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Monaco Annalisa, Cattaneo Ruggero, Ortu Eleonora, Constantinescu Marian Vladimir, Pietropaoli Davide
Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Kwang-Ho Choi, Junbeom Kim, O Sang Kwon, Min Ji Kim, Yeon Hee Ryu, Ji-Eun Park
Because human emotion varies greatly among individuals and is a qualitative factor, measuring it with any degree of accuracy is very difficult. Heart rate variability (HRV), which is used in evaluations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), is used to evaluate human emotions. This study examines the validity of HRV as a tool to evaluate emotions using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For experimentation, five photos were selected for each of the categories of "happy," "unhappy", and "neutral" from among the images provided by the IAPS...
February 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Moumita Dasgupta, Nand Kishore
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol) on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7...
2017: PloS One
Ans Van Ginckel, Rana S Hinman, Tim V Wrigley, David J Hunter, Charlotte J Marshall, Luciano Melo, Sarah R F Meneses, Milena Simic, Jessica Kasza, Jeff Duryea, Jason A Wallis, Kim L Bennell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Physical Therapy
Andrew Tomkins, Shazaad Ahmad, Darren E Cousins, Caroline M Thng, Francisco Javier Vilar, Stephen P Higgins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) in HIV-positive individuals after treatment of early syphilis with single-dose benzathine penicillin G (BPG) or oral antibiotic alternatives. METHODS: Patients at high risk of neurosyphilis (defined by serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre ≥1:32 and/or peripheral blood CD4 lymphocyte count ≤350/μL) underwent lumbar puncture (LP) at a median time of 8.2 months post treatment. ANS was diagnosed by a reactive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) RPR test or CSF white blood cells (WBC) >20/μL plus a reactive CSF Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) ≥1:640...
February 14, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
William J Robson, Paul A Sutton, Paul McCormack, Neil P Chilcott, Steven J Rowland
Identification of the heteroatom (nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen)- containing compounds of petroleum is of key importance when considering industrial and environmental issues associated with crude oil production. The more commonly performed methods of crude oil fractionation are often insufficient in the extent to which they separate oils, not allowing defined 'molecular' fractions to be obtained. Methods capable of performing a class type separation are uncommon and are often extensive, and resource and time intensive...
February 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Safa Abdul-Ghani, Arnold N Fleishman, Igor Khaliulin, Marco Meloni, Gianni D Angelini, M-Saadeh Suleiman
Cardioprotective efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) remains controversial. Experimental studies investigating RIPC have largely monitored cardiovascular changes during index ischemia and reperfusion with little work investigating changes during RIPC application. This work aims to identify cardiovascular changes associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during RIPC and prior to index ischemia. RIPC was induced in anesthetized male C57/Bl6 mice by four cycles of 5 min of hindlimb ischemia using inflated cuff (200 mmHg) followed by 5 min reperfusion...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
Dinalankara M R Dinalankara, Judith H Miles, T Nicole Takahashi, Gang Yao
The purpose of this study was to investigate pupillary light reflex (PLR) in 2-6-years-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 117 medication-free 2-6-year-old boys participated in this study. Sixty participants were diagnosed with ASD (the "ASD group") and the other 57 were in the control group of typical development (the "TD group"). A questionnaire was completed by the parent/guardian for assessing potential dysfunctions in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The base pupil radius, PLR latency, and constriction time showed a significant age-related trend in both the ASD and TD groups...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Britt I Drögemöller, Wyeth W Wasserman, Colin J D Ross, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Niklas Darin, Gittan Kollberg, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Maria Blomqvist
BACKGROUND: Sialic acid storage diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in the lysosome. These disorders are caused by mutations in SLC17A5, the gene encoding sialin, a sialic acid transporter located in the lysosomal membrane. The most common form of sialic acid storage disease is the slowly progressive Salla disease, presenting with hypotonia, ataxia, epilepsy, nystagmus and findings of cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Hypomyelination and corpus callosum hypoplasia are typical as well...
February 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Ans De Beuckelaer, Johan Grooten, Stefaan De Koker
mRNA vaccines have emerged as potent tools to elicit antitumor T cell immunity. They are characterized by a strong induction of type I interferons (IFNs), potent inflammatory cytokines affecting T cell differentiation and survival. Recent reports have attributed opposing roles for type I IFNs in modulating CD8+ T cell immunity to mRNA vaccines, from profoundly stimulatory to strongly inhibitory. The mechanisms behind this duality are unclear. Disentangling the factors governing the beneficial or detrimental impact of type I IFNs on CD8+ T cell responses is vital to the design of mRNA vaccines of increased potency...
February 6, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Tondi M Harrison, Roger Brown
BACKGROUND: Infants with complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) demonstrate impaired autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation, which may contribute to commonly observed impairments in feeding, growth, and development. Close mother-infant physical contact improves ANS function in other high-risk infant populations. OBJECTIVE: Our purposes were to examine feasibility of a 2-week daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) intervention and to describe change in ANS function in response to the intervention...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Bowen J Fung, Damien L Crone, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski
Cardiac signals reflect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and have previously been associated with a range of self-regulatory behaviors such as emotion regulation and memory recall. It is unknown whether cardiac signals may also be associated with self-regulation in the temporal domain, in particular impulsivity. We assessed both decision impulsivity (temporal discounting, TD) and time perception impulsivity (duration reproduction, DR) in 120 participants while they underwent electrocardiography in order to test whether cardiac signals were related to these two aspects of impulsivity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Akie Inami, Takeshi Ogura, Shoichi Watanuki, Md Mehedi Masud, Katsuhiko Shibuya, Masayasu Miyake, Rin Matsuda, Kotaro Hiraoka, Masatoshi Itoh, Arlan W Fuhr, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in brain and muscle glucose metabolism that are not yet known, using positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG PET). Methods. Twenty-one male volunteers were recruited for the present study. [(18)F]FDG PET scanning was performed twice on each subject: once after the spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) intervention (treatment condition) and once after resting (control condition). We performed the SMT intervention using an adjustment device...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Camilla Gilmore, Lucy Cragg, Grace Hogan, Matthew Inglis
The dot comparison task, in which participants select the more numerous of two dot arrays, has become the predominant method of assessing Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity. Creation of the dot arrays requires the manipulation of visual characteristics, such as dot size and convex hull. For the task to provide a valid measure of ANS acuity, participants must ignore these characteristics and respond on the basis of number. Here, we report two experiments that explore the influence of dot area and convex hull on participants' accuracy on dot comparison tasks...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Baoliang Ma, Fan Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Xudong Zhu
The amyloid fibrils derived from protein and peptide self-assembly have been studied in many diseases. In the present study, in combination with Thioflavin T(ThT) assay, Congo red(CR),transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we investigated the influence of zinc ions on amyloid fibril formation using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model protein under high temperature and acidic pH conditions. We observed that HEWL tended to form the amyloid fibrils at pH 2.0 and 60°C, which was consistent with the previous studies...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiaoni Wang, Binbin Liu, Lin Xie, Xiaolin Yu, Mengjun Li, Jianbao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mental arithmetic has been verified inducing cerebral and cardiovascular responses. However, the mechanism and sequential responses are still ambiguous. This study aims to reveal the mechanism of cardiovascular and autonomic responses and the related scalp positions that regulate the autonomic nerves system (ANS) during MA task. METHODS: 34 healthy male subjects aged between 19 and 27 years old (mean age 23.6 ± 2.3 years) were recruited in. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiography, beat-to-beat blood pressure and electroencephalography were measured simultaneously and continuously during the experiments...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Mohammad Furkan, Asim Rizvi, Md Tauqir Alam, Aabgeena Naeem
Catalase, a ubiquitous enzyme of the free radical scavenging machinery unfolds and aggregates in the presence of 2, 2, 2, triflouroethanol (TFE). Catalase molecule aggregates at 50% TFE as evident by high thioflavin T fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, change in circular dichroism and soret spectra. TEM images confirmed the nature of catalase aggregates to be oligomers. Organic solvent induced aggregation of catalase is prevented by presence of peroxidase (another enzyme of the free radical scavenging machinery)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Peng Peng, Xiujie Yang, Xiangzhi Meng
We investigated whether the approximate number system (ANS) was related to arithmetic among kindergartners and the mechanism underlying this possible relation. Specifically, we examined whether numerical knowledge mediated the possible relation between the ANS and arithmetic after controlling for potential confounding cognitive variables. Results showed that the ANS was moderately related with early arithmetic (r=.36-.37). After controlling for age, IQ, visual attention, working memory, visuospatial processing, and inhibition, numerical knowledge demonstrated a medium mediation effect (k(2)=...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Minhal Abidi, Afshin Iram, Mohammad Furkan, Aabgeena Naeem
Glucoamylase (EC from Aspergillus niger possesses 31% α-helix, 36% β structure and rest aperiodic structure. A transition of glucoamylase structure in the presence of varying concentrations of glyoxal (GO) and trifluoroethanol (TFE) was studied by using multi-methodological approaches. At 20% GO, glucoamylase exists as molten globule state as evident by high tryptophan and ANS fluorescence, retention of secondary structure and loss of native tertiary structure. This state precedes the onset of the aggregation process and maximum is achieved at the highest concentration i...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chun-Tien Kuo, Yi-Lin Chen, Wei-Tse Hsu, Su-Chun How, Yu-Hong Cheng, Shu-Shun Hsueh, Hwai-Shen Liu, Ta-Hsien Lin, Josephine W Wu, Steven S-S Wang
Formation of amyloid fibrils has been associated with at least 30 different protein aggregation diseases. The 129-residue polypeptide hen lysozyme, which is structurally homologous to human lysozyme, has been demonstrated to exhibit amyloid fibril-forming propensity in vitro. This study is aimed at exploring the influence of erythrosine B on the in vitro amyloid fibril formation of hen lysozyme at pH 2.0 and 55°C using ThT binding assay, transmission electron microscopy, far-UV circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence spectroscopy, and synchronous fluorescence study...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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