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Gergő Orbán, Pietro Berkes, József Fiser, Máté Lengyel
Neural responses in the visual cortex are variable, and there is now an abundance of data characterizing how the magnitude and structure of this variability depends on the stimulus. Current theories of cortical computation fail to account for these data; they either ignore variability altogether or only model its unstructured Poisson-like aspects. We develop a theory in which the cortex performs probabilistic inference such that population activity patterns represent statistical samples from the inferred probability distribution...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Courtney Boen
Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329)...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Kun Hwang
The aim of this paper was to review the origins and history of deltopectoral flaps and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.The first published paper on the deltopectoral flap was written by Aymard in 1917. He described raising a medially based fasciocutaneous flap from the shoulder skin, which was then tubed and used for staged nasal reconstruction. Conley introduced the laterally based deltopectoral flap, which was supplied by the lateral thoracic and thoracocranial branches. Bakamjian used a medially based deltopectoral flap for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction; this was an axial flap based medially on the intercostal perforating vessels of the internal mammary artery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Heather Henry talks about the role public health nurses can play bridging the gaps in a broken community. She reflects on her own experiences working with a market town community, which she quickly realised was divided by prejudice. Young people's voices were not heard, and many mothers spoke about disadvantaged children, so she sought to challenge the troubling situations that continued to be ignored.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Daisung Jang, Sudeep Sharma, Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Emotional intelligence (EI) has captivated researchers and the public alike, but it has been challenging to establish its components as objective abilities. Self-report scales lack divergent validity from personality traits, and few ability tests have objectively correct answers. We adapt the Stroop task to introduce a new facet of EI called emotional attention regulation (EAR), which involves focusing emotion-related attention for the sake of information processing rather than for the sake of regulating one's own internal state...
October 20, 2016: Emotion
Meizhen Yin, Baozhong Lü, Shusen You, Pengyu Li, Chen Li, Klaus Müllen
Supramolecular self-assembly has attracted increasing attention as a breakthrough methodology in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this study, a perylene dianhydride derivative (TP-PDA) self-assembles into well-defined nanospheres through a nucleation-growth process. The mechanisms of this process are explored by spectral ananlysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both in-situ DLS and in-situ SEM reveal that the sizes of aggregated nanospheres increase with time until the formation of equilibrium H-aggregates...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mingkai Qu, Weidong Li, Chuanrong Zhang, Biao Huang, Yongcun Zhao
To effectively understand the availability of soil nitrogen and assist in soil nitrogen control at the regional scale, it is essential to understand the accurate spatial distribution patterns of the three soil nitrogen parameters [i.e., total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) and nitrogen availability ratio (NAR)] and explore the spatially varying influences of major impact factors on soil AN. Land use affects the spatial distributions of soil TN, AN and NAR (i.e., AN/TN). To explore the effects of different land use types and improve mapping accuracy, residual kriging with land use information and ordinary kriging (without land use information) were compared based on the sample data of soil TN and AN in Hanchuan county, China...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Satoshi Shioiri, Hajime Honjyo, Yoshiyuki Kashiwase, Kazumichi Matsumiya, Ichiro Kuriki
Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hélène Gilgenkrantz, Jérôme Gouttenoire, Vincent Mallet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Jamil Abdolmohammadi, Mohsen Shafiee, Fariborz Faeghi, Douman Arefan, Alireza Zali, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Zahra Farshidfar, Ali Kiani Nazarlou, Ali Tavakkoli, Mohammad Yarham
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Sumit Mehndiratta
Phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic medication in the pediatric age group, but it has a narrow therapeutic range. Various adverse effects have been reported commonly. We report a relatively rare case of encephalopathy in a child from overdose of injectable phenytoin due to ignorance of the previous treatment. Scrutiny of medical records and history is of utmost importance while administering such medications.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Ariel Bohman, Mark A Arnold
Molar absorptivity is a fundamental molecular property that quantifies absorption strength as a function of wavelength. Absolute measurements of molar absorptivity demand accounting for all mechanisms of light attenuation, including reflective losses at interfaces associated with the sample. Ideally, such measurements are performed in nonabsorbing solvents and reflective losses can be determined in a straightforward manner from Fresnel equations or effectively accounted for by path length difference methods...
October 18, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alejandro Rodriguez-Caro, Laura Vallejo-Torres, Beatriz Lopez-Valcarcel
BACKGROUND: There is a well-documented social gradient in obesity in most developed countries. Many previous studies have conventionally categorised individuals according to their body mass index (BMI), focusing on those above a certain threshold and thus ignoring a large amount of the BMI distribution. Others have used linear BMI models, relying on mean effects that may mask substantial heterogeneity in the effects of socioeconomic variables across the population. METHOD: In this study, we measure the social gradient of the BMI distribution of the adult population in Spain over the past two decades (1993-2014), using unconditional quantile regressions...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Matthew H Holden, Stephen P Ellner
Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yue Yin, Lan Gong
PURPOSE: To observe reversibility of meibomian gland (MG) dropout and analyze correlated factors and to compare the treatment efficiency with and without eyelid hygiene in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Consecutive 78 eyes of 78 MGD (stage 2-3) patients who finished follow-up examination after 1-month of treatment were recruited in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with artificial lubricant and eyelid hygiene. Related ocular surface evaluation and meibomian gland assessment were examined...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Yao Tian, Kenneth S Burch
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique, widely used in both academia and industry. In part, the technique's extensive use stems from its ability to uniquely identify and image various material parameters: composition, strain, temperature, lattice/excitation symmetry, and magnetism in bulk, nano, solid, and organic materials. However, in nanomaterials and samples with low thermal conductivity, these measurements require long acquisition times. On the other hand, charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors used in Raman microscopes are vulnerable to cosmic rays...
October 17, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Tim Friede, Christian Röver, Simon Wandel, Beat Neuenschwander
Random-effects meta-analyses are used to combine evidence of treatment effects from multiple studies. Since treatment effects may vary across trials due to differences in study characteristics, heterogeneity in treatment effects between studies must be accounted for to achieve valid inference. The standard model for random-effects meta-analysis assumes approximately normal effect estimates and a normal random-effects model. However, standard methods based on this model ignore the uncertainty in estimating the between-trial heterogeneity...
October 18, 2016: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
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