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Roboam R Aguirre, Mixel Z Mustafa, Alessandra Dumenigo, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Bishoy Goubran, Rhaisa Dumenigo, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
A major contributing factor associated with increased cardiac mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) seems to be a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The link between ANS dysfunction and SCZ is multifactorial, but some reports suggest that the use of antipsychotics could be implicated. This case illustrates the time course of autonomic improvement in response to antipsychotic treatment in an inpatient with SCZ in acute psychosis. To this end, we documented markers of autonomic function during hospitalization...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Ilkka Korhonen, Tero Myllymäki, Urho M Kujala, Harri Lindholm
BACKGROUND: Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sheun Oshinbolu, Rachana Shah, Gary Finka, Mike Molloy, Mark Uden, Daniel G Bracewell
BACKGROUND: A current challenge in bioprocessing is the ability to analyse critical quality attributes such as aggregation without prior purification. This study evaluated the use of fluorescent dyes (Bis-ANS, SYPRO Orange, Thioflavin T and ProteoStat) to characterise mAb aggregates in Chinese hamster ovary clarified cultures. RESULTS: The null and mAb culture supernatants showed an increase in fluorescence intensity over the duration of the culture. The null cultures on day 14 saw a rapid increase in fluorescence intensity; day 10 to day 14, Bis-ANS and Thioflavin T had average increases of 21% and 48%, respectively, whereas ProteoStat and SYPRO Orange showed an average increase of 60%...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Sabrina Z Jan, Aldo Jongejan, Cindy M Korver, Saskia K M van Daalen, Ans M M van Pelt, Sjoerd Repping, Geert Hamer
To prevent chromosomal aberrations to be transmitted to the offspring, strict meiotic checkpoints are in place to remove aberrant spermatocytes. However, in about 1% of all males these checkpoints cause complete meiotic arrest leading to azoospermia and subsequent infertility. We here unravel two clearly distinct meiotic arrest mechanisms that act during the prophase of human male meiosis. Type I arrested spermatocytes display severe asynapsis of the homologous chromosomes, disturbed XY-body formation and increased expression of the Y-chromosome encoded gene ZFY and seem to activate a DNA damage pathway leading to induction of p63, possibly causing spermatocyte apoptosis...
March 14, 2018: Development
Vatika Gupta, Kanika Jain, Rajni Garg, Anshu Malik, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Microbial colonization is an outcome of appropriate sensing and regulation of its gene expression. Bacillus anthracis adapts and thrives in its environment through complex regulatory mechanisms, among them, the two component systems (TCS). Many bacteria respond to the oxygen fluctuations via TCS. In the present work, a previously uncharacterized TCS, Bas1213-1214, of B. anthracis with a probable role in oxygen sensing has been characterized as a functional TCS. A substantial increase in the expression of Bas1213 was observed during the stationary growth phase, in presence of bicarbonate ions, and under oxidative stress thereby speculating the role of Bas1213 in toxin production and adaptive responses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Eun Jeong Song, Mi Young Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aromatherapy on stress responses, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and blood pressure in patients hospitalized to receive coronary angiography (CAG). METHODS: A non-equivalent control group with a pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects were patients admitted to the day angiography room to receive CAG at E University Hospital (34 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group)...
February 2018: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Luohua Jiang, Jenny Chang, Janette Beals, Ann Bullock, Spero M Manson
Growing evidence reveals various neighborhood conditions are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is unknown, however, whether the effectiveness of diabetes prevention interventions is also influenced by neighborhood characteristics. The purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of neighborhood characteristics on the outcomes of a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Year 2000 US Census Tract data were linked with those from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPI-DP), an evidence-based lifestyle intervention implemented in 36 AI/AN grantee sites across the US...
March 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Vittorio Iacovella, Luca Faes, Uri Hasson
Neuroimaging research has shown that different cognitive tasks induce relatively specific activation patterns, as well as less task-specific deactivation patterns. Here we examined whether individual differences in Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity during task performance correlate with the magnitude of task-induced deactivation. In an fMRI study, participants performed a continuous mental arithmetic task in a task/rest block design, while undergoing combined fMRI and heart / respiration rate acquisitions using photoplethysmograph and respiration belt...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Mengqiang Chen, Mengyun Xu, Yao Xiao, Dandan Cui, Yongqiang Qin, Jiaqi Wu, Wenyi Wang, Guoping Wang
Anthocyanins are the main pigments in flowers and fruits. These pigments are responsible for the red, red-purple, violet, and purple color in plants, and act as insect and animal attractants. In this study, phenotypic analysis of the purple flower color in eggplant indicated that the flower color is controlled by a single dominant gene, FAS . Using an F₂ mapping population derived from a cross between purple-flowered 'Blacknite' and white-flowered 'Small Round', Flower Anthocyanidin Synthase ( FAS ) was fine mapped to an approximately 165...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kun Hwang, XiaJing Wu, Hun Kim, Young Hye Kang
The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise location of the maxillary ostium using computed tomography for the reduction of depressed nasomaxillary fractures.Computed tomography images (61 males, 42 females; age range, 3-97 years) were analyzed. Coronal sections were cut every 3 mm.The primary maxillary ostium (PMO) was located 24.7% ± 3.9% of bizygomatic distance (BZD) lateral to septum. The horizontal distance of the PMO significantly increased with age (P = 0.032). The PMO was located 53...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Anita Jeyakumar, Rodolpho E Bégué, Yu Jiang, Brian J McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines for vaccination of cochlear implant (CI) recipients have been promulgated and updated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to mitigate bacterial meningitis risk. The objective of this study was to survey current CI specialists on: 1) knowledge of current CDC CI recipient immunization recommendations, and 2) impediments to implementation of those guidelines. METHODS: A survey to assess knowledge of the CI recipient vaccination guidelines was administered to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery (AAO-HNS), the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACIA), and the American Neurotology Society (ANS)...
March 9, 2018: Laryngoscope
Blagojce Jovcevski, J Andrew Aquilina, Justin L P Benesch, Heath Ecroyd
αB-Crystallin (HSPB5) is a small heat-shock protein that is composed of dimers that then assemble into a polydisperse ensemble of oligomers. Oligomerisation is mediated by heterologous interactions between the C-terminal tail of one dimer and the core "α-crystallin" domain of another and stabilised by interactions made by the N-terminal region. Comparatively little is known about the latter contribution, but previous studies have suggested that residues in the region 54-60 form contacts that stabilise the assembly...
March 8, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Heather Campbell, Rathinaswamy B Govindan, Srinivas Kota, Tareq Al-Shargabi, Marina Metzler, Nickie Andescavage, Taeun Chang, Gilbert Vezina, Adre du Plessis, An N Massaro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and evidence of autonomic dysfunction have aberrant physiological responses to care events that could contribute to evolving brain injury. STUDY DESIGN: Continuous tracings of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cerebral near infrared spectroscopy, and video electroencephalogram data were recorded from newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who were treated with hypothermia...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Yuyan Sun, Jinglei Wang, Yang Qiu, Tongjin Liu, Jiangping Song, Xixiang Li
Radish is an economically important vegetable crop belonging to the family Brassicaceae. The high anthocyanin content of the 'Xinlimei' radish roots has been associated with diverse health benefits. However, there is a lack of transcript-level information regarding anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the present study, the 'Xinlimei' radish root transcriptome was analyzed by RNA sequencing at five developmental stages. A total of 222,384,034 clean reads were obtained and 32,253 unigenes were annotated. Expression profiles revealed 10,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the five analyzed libraries...
March 5, 2018: Gene
Ineke Nederend, Eco J C de Geus, Lucia J M Kroft, Jos J M Westenberg, Nico A Blom, Arend D J Ten Harkel
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Due to improved surgical techniques, most patients live into adulthood. However, late complications including hypertension, recoarctation and arrhythmias are common. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) might play a role in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac ANS activity and cardiac function in children after CoA repair and investigate the relationship between the two...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Brigg Reilley, Dana L Haberling, Marissa Person, Jessica Leston, Jonathan Iralu, Rick Haverkate, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to use Indian Health Service (IHS) data from electronic health records to analyze human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and to identify current rates and trends that can support data-driven policy implementation and resource allocation for this population. METHODS: We analyzed provider visit data from IHS to capture all AI/AN patients who met a definition of a new HIV diagnosis from 2005 through 2014 by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Julie B Eisengart, Kyle D Rudser, Yong Xue, Paul Orchard, Weston Miller, Troy Lund, Ans Van der Ploeg, Jean Mercer, Simon Jones, Karl Eugen Mengel, Seyfullah Gökce, Nathalie Guffon, Roberto Giugliani, Carolina F M de Souza, Elsa G Shapiro, Chester B Whitley
PurposeEarly treatment is critical for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), justifying its incorporation into newborn screening. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) treats MPS I, yet presumptions that ERT cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) support recommendations that hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) treat the severe, neurodegenerative form (Hurler syndrome). Ethics precludes randomized comparison of ERT with HCT, but insight into this comparison is presented with an international cohort of patients with Hurler syndrome who received long-term ERT from a young age...
March 8, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Russell Tracy, Nancy S Jenny, Ary L Goldberger, Madalena D Costa, Yongmei Liu, Peter Libby, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associates with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Immune abnormalities and surges in sympathetic activity accompany OSA and CVD. We hypothesized that OSA associates with leukocytosis partially by abnormalities in autonomic nervous system (ANS) function that would suggest a pathway linking OSA and CVD. METHODS: Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort of individuals initially without overt CVD, underwent polysomnography and assays for white blood cells (WBC) and subsets...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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