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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914271/individual-exposure-estimates-may-be-erroneous-when-spatiotemporal-variability-of-air-pollution-and-human-mobility-are-ignored
#1
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data...
November 30, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914213/parental-support-for-human-papilloma-virus-vaccination-by-adolescents-in-ibadan-north-local-government-area-ibadan-nigeria
#2
Magbagbeola David Dairo, Moradeke Omoyemi Adeleke, Adetokunbo Taophic Salawu, Ayobami David Adewole
BACKGROUND: Despite changing sexual norms and mores generally perceived to be permissive of sexual expression, parents continue to serve as gateways to uptake of reproductive health services and commodities in our cultural settings. However, their support for adolescent uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine are not well explored and documented. This study aims to assess parental knowledge and awareness of HPV infection and cervical cancer and their support for HPV vaccination for their adolescent children...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914076/reconstructing-the-ancestral-relationships-between-bacterial-pathogen-genomes
#3
Caitlin Collins, Xavier Didelot
Following recent developments in DNA sequencing technology, it is now possible to sequence hundreds of whole genomes from bacterial isolates at relatively low cost. Analyzing this growing wealth of genomic data in terms of ancestral relationships can reveal many interesting aspects of the evolution, ecology, and epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. However, reconstructing the ancestry of a sample of bacteria remains challenging, especially for the majority of species where recombination is frequent. Here, we review and describe the computational techniques currently available to infer ancestral relationships, including phylogenetic methods that either ignore or account for the effect of recombination, as well as model-based and model-free phylogeny-independent approaches...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913831/high-transport-efficiency-of-nanoparticles-through-a-total-consumption-sample-introduction-system-and-its-beneficial-application-for-particle-size-evaluation-in-single-particle-icp-ms
#4
Shin-Ichi Miyashita, Hiroaki Mitsuhashi, Shin-Ichiro Fujii, Akiko Takatsu, Kazumi Inagaki, Toshiyuki Fujimoto
In order to facilitate reliable and efficient determination of both the particle number concentration (PNC) and the size of nanoparticles (NPs) by single-particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) without the need to correct for the particle transport efficiency (TE, a possible source of bias in the results), a total-consumption sample introduction system consisting of a large-bore, high-performance concentric nebulizer and a small-volume on-axis cylinder chamber was utilized. Such a system potentially permits a particle TE of 100 %, meaning that there is no need to include a particle TE correction when calculating the PNC and the NP size...
December 2, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913817/the-contribution-of-response-conflict-multisensory-integration-and-body-mediated-attention-to-the-crossmodal-congruency-effect
#5
Francesco Marini, Daniele Romano, Angelo Maravita
The crossmodal congruency task is a consolidated paradigm for investigating interactions between vision and touch. In this task, participants judge the elevation of a tactile target stimulus while ignoring a visual distracter stimulus that may occur at a congruent or incongruent elevation, thus engendering a measure of visuo-tactile interference (crossmodal congruency effect, CCE). The CCE reflects perceptual, attentional, and response-related factors, but their respective roles and interactions have not been set out yet...
December 2, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912849/the-othering-of-old-age-insights-from-postcolonial-studies
#6
Silke van Dyk
When it comes to old age, we are witnessing almost revolutionary changes at the present time. After decades of ignorance and lack of public interest, old age has fundamentally been re-negotiated. A diverse range of authors have diagnosed the growing bifurcation of old age into a rather independent and capable Third Age and a deep old Fourth Age that is characterized by sickness, frailty and dependency. Against this backdrop, many gerontologists claim that the so-called young-old are praised and valued for their (ongoing) "sameness" in terms of midlife-norms and capabilities, whereas the oldest old are increasingly excluded from humanity by radical "othering"...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912019/dynamic-n-occupancy-models-estimating-demographic-rates-and-local-abundance-from-detection-nondetection-data
#7
Sam Rossman, Charles B Yackulic, Sarah P Saunders, Janice Reid, Ray Davis, Elise F Zipkin
Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model ("dynamic N-occupancy") capable of providing accurate estimates of local abundance, population gains (reproduction/immigration), and apparent survival probabilities while accounting for imperfect detection using only detection/nondetection data...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911901/the-researchers-view-of-scientific-rigor-survey-on-the-conduct-and-reporting-of-in-vivo-research
#8
Thomas S Reichlin, Lucile Vogt, Hanno Würbel
Reproducibility in animal research is alarmingly low, and a lack of scientific rigor has been proposed as a major cause. Systematic reviews found low reporting rates of measures against risks of bias (e.g., randomization, blinding), and a correlation between low reporting rates and overstated treatment effects. Reporting rates of measures against bias are thus used as a proxy measure for scientific rigor, and reporting guidelines (e.g., ARRIVE) have become a major weapon in the fight against risks of bias in animal research...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910585/the-eddy-current-probe-array-for-keda-torus-experiment
#9
Zichao Li, Hong Li, Cui Tu, Jintong Hu, Wei You, Bing Luo, Mingsheng Tan, Yolbarsop Adil, Yanqi Wu, Biao Shen, Bingjia Xiao, Ping Zhang, Wenzhe Mao, Hai Wang, Xiaohui Wen, Haiyang Zhou, Jinlin Xie, Tao Lan, Adi Liu, Weixing Ding, Chijin Xiao, Wandong Liu
In a reversed field pinch device, the conductive shell is placed as close as possible to the plasma so as to balance the plasma during discharge. Plasma instabilities such as the resistive wall mode and certain tearing modes, which restrain the plasma high parameter operation, respond closely with conditions in the wall, in essence the eddy current present. Also, the effect of eddy currents induced by the external coils cannot be ignored when active control is applied to control instabilities. One diagnostic tool, an eddy current probe array, detects the eddy current in the composite shell...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910217/disentangling-estimands-and-the-intention-to-treat-principle
#10
Ann-Kristin Leuchs, Andreas Brandt, Jörg Zinserling, Norbert Benda
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aim at providing reliable estimates of treatment benefit. Missing data and nonadherence to treatment are distinct problems that can substantially impede this task. In practice, the fact that the handling of missing data due to nonadherence affects the question that is addressed is often ignored. Estimands allow precisely predefining the question of interest. Estimands are definitions of that which is being estimated with regard to population, endpoint, and handling of postrandomization events (eg, nonadherence)...
December 2, 2016: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908383/the-insecticide-spinosad-induces-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-hek293-and-hepg2-cells
#11
Mingjun Yang, Guanggang Xiang, Diqiu Li, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a pesticide acting on the central nervous system of insects, is classified as a pesticide with reduced risk. However, spinosad-induced toxicological effects on non-target organisms must not be ignored. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of spinosad in HEK293 and HepG2 cell lines. The results showed that spinosad caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability of HEK293 and HepG2 cells. Spinosad-induced p53 accumulation thereby upregulates the expression of Bax and downregulates the expression of Bcl-2...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#12
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#13
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904635/evaluation-of-reproductive-health-indicators-in-women-affected-by-east-azarbaijan-earthquake-on-august-2012
#14
Farideh Bahmanjanbeh, Shahnaz Kohan, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian, Abbas Haghshenas
BACKGROUND: Ignoring reproductive health services during natural disasters leads to some negative consequences such as reduced access to contraceptive methods, sexual disorders, and pregnancy complications. Despite previous researches, there is still more need for research on this area of health. This study attempts to identify the indicators of reproductive health in the women affected by the East Azarbaijan earthquake on August 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, reproductive health information pertaining to the years before, during, and after the earthquake were collected and compared in the health centers of the three affected cities including Ahar, Heriss, and Varzaghan as well as the health and forensics centers of the East Azarbaijan province in Iran by census method...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904557/the-expected-results-of-faculty-development-programs-in-medical-professionalism-from-the-viewpoint-of-medical-education-experts
#15
Nikoo Yamani, Mahsa Shakour, Alireza Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Despite the great emphasis on teaching professionalism in universities, creating changes in one's professional behavior is a serious challenge in medical education. In this regard, one cannot ignore the role of faculty members. The present study was set to investigate the opinions of medical education experts about the expected results of faculty development programs regarding teaching and learning professionalism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in two phases including content analysis study and Delphi...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903611/the-genomic-architecture-of-interactions-between-natural-genetic-polymorphisms-and-environments-in-yeast-growth
#16
Xinzhu Wei, Jianzhi Zhang
Gene-environment interaction (G×E) refers to the phenomenon that the same mutation has different phenotypic effects in different environments. Although quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibiting G×E have been reported, little is known about the general properties of G×E and those of its underlying QTLs. Here we use the genotypes of 1005 segregants from a cross between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the growth rates of these segregants in 47 environments to identify growth rate QTLs (gQTLs) in each environment and QTLs that have different growth effects in each pair of environments (g×eQTLs)...
November 30, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903209/incidence-and-cost-of-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-after-discharge-from-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-study
#17
Benedict Tan, Richard Norman, Ed Litton, Chloe Heath, David J Hawkins, Ravi Krishnamurthy, Ravikiran Sonawane, Matthew H Anstey
OBJECTIVE: To describe current patterns in initiation and cessation of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in intensive care units, and to assess the costs associated with inappropriate (non-evidence-based) SUP. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective observational study in five ICUs in Western Australia. We assessed the medical records of consecutive patients admitted to the ICUs between September 2013 and January 2015. Patients aged < 18 years were excluded...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902738/induced-and-evoked-human-electrophysiological-correlates-of-visual-working-memory-set-size-effects-at-encoding
#18
Gennadiy Gurariy, Kyle W Killebrew, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
The ability to encode, store, and retrieve visually presented objects is referred to as visual working memory (VWM). Although crucial for many cognitive processes, previous research reveals that VWM strictly capacity limited. This capacity limitation is behaviorally observable in the set size effect: the ability to successfully report items in VWM asymptotes at a small number of items. Research into the neural correlates of set size effects and VWM capacity limits in general largely focus on the maintenance period of VWM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900831/cooperation-of-three-chromophores-generates-the-water-resistant-nitrate-nonlinear-optical-material-bi3-teo6-oh-no3-2
#19
Sangen Zhao, Yi Yang, Yaoguo Shen, Bingqing Zhao, Lina Li, Chengmin Ji, Zhenyue Wu, Daqiang Yuan, Zheshuai Lin, Maochun Hong, Junhua Luo
Nitrates have long been ignored for practical uses as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials because they are usually very easy to dissolve in water; despite this, the π-conjugated [NO3 ](-) is among the most desirable NLO-active structural units. The cooperation of three structural chromophores, namely, Bi3 O6 OH short chains with 6s(2) lone pair electrons, distorted TeO6 octahedra with d(10) electrons, and π-conjugated [NO3 ](-) triangles, generates a new nitrate NLO material, Bi3 TeO6 OH(NO3 )2 , which exhibits an enhanced phase-matchable NLO response of three times that of KH2 PO4 (3×KH2 PO4 ), exceeding those of most nitrate NLO materials...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899073/recommendations-for-the-analysis-of-individually-randomised-controlled-trials-with-clustering-in-one-arm-a-case-of-continuous-outcomes
#20
Laura Flight, Annabel Allison, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Ellen Lee, Laura Mandefield, Stephen J Walters
BACKGROUND: In an individually randomised controlled trial where the treatment is delivered by a health professional it seems likely that the effectiveness of the treatment, independent of any treatment effect, could depend on the skill, training or even enthusiasm of the health professional delivering it. This may then lead to a potential clustering of the outcomes for patients treated by the same health professional, but similar clustering may not occur in the control arm. Using four case studies, we aim to provide practical guidance and recommendations for the analysis of trials with some element of clustering in one arm...
November 29, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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