiotics has been ignored for a long time. But nowadays, increasing resistance is an important topic. For a decade no new antibiotics had been developed and it is not possible to quickly close this gap of new resistance and no new drugs. This work presents six new antibiotics (ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, solithromycin, tedizolid, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam). In part, only expert opinions are given due to lack of study results.The two 5th generation cephalosporins ceftaroline and ceftobiprole have beside their equivalent efficacy to ceftriaxone (ceftaroline) and cefipim (ceftobiprole) high activity against MRSA...
March 17, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314046/analysis-of-traffic-crashes-involving-pedestrians-using-big-data-investigation-of-contributing-factors-and-identification-of-hotspots
#14
Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Abdullah Kurkcu, Hong Yang
This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306385/daily-school-context-of-adolescents-single-best-friendship-and-adjustment
#15
Melissa R Witkow, Nicolette P Rickert, Laura E Cullen
Research on adolescent best friendships typically focuses on school-based friendships, ignoring important differences between classroom-based and out-of-school friendships. With data from 156 ninth-grade students, many of whom named more than 1 best friend across the 14-day period, the authors examined associations between the daily school context of one's best friendship and adjustment. Benefits of in-grade best friendships were found in academic engagement when a composite was assessed across the 2-week period...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304308/violation-of-laws-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-multicenter-study-in-japan
#16
Shunichiro Shinagawa, Kazue Shigenobu, Kenji Tagai, Ryuji Fukuhara, Naoto Kamimura, Takaaki Mori, Kenji Yoshiyama, Hiroaki Kazui, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Manabu Ikeda
Although violations of laws, such as shoplifting, are considered to be common in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, there have been few studies on this subject and the frequencies and types of such violations have not been clarified. The objective of this study was to conduct a retrospective investigation of FTD patients in the psychiatry departments of multiple institutions to determine the types and frequencies of any law violations and compare them with those of AD patients. All patients were examined between January 2011 and December 2015 at the specialized dementia outpatient clinics of 10 facilities (5 psychiatry departments of university hospitals, 5 psychiatric hospitals)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304002/influence-of-free-drug-samples-on-prescribing-by-physicians-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Samina Rafique, Waseem Sarwar, Asima Rashid, Fatima Sheerin
Free drug samples are distributed among doctors as a promotional tool. We investigated the effects of dispensing samples on prescriptions by the doctors and their opinion about samples through a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was distributed among the doctors in the Department of Medicine, Nishtar Hospital Multan. It contained drug choices for two hypothetical scenarios, options and reasons for using free samples and doctors' views about them. Response rate remained 83% (166/198). In scenario 1 (rheumatoid arthritis), 100 % and in scenario 2 (acid peptic disease), 13% of sample users dispensed against their preference while in both cases 78 % prescribed the same brand afterwards...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302104/spinal-epidural-lipomatosis-an-easily-ignored-secondary-intraspinal-disorder-in-spinal-kyphotic-deformities
#18
Zhen Zhang, Zhen Liu, Zezhang Zhu, Yong Qiu
BACKGROUND: A previous study reported a high prevalence of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in patients with Scheuermann kyphosis (SK) and suggested that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. According to our observation, however, SEL occurs in other spinal kyphotic deformities as well. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SEL commonly occurs in patients with different types of kyphotic deformities as a secondary intraspinal disorder. METHODS: MR images of 16 patients with congenital kyphosis (CK), 40 patients with SK, 13 patients with tuberculotic kyphosis (TK), and 69 age- and sex-matched controls were retrospectively evaluated...
March 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#19
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301201/finite-population-correction-for-two-level-hierarchical-linear-models
#20
Mark H C Lai, Oi-Man Kwok, Yu-Yu Hsiao, Qian Cao
The research literature has paid little attention to the issue of finite population at a higher level in hierarchical linear modeling. In this article, we propose a method to obtain finite-population-adjusted standard errors of Level-1 and Level-2 fixed effects in 2-level hierarchical linear models. When the finite population at Level-2 is incorrectly assumed as being infinite, the standard errors of the fixed effects are overestimated, resulting in lower statistical power and wider confidence intervals. The impact of ignoring finite population correction is illustrated by using both a real data example and a simulation study with a random intercept model and a random slope model...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Methods
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