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William Greggs, Thomas Burns, Peter Egeghy, Michelle R Embry, Peter Fantke, Bonnie Gaborek, Lauren Heine, Olivier Jolliet, Carolyn Lee, Derek Muir, Kathy Plotzke, Joseph Rinkevich, Neha Sunger, Jennifer Y Tanir, Margaret Whittaker
Most alternatives assessments (AAs) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, thereby ignoring potential differences in human and/or ecosystem exposures; as such, they may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. Building on the 2014 US National Academy of Sciences recommendations to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment into AAs, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which comprises scientists from academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations, developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach...
June 19, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Kyra Sarner-Levin, Laura Canetti, Yael Latzer, Omer Bonne, Bernard Lerer, Eytan Bachar
BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN), selflessness, and genderrole identity in young Israeli women and explores their parents' gender-role identity. METHOD: Forty-seven AN women and 50 non-clinical controls completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT26), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), and Selflessness Scale. Twenty-four parents from the AN group, and 41 mothers and 38 fathers from the control group also completed the BSRI...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
Xi Shen, Chang-Xing Ma, Kam C Yuen, Guo-Liang Tian
Bilateral correlated data are often encountered in medical researches such as ophthalmologic (or otolaryngologic) studies, in which each unit contributes information from paired organs to the data analysis, and the measurements from such paired organs are generally highly correlated. Various statistical methods have been developed to tackle intra-class correlation on bilateral correlated data analysis. In practice, it is very important to adjust the effect of confounder on statistical inferences, since either ignoring the intra-class correlation or confounding effect may lead to biased results...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Amrita Sarkar, Ophelia Mary Kharmujai, Wallambok Lynrah, Neilatuo U Suokhrie
Background: In Meghalaya, only 51.4% expectant mothers go for any institutional delivery with a wide rural-urban gap causing morbidity and mortality in the mothers and the neonates. Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the factors influencing the choice of the place of delivery in rural women. Methodology: The present qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2016 in Bhoirymbong community health center (CHC) and the area catered to by it...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Fayssal Bouchemla, Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov, Olga Mikhailovna Popova, Larisa Pavlovna Padilo
Aim: This study focuses on the spatial dynamic associated with the spreading of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease for the past decade (from the year 2007 to 2017), assesses the resulting situation in the world, and has an emphasis on Russian advantages been a PPR host. Materials and Methods: Outbreaks were confirmed and reported officially by the World Organization for Animal Health (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction were used)...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Rosario Valdez Santiago, Luz Arenas Monreal, Anabel Rojas Carmona, Mario Sánchez Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Structural and gender violence in Mexico take on various forms, obstetric violence among them. The objective of our study consisted in analyzing experiences of structural and gender discrimination against women during childbirth care at two public hospitals in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional mixed methods study including a survey of closed questions administered to all women who received health care for vaginal or cesarean childbirth at two public hospitals from May 7 to June 7, 2012 (N = 512)...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sebastian Duchene, David A Duchene, Jemma L Geoghegan, Zoe A Dyson, Jane Hawkey, Kathryn E Holt
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in sequencing technologies make it possible to obtain genome sequences from a large number of isolates in a very short time. Bayesian phylogenetic approaches can take advantage of these data by simultaneously inferring the phylogenetic tree, evolutionary timescale, and demographic parameters (such as population growth rates), while naturally integrating uncertainty in all parameters. Despite their desirable properties, Bayesian approaches can be computationally intensive, hindering their use for outbreak investigations involving genome data for a large numbers of pathogen isolates...
June 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Johanna Thomtén, Steven J Linton
Background and aims The problem of sexual pain is an area that has been shamefully ignored by both the pain community and the health service authorities. Although about 40% of women report such pain and 30% report it during their last intercourse, sexual pain has historically not even been considered a pain problem. The objectives of the present study was to present a background to the problem of female sexual pain, further elaborate on the problem and offer some direction for how advances might be concretely made...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
William O'Donohue, Caroline Cummings, Brendan Willis
The rate of false allegations has been a topic of research spanning back to as early as the 1970s. Studies have often relied on data gathered by Child Protective Services workers and court administrators. Some researchers have also used hypothetical scenarios to estimate rates. However, given the plethora of sampling methods, there is a large variation in estimated rates of false allegations of sexual abuse depending on the data source and context of the allegation. Additionally, methodological problems such as unclear or invalid criteria used to judge truth or falsity of an allegation, unrepresentative samples, and ignoring important contextual variables such as the stage at which an allegation is made, currently all render the determination of actual rates of false child sexual abuse allegations to be unknown...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Amy McMillan, Stephen Rulisa, Gregory B Gloor, Jean M Macklaim, Mark Sumarah, Gregor Reid
BACKGROUND: While the global market for probiotics is soon to reach in excess of US$50 billion, the continent of Africa has been largely ignored, despite these products having the ability to reduce the burden of disease and death. TRIAL DESIGN: The present randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken in Rwanda, a country devoid of well-documented probiotics. The primary outcome aim was to examine receptivity and compliance for orally administered probiotic capsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in pregnant women and assess any initial side effects or changes to the vaginal microbiome...
2018: PloS One
K Blum, W Jacobs, E J Modestino, N DiNubile, D Baron, T McLaughlin, D Siwicki, I Elman, M Moran, E R Braverman, P K Thanos, R D Badgaiyan
The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-reviewed studies that warn against the chronic use of opioid medications, as well as the lack of evidence to support long-term use of opioids for pain. This paradigm must change if we are to indeed change the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management...
October 4, 2018: SEJ surgery and pain
Ozioko Kingsley Uchenna, Ikem Chris Okoye, Obiezue Nduka Rose, Agbu Raymond A
Objectives: Following the wild-spread of Ebola virus in some part of Africa and outbreak in Nigeria in 2013, a study was conducted to evaluate bushmeat dealer's knowledge, attitude about zoonotic wildlife pathogens and the risk of transmission to humans. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done in a community in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. Hunters (n=34) and bushmeat traders (n=42) were interviewed. A semi structured questionnaire were used to generate the data...
June 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Eva-Maria Kurz, Guilherme Wood, Silvia Erika Kober, Walter Schippinger, Gerald Pichler, Gernot Müller-Putz, Günther Bauernfeind
BACKGROUND: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). AIM: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect. METHODS: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task...
June 14, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Colin F Poole
Major obstacles to formulating a simple retention mechanism for reversed-phase liquid chromatography have a direct impact on the development of experimental methods for column characterization as they limit our capability to understand observed differences in retention at a system level. These problems arise from the heterogeneous composition of the stationary phase, the difficulty of providing a working definition for the phase ratio, and uncertainty as to whether the distribution mechanism for varied compounds is a partition, adsorption or mixed (combination) of these models...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Eszter Szabo, Reka Mizsei, Piotr Wilk, Zsofia Zambo, Beata Torocsik, Manfred S Weiss, Vera Adam-Vizi, Attila Ambrus
We report the crystal structures of the human (dihydro)lipoamide dehydrogenase (hLADH, hE3) and its disease-causing homodimer interface mutant D444V-hE3 at 2.27 and 1.84Å resolution, respectively. The wild type structure is a unique uncomplexed, unliganded hE3 structure with the true canonical sequence. Based on the structural information a novel molecular pathomechanism is proposed for the impaired catalytic activity and enhanced capacity for reactive oxygen species generation of the pathogenic mutant. The mechanistic model involves a previously much ignored solvent accessible channel leading to the active site that might be perturbed also by other disease-causing homodimer interface substitutions of this enzyme...
June 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2018: Veterinary Record
Kevin Conley, Chester Chambers, Shereef Elnahal, Amanda Choflet, Kayode Williams, Theodore DeWeese, Joseph Herman, Maqbool Dada
PURPOSE: Common performance metrics for outpatient clinics define the time between patient arrival and entry into an examination room as "waiting time." Time spent in the room is considered processing time. This characterization systematically ignores time spent in the examination room waiting for service. If these definitions are used, performance will consistently understate total waiting times and overstate processing times. Correcting such errors will provide a better understanding of system behavior...
May 5, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Jason L Seitchik, Dong Hum Yoon, Luisa E Sperry, Clyde B Schechter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neighborhood food environments typically focus on select stores (especially supermarkets) and/or restaurants (especially fast-food outlets), make presumptions about healthfulness without assessing actual items for sale, and ignore other kinds of businesses offering foods/drinks. The current study assessed availability of select healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks from all storefront businesses in an urban environment and considered implications for food-environment research and community health...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Philip Taranto, Kavan Modi, Felix A Pollock
In a generalized framework for the Landauer erasure protocol, we study bounds on the heat dissipated in typical nonequilibrium quantum processes. In contrast to thermodynamic processes, quantum fluctuations are not suppressed in the nonequilibrium regime and cannot be ignored, making such processes difficult to understand and treat. Here we derive an emergent fluctuation relation that virtually guarantees the average heat produced to be dissipated into the reservoir either when the system or reservoir is large (or both) or when the temperature is high...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
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