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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821828/different-elevational-patterns-of-rodent-species-richness-between-the-southern-and-northern-slopes-of-a-mountain
#1
Ling-Ying Shuai, Chun-Lei Ren, Wen-Bo Yan, Yan-Ling Song, Zhi-Gao Zeng
Studies on elevational gradients in biodiversity have accumulated in recent decades. However, few studies have compared the elevational patterns of diversity between the different slopes of a single mountain. We investigated the elevational distribution of rodent diversity (alpha and beta diversity) and its underlying mechanisms along the southern and northern slopes of Mt. Taibai, the highest mountain in the Qinling Mountains, China. The species richness of rodents on the two slopes showed distinct distribution patterns, with a monotonically decreasing pattern found along the southern slope and a hump-shaped elevational pattern evident along the northern slope...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821680/cortical-representations-of-speech-in-a-multi-talker-auditory-scene
#2
Krishna C Puvvada, Jonathan Z Simon
The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically-based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-objects based representation in auditory cortex. Here, using magneto-encephalo-graphy (MEG) recordings from human subjects, both men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of auditory cortex...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821636/twenty-four-hour-rhythmicity-of-circulating-metabolites-effect-of-body-mass-and-type-2-diabetes
#3
Cheryl M Isherwood, Daan R Van der Veen, Jonathan D Johnston, Debra J Skene
Metabolic profiling of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has previously been limited to single-time-point samples, ignoring time-of-day variation. Here, we tested our hypothesis that body mass and T2DM affect daily rhythmicity and concentrations of circulating metabolites across a 24-h day in 3 age-matched, male groups-lean, overweight/obese (OW/OB), and OW/OB with T2DM-in controlled laboratory conditions, which were not confounded by large meals. By using targeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics, we quantified 130 plasma metabolites every 2 h over 24 h, and we show that average metabolite concentrations were significantly altered by increased body mass (90 of 130) and T2DM (56 of 130)...
August 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820676/saccade-reorienting-is-facilitated-by-pausing-the-oculomotor-program
#4
Antimo Buonocore, Simran Purokayastha, Robert D McIntosh
As we look around the world, selecting for targets, competing events may occur at other locations. Depending on current goals, the viewer must decide whether to look at new events or to ignore them. Two experimental paradigms formalize these response options: double-step saccades and saccadic inhibition. In the first, the viewer must reorient to a newly appearing target; in the second, they must ignore it. Until now, the relationship between reorienting and inhibition has been unexplored. In three experiments, we found saccadic inhibition ∼100 msec after a new target onset, regardless of the task instruction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820621/-doctors-killed-my-baby-argumentative-patterns-in-medical-disputes-in-china
#5
Dawei Pan
The recent surge in medical disputes requires that more attention be paid to the voices of laypeople. This article explores the argumentative nature of the public discourse of the reported "malpractice mobs" that strive to convince members of the public (in the place of health or legal experts) that they have been victims of medical errors and injustice. This case-based qualitative empirical study uses a pragma-dialectical approach to suggest a prototypical pattern of such public appeals that contains a basic argumentative pattern and various types of extensions...
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820311/clinical-radiobiology-of-proton-therapy-modeling-of-rbe
#6
B Jones
PURPOSE: To better estimate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in therapeutic proton beams by using a modeled approach, in order to improve their clinical safety and effectiveness. INTRODUCTION: Concerns exist about the 1.1 RBE used in proton therapy, since it may lead to unintentional over- and under-dosage in patients and so lead to unexpected clinical outcomes. Late reacting normal tissues (with low α/β values), might be overdosed if RBE >1.1; very radiosensitive tumors (with high α/β), might be under-dosed if RBE <1...
August 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819498/why-regulatory-indifference-towards-pharmaceutical-pollution-of-the-environment-could-be-a-missed-opportunity-in-public-health-protection-a-holistic-view
#7
Pakoyo Fadhiru Kamba, Bruhan Kaggwa, Edson Ireeta Munanura, Tom Okurut, Freddy Eric Kitutu
The last generation has witnessed bludgeoning of the world's population, a spike in disease burden, and unprecedented levels of pharmaceutical consumption and production. Unfortunately, pharmaceuticals have left their industrial and household confines and leaked into the environment. Pharmaceuticals are now major environmental pollutants, and are ubiquitous in waters and soils. Unlike other environmental contaminants, pharmaceutical pollutants are not yet regulated globally, simply because acute risk assessments show insignificant human health hazard...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819277/tree-height-strongly-affects-estimates-of-water-use-efficiency-responses-to-climate-and-co2-using-isotopes
#8
R J W Brienen, E Gloor, S Clerici, R Newton, L Arppe, A Boom, S Bottrell, M Callaghan, T Heaton, S Helama, G Helle, M J Leng, K Mielikäinen, M Oinonen, M Timonen
Various studies report substantial increases in intrinsic water-use efficiency (W i ), estimated using carbon isotopes in tree rings, suggesting trees are gaining increasingly more carbon per unit water lost due to increases in atmospheric CO2. Usually, reconstructions do not, however, correct for the effect of intrinsic developmental changes in W i as trees grow larger. Here we show, by comparing W i across varying tree sizes at one CO2 level, that ignoring such developmental effects can severely affect inferences of trees' W i ...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818632/the-views-of-clergy-regarding-ethical-controversies-in-care-at-the-end-of-life
#9
Michael J Balboni, Adam Sullivan, Patrick T Smith, Danish Zaidi, Christine Mitchell, James A Tulsky, Daniel Sulmasy, Tyler J VanderWeele, Tracy A Balboni
CONTEXT: While religion often informs ethical judgments, little is known about the views of American clergy regarding controversial end-of-life ethical issues including allowing to die and physician-aid in dying or physician-assisted suicide (PAD/PAS). OBJECTIVE: To describe the views of U.S. clergy concerning allowing to die and PAD/PAS. METHODS: A survey was mailed to 1665 nationally representative clergy between 8/2014 to 3/2015 (60% response rate)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817531/bias-confounding-and-interaction-lions-and-tigers-and-bears-oh-my
#10
Thomas R Vetter, Edward J Mascha
Epidemiologists seek to make a valid inference about the causal effect between an exposure and a disease in a specific population, using representative sample data from a specific population. Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. Both do so by using the available data about the sample variable to make a valid estimate about its corresponding or underlying, but unknown population parameter...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817469/the-right-tool-for-the-job-choosing-between-covariate-balancing-and-generalized-boosted-model-propensity-scores
#11
Claude M Setodji, Daniel F McCaffrey, Lane F Burgette, Daniel Almirall, Beth Ann Griffin
Estimating the causal effect of an exposure (versus some control) on an outcome using observational data often requires addressing the fact that exposed and control groups differ on pre-exposure characteristics that may be related to the outcome (confounders). Propensity score methods have long been used as a tool for adjusting for observed confounders in order to produce more valid causal effect estimates under the strong ignorability assumption. In this article, we compare two promising propensity score estimation methods (for time invariant binary exposures) when assessing the average treatment effect on the treated: the generalized boosted models and covariate-balancing propensity scores, with the main objective to provide analysts with some rules-of-thumb when choosing between these two methods...
August 16, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817460/high-demand-for-psychotherapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Thomas Klag, Nazar Mazurak, Laura Fantasia, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Andreas Kirschniak, Claudius Falch, Martin Goetz, Nisar P Malek, Paul Enck, Jan Wehkamp
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of psychological factors to the onset and course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a matter of constant debate since its beginning, as is the clinical need and the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, the perspective of patients with IBD has largely been ignored in this debate. METHODS: Psychometric tests including the Short-Form IBD Questionnaire (SIBDQ), the ADAP test measuring demand for psychotherapy, and the Fear-of-Progression Questionnaire Short Form as well as disease-related questions were positioned on the internet between December 2014 and January 2016...
August 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816694/evaluation-of-hearing-handicap-in-adults-with-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder
#13
Prashanth Prabhu
OBJECTIVE: The present study attempted to evaluate hearing handicap in adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). The study also attempted to determine if gender, pure tone average, speech identification scores (SIS), and reported duration of hearing loss could predict the hearing handicap in adults with ANSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults and Hearing Handicap Questionnaire were administered to 50 adults with ANSD. RESULTS: Using both the scales, there was a significant hearing handicap in both the social and emotional domains in adults with ANSD...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816211/a-study-of-events-between-the-onset-of-symptoms-and-hospital-admission-in-patients-with-acute-abdomen
#14
Shubhada Khanapure, Sanjay Nagral, Aditya J Nanavati
BACKGROUND: Acute abdomen is a common surgical emergency. Prompt investigation and treatment, including surgical intervention, is critical in reducing morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study at a large urban secondary healthcare centre in India. Patients with surgical acute abdomen were consecutively enrolled in the study over a period of 2 years. Data were collected regarding the onset of symptoms, time of presentation to the hospital and events in the intervening period...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815761/-my-mentor-didn-t-speak-to-me-for-the-first-four-weeks-perceived-unfairness-experienced-by-nursing-students-in-clinical-practice-settings
#15
Kirsten Jack, Claire Hamshire, W Edwin Harris, Mark Langan, Neil Barrett, Christopher Wibberley
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceived unfairness experienced by student nurses during their undergraduate clinical placements. BACKGROUND: It is important that student nurses feel supported by practice staff during their clinical placement education experiences. However, it has been reported that learners can feel ignored, unsupported and bullied by others in the clinical environment and this has a detrimental effect on their learning. It is important to understand the student nurse perspective and explore ways in which their feelings of belongingness might be enhanced in the clinical area...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815681/meta-analytical-synthesis-of-regression-coefficients-under-different-categorization-scheme-of-continuous-covariates
#16
Daisuke Yoneoka, Masayuki Henmi
Recently, the number of clinical prediction models sharing the same regression task has increased in the medical literature. However, evidence synthesis methodologies that use the results of these regression models have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in meta-analysis settings where only regression coefficients are available. One of the difficulties lies in the differences between the categorization schemes of continuous covariates across different studies. In general, categorization methods using cutoff values are study specific across available models, even if they focus on the same covariates of interest...
August 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815462/a-new-erice-report-considering-the-safety-of-medicines-in-the-21st-century
#17
Ivor Ralph Edwards
Pharmacovogilance policy, methods and practice require transformation at all levels to create an integrated, comprehensive, continuously improving system, fulfilling the broader remit of overall healthcare vigilance. In pursuit of this vision, energetic measures, including active engagement with patients, are needed to reduce our ignorance about many aspects of patients' experience of medical therapies and their outcomes, including the benefits, but especially the extensive harm known to be caused by medical interventions...
August 17, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815177/tlr4-in-glioblastoma-when-cancer-stem-cells-ignore-danger-signals
#18
EDITORIAL
Christoph P Beier, Bjarne W Kristensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814927/weight-loss-supplements-boon-or-bane
#19
EDITORIAL
Reshma Mohamed Ansari, Norfaizatul Shalida Omar
Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814875/suicidal-and-homicidal-tendencies-after-lyme-disease-an-ignored-problem
#20
COMMENT
Aitzaz Munir, Muhammad Aadil, Ahmad Rehan Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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