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rain and flu

Antoine Gessain
A large proportion of viral pathogens that have emerged during the last decades in humans are considered to have originated from various animal species. This is well exemplified by several recent epidemics such as those of Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Avian flu, Ebola, Monkeypox, and Hantaviruses. After the initial interspecies transmission per se, the viruses can disseminate into the human population through various and distinct mechanisms. Some of them are well characterized and understood, thus allowing a certain level of risk control and prevention...
December 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Ruixia Wang, Yan Wang, Hongli Li, Minmin Yang, Lei Sun, Tao Wang, Wenxing Wang
Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28...
September 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Vijay D Wagh
Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honey bees from substances collected from parts of plants, buds, and exudates. Due to its waxy nature and mechanical properties, bees use propolis in the construction and repair of their hives for sealing openings and cracks and smoothing out the internal walls and as a protective barrier against external invaders like snakes, lizards, and so forth, or against weathering threats like wind and rain. Bees gather propolis from different plants, in the temperate climate zone mainly from poplar...
2013: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Grace Oloukoi, Urmilla Bob, Jyoti Jaggernath
This paper investigates the perceived and observed trends of associated health risks with seasonal climate variability and identifies types of and preference for adaptation strategies that are available at households and community levels in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria. The study made use of household survey and rapid appraisal through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. For a short term climate-health impacts analysis, cases of notable diseases were correlated with monthly mean temperature and rainfall for the period 2006 and 2008...
January 2014: Health & Place
Xuesong Zhao, Jing Ding, Hong You
The spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Songhua River, Harbin, China, were investigated. Seventy-seven samples, 42 water and 35 sediment samples, were collected in April and October of 2007 and January of 2008. The concentrations of total PAHs in water ranged from 163.54 to 2,746.25 ng/L with the average value of 934.62 ng/L, which were predominated by 2- and 3-ring PAHs. The concentrations of total 16 PAHs in sediment ranged from 68.25 to 654.15 ng/g dw with the average value of 234...
February 2014: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
M Teresa Pena, M Carmen Casais, M Carmen Mejuto, Rafael Cela
A simple, rapid and efficient method, ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME), has been developed for the first time for the determination of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The chemical affinity between the ionic liquid (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and the analytes permits the extraction of the PAHs from the sample matrix also allowing their preconcentration. Thus, this technique combines extraction and concentration of the analytes into one step and avoids using toxic chlorinated solvents...
September 4, 2009: Journal of Chromatography. A
Catherine D Clark, Adam P O'Connor, Denise M Foley, Warren J de Bruyn
Optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured as a tracer of polluted waters in a Southern California surf-zone with consistently high levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Salinity, temperature, fecal coliform, absorbance (200-700nm) and fluorescence (lambda(excitation)=350nm; lambda(emission)=360-650nm) were measured in the creek and surf-zone during a dry and rain event. Fluorescence to absorption ratios for CDOM were used to distinguish water masses, with two distinct CDOM end-members identified as creek (flu/abs=8...
September 2007: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A el-Yazigi, D A Raines
An expedient and specific liquid chromatographic method for a concurrent measurement of fluoxetine (FLU), norfluoxetine (NFLU), amitriptyline (AMI), nortriptyline (NTRIP), imipramine (IMI), and desipramine (DES) is described. Using a mixture of acetonitrile:methanol:0.056 M ammonium acetate:1 M ammonium hydroxide (100:10:4.5:2.6, by volume) as mobile phase, the compounds along with doxepin (DOX) (internal standard) were separated on a 10 mu, 8 mm x 10 cm C18 Resolve cartridge in conjunction with radial compression liquid chromatographic module, and were detected in the effluent spectrophotometrically at 220 nm...
August 1993: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
A el-Yazigi, K Chaleby, A Gad, D A Raines
The steady-state kinetics of amitriptyline (AMI), fluoxetine (FLU), and their active metabolites nortriptyline (NTRIP) and norfluoxetine (NFLU) were studied in 15 patients treated once daily for long durations with 50 mg of AMI and 20 mg of FLU. These compounds were analyzed simultaneously in plasma by liquid chromatography. The means and (SEM) of the steady-state concentrations (Css) of AMI, NTRIP, FLU, and NFLU were 80.6 (14.2), 52.6 (10.3), 85.3 (16.1), and 90 (13.6) ng/mL, respectively, and the apparent oral clearances (CLor) of AMI and FLU were 42...
January 1995: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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