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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036648/coarse-roots-prevent-declines-in-whole-tree-non-structural-carbohydrate-pools-during-drought-in-an-isohydric-and-an-anisohydric-species
#1
Steven A Kannenberg, Kimberly A Novick, Richard P Phillips
Predicted increases in the frequency and severity of droughts have led to a renewed focus on how plants physiologically adjust to low water availability. A popular framework for understanding plant responses to drought characterizes species along a spectrum from isohydry to anisohydry based on their regulation of gas exchange and leaf water potential under drying conditions. One prediction that arises from this theory is that plant drought responses may hinge, in part, on their usage of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035691/how-we-hear-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound
#2
Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035341/research-on-the-fusion-of-dependent-evidence-based-on-rank-correlation-coefficient
#3
Fengjian Shi, Xiaoyan Su, Hong Qian, Ning Yang, Wenhua Han
In order to meet the higher accuracy and system reliability requirements, the information fusion for multi-sensor systems is an increasing concern. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) has been investigated for many applications in multi-sensor information fusion due to its flexibility in uncertainty modeling. However, classical evidence theory assumes that the evidence is independent of each other, which is often unrealistic. Ignoring the relationship between the evidence may lead to unreasonable fusion results, and even lead to wrong decisions...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035175/lifestyle-medicine-a-brief-review-of-its-dramatic-impact-on-health-and-survival
#4
Balazs I Bodai, Therese E Nakata, William T Wong, Dawn R Clark, Steven Lawenda, Christine Tsou, Raymond Liu, Linda Shiue, Neil Cooper, Michael Rehbein, Benjamin P Ha, Anne Mckeirnan, Rajiv Misquitta, Pankaj Vij, Andrew Klonecke, Carmelo S Mejia, Emil Dionysian, Sean Hashmi, Michael Greger, Scott Stoll, Thomas M Campbell
By ignoring the root causes of disease and neglecting to prioritize lifestyle measures for prevention, the medical community is placing people at harm. Advanced nations, influenced by a Western lifestyle, are in the midst of a health crisis, resulting largely from poor lifestyle choices. Epidemiologic, ecologic, and interventional studies have repeatedly indicated that most chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are the result of lifestyles fueled by poor nutrition and physical inactivity...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#5
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034796/no-funeral-bells-public-reason-in-a-post-truth-age
#6
Sheila Jasanoff, Hilton R Simmet
The label 'post-truth' signals for many a troubling turn away from principles of enlightened government. The word 'post', moreover, implies a past when things were radically different and whose loss should be universally mourned. In this paper, we argue that this framing of 'post-truth' is flawed because it is ahistorical and ignores the co-production of knowledge and norms in political contexts. Debates about public facts are necessarily debates about social meanings, rooted in realities that are subjectively experienced as all-encompassing and complete, even when they are partial and contingent...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034673/-occupational-exposure-to-blood-among-medical-students-in-casablanca-morocco-analysis-of-knowledge-and-practices
#7
Hanan Berahou, Zineb Serhier, Samy Housbane, Khaoula Ajbal, Mohamed Bennani Othmani
Occupational exposure to blood (OEB) is associated with a significant risk of transmission of bloodborne viruses to medical students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practices of Casablanca medical students concerning OEB preventive measures and their behaviour after accidental exposure. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca using stratified cluster sampling ; data from this study were collected by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034484/dissecting-gene-environment-interactions-a-penalized-robust-approach-accounting-for-hierarchical-structures
#8
Cen Wu, Yu Jiang, Jie Ren, Yuehua Cui, Shuangge Ma
Identification of gene-environment (G × E) interactions associated with disease phenotypes has posed a great challenge in high-throughput cancer studies. The existing marginal identification methods have suffered from not being able to accommodate the joint effects of a large number of genetic variants, while some of the joint-effect methods have been limited by failing to respect the "main effects, interactions" hierarchy, by ignoring data contamination, and by using inefficient selection techniques under complex structural sparsity...
October 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034327/high-fat-diet-changes-fungal-microbiomes-and-interkingdom-relationships-in-the-murine-gut
#9
Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033687/interpretation-and-diplomacy-aspects-of-authority-and-care-in-imaging-reports
#10
Werner Albert Golder
Whereas the creative performance of the physician for nuclear medicine is measured against his/her written report, the value of the message will not only be judged by the precision of the medical statement. The same result can be attributed to different words. Numerous habitual and accidental factors exert influence on the decision on what is said and what is not said, how it is assessed, and what is ignored. The less certain a diagnosis is, and the less favorable its possible consequences are, the more subtleties and paraphrases should be expected within the report...
October 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033219/sherwood-correlation-for-dissolution-of-pooled-napl-in-porous-media
#11
Derya Aydin Sarikurt, Cagri Gokdemir, Nadim K Copty
The rate of interphase mass transfer from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) entrapped in the subsurface into the surrounding mobile aqueous phase is commonly expressed in terms of Sherwood (Sh) correlations that are expressed as a function of flow and porous media properties. Because of the lack of precise methods for the estimation of the interfacial area separating the NAPL and aqueous phases, most studies have opted to use modified Sherwood expressions that lump the interfacial area into the interphase mass transfer coefficient...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033174/airborne-particle-bound-brominated-flame-retardants-levels-size-distribution-and-indoor-outdoor-exchange
#12
Yue-Shan Zhu, Wan-Dong Yang, Xiu-Wen Li, Hong-Gang Ni, Hui Zeng
The quality of indoor environments has a significant impact on public health. Usually, an indoor environment is treated as a static box, in which physicochemical reactions of indoor air contaminants are negligible. This results in conservative estimates for primary indoor air pollutant concentrations, while also ignoring secondary pollutants. Thus, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor particles and particle-bound pollutants is of great significance. For this reason, we collected simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of the size distribution of airborne brominated flame retardant (BFR) congeners...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032100/-severity-of-illness-index-in-autoimmune-diseases-have-there-any-usefulness-in-medical-practice
#13
A Saunier, M-A Vandenhende, P Morlat, F Bonnet
INTRODUCTION: Assessing disease activity in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases is complex. Symptoms are multiple, often subjective and there are no reliable biomarkers. Many activity scores have been implemented to compare treatment efficacy in clinical trials. Their use in clinical practice is largely unknown. We performed a practical survey to analyze the use of activity scores in clinical practice to consider treatment response and to assess the determinants of their use. METHODS: A sample of French internists answered a questionnaire about activity scores of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune myositis and necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels...
October 11, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031786/differentiation-and-protective-capacity-of-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-suggest-murine-norovirus-persistence-in-an-immune-privileged-enteric-niche
#14
Vesselin T Tomov, Olesya Palko, Chi Wai Lau, Ajinkya Pattekar, Yuhang Sun, Ralitza Tacheva, Bertram Bengsch, Sasikanth Manne, Gabriela L Cosma, Laurence C Eisenlohr, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin, E John Wherry
Noroviruses can establish chronic infections with active viral shedding in healthy humans but whether persistence is associated with adaptive immune dysfunction is unknown. We used genetically engineered strains of mouse norovirus (MNV) to investigate CD8(+) T cell differentiation during chronic infection. We found that chronic infection drove MNV-specific tissue-resident memory (Trm) CD8(+) T cells to a differentiation state resembling inflationary effector responses against latent cytomegalovirus with only limited evidence of exhaustion...
October 10, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031550/mechanisms-for-agrp-neuron-mediated-regulation-of-appetitive-behaviors-in-rodents
#15
REVIEW
M Alex Thomas, Bingzhong Xue
The obesity epidemic is a major health and economic burden facing both developed and developing countries worldwide. Interrogation of the central and peripheral mechanisms regulating ingestive behaviors have primarily focused on food intake, and in the process uncovered a detailed neuroanatomical framework controlling this behavior. However, these studies have largely ignored the behaviors that bring animals, including humans, in contact with food. It is therefore useful to dichotomize ingestive behaviors as appetitive (motivation to find and store food) and consummatory (consumption of food once found), and utilize an animal model that naturally displays these behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#16
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030759/localizing-semantic-interference-from-distractor-sounds-in-picture-naming-a-dual-task-study
#17
Andreas Mädebach, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
In this study we explored the locus of semantic interference in a novel picture-sound interference task in which participants name pictures while ignoring environmental distractor sounds. In a previous study using this task (Mädebach, Wöhner, Kieseler, & Jescheniak, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 1629-1646, 2017), we showed that semantically related distractor sounds (e.g., BARKINGdog) interfere with a picture-naming response (e.g., "horse") more strongly than unrelated distractor sounds do (e...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030435/dissociation-of-self-motion-and-object-motion-by-linear-population-decoding-that-approximates-marginalization
#18
Ryo Sasaki, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
We use visual image motion to judge the movement of objects, as well as our own movements through the environment. Generally, image motion components caused by object motion and self-motion are confounded in the retinal image. Thus, to estimate heading, the brain would ideally marginalize out the effects of object motion (or vice-versa), but little is known about how this is accomplished neurally. Behavioral studies suggest that vestibular signals play a role in dissociating object motion and self-motion, and recent computational work suggests that a linear decoder can approximate marginalization by taking advantage of diverse multisensory representations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030187/not-only-tendons-the-other-architecture-of-collagen-fibrils
#19
REVIEW
Mario Raspanti, Marcella Reguzzoni, Marina Protasoni, Petra Basso
For many decades the fibrillar collagens have been the subject of a remarkable body of ultrastructural research. The vast majority of the studies, however, were carried out on tendon or on tendon-derived material. For many reasons this reflects an obvious choice but at the same time it also is an unfortunate circumstance, because this flooding of tendon-related data can easily encourage the false confidence that all connective tissues are similar. The reality is quite the opposite, and a different fibrillar structure has been long time observed on collagen fibrils from different tissues, the most notable example being offered by corneal fibrils...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030123/results-and-complications-of-flexor-digitorum-superficialis-to-profundus-transfer-in-brain-injured-patients-a-review-of-26-patients
#20
E Peraut, L Taïeb, C Jourdan, F Coroian, I Laffont, M Chammas, B Coulet
INTRODUCTION: In hemiplegic patients with a spastic clenched fist deformity, one of the goals of surgery is to address the hygiene, nursing and appearance problems. Transfer of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), initially described by Braun and colleagues, opens the non-functional hand in these patients. The primary objective of our study was to confirm the effectiveness of this technique for correcting these deformities. The secondary objectives were to demonstrate potential functional gains and to identify potential complications...
October 10, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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