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Contagious cancers

Yuanyuan Cheng, Kim Heasman, Sarah Peck, Emma Peel, Rebecca M Gooley, Anthony T Papenfuss, Carolyn J Hogg, Katherine Belov
Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2-3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sebastien Delpeut, Gary Sisson, Karen M Black, Christopher D Richardson
Measles virus (MeV) is a member of the family Paramixoviridae that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease, but has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies of MeV entry have focused on the identification of cellular receptors. However, the endocytic and trafficking pathways utilized during MeV entry remain poorly described. The contribution of each endocytic pathway has been examined in cells that express MeV receptors, SLAM (Signaling Lymphocyte-Activating Molecule) and PVRL4 (Poliovirus Receptor-Like-4, nectin-4)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Awatef Kelati, Hanane Baybay, Mariam Atassi, Samira Elfakir, Salim Gallouj, Mariame Meziane, Fatima Zahra Mernissi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of skin cancers is constantly increasing in Morocco, and they have gradually become more aggressive due to a significant delay in the diagnosis. Our aim was to assess the levels of awareness and the influencing factors related to skin cancer knowledge in Morocco. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Morocco through the medium of a validated questionnaire, which contained several items - demographics, skin cancer knowledge and attitudes towards skin cancer patients- during a period of 1 year (2014)...
February 17, 2017: BMC Dermatology
H V Siddle
Contagious cancers are malignant cells that are physically transferred between individuals as a natural allograft, forming new clonal tumours. These cancers are highly unusual, but have emerged in 2 mammalian species, the dog and the Tasmanian devil, as well as 4 species of bivalve. The transfer of malignant cells in mammals should initiate a robust immune response and although invertebrates have a less complex immune system, these species still have mechanisms that should prevent engraftment and protect against cellular parasitism...
April 2017: HLA
Florentine Riquet, Alexis Simon, Nicolas Bierne
Genetic chimerism is rarely considered in the analysis of population genetics data, because assumed to be an exceptionally rare, mostly benign, developmental accident. An unappreciated source of chimerism is transmissible cancer, when malignant cells have become independent parasites and can infect other individuals. Parasitic cancers were thought to be rare exceptions, only reported in dogs (Murgia et al., Cell, 2006, 126, 477; Rebbeck et al., Evolution, 2009, 63, 2340), Tasmanian devils (Pearse and Swift, Nature, 2006, 439, 549; Pye et al...
February 2017: Evolutionary Applications
A Dusty Miller, Marcelo De Las Heras, Jingyou Yu, Fushun Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Andrew E Vaughan, Thomas L Vaughan, Raul Rosadio, Stefano Rocca, Giuseppe Palmieri, James J Goedert, Junya Fujimoto, Ignacio I Wistuba
BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a specific cell-surface receptor, Hyal2. Unlike almost all other retroviruses, the JSRV Env protein is also a potent oncoprotein and is responsible for lung cancer in animals. Of concern, Hyal2 is a functional receptor for JSRV in humans. RESULTS: We show here that JSRV is fully capable of infecting human cells, as measured by its reverse transcription and persistence in the DNA of cultured human cells...
January 20, 2017: Retrovirology
Michael J Metzger, Stephen P Goff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mine Düzgöl, Gülcihan Özek, Nuri Bayram, Yeşim Oymak, Ahu Kara, Bengü Demirağ, Tuba Hilkay Karapınar, Yılmaz Ay, Canan Vergin, İlker Devrim
Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is a benign self-limited disease. In this study, we review our experience in focusing on the outcome and treatment of VZV infection in pediatric malignancy patients. During the study period, a total of 41 patients with pediatric malignancy had been hospitalized with the diagnosis of VZV infection. All the patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir for a median of 7 days (ranging from 5 to 21 days). The calculated attributable delay of chemotherapy due to VZV infections was 8 days (ranging from 2 to 60 days)...
December 1, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava, Kari Syrjänen
The interesting history of papillomavirus (PV) research has been reviewed before. The history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck region starts in 1901 when the contagious transmission of warty lesions into the mouth via oral sex was described, although the confirmation of their viral etiology had to wait until 1907. Ullman was the first to associate the human wart virus with laryngeal warts. Parsons and Kidd described the natural history of oral PV infections in rabbits already in 1942, but these findings were corroborated in humans only recently...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Bernard Perbal
In a recent manuscript, Goff and collaborators (Metzger et al. 2016) reported data arguing for the spread of contagious cancer cells among different species of shellfish. Although horizontal transmission of cancer cells has been observed in a few cases in higher organisms, it appears to be rather frequent among molluscs. Recent evidence supports the concept of inter-species horizontal infectious transmission of cancer cells both in molluscs but also in mammals, including humans.
September 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Beata Ujvari, Anthony T Papenfuss, Katherine Belov
Cancer is an evolutionary and ecological process in which complex interactions between tumour cells and their environment share many similarities with organismal evolution. Tumour cells with highest adaptive potential have a selective advantage over less fit cells. Naturally occurring transmissible cancers provide an ideal model system for investigating the evolutionary arms race between cancer cells and their surrounding micro-environment and macro-environment. However, the evolutionary landscapes in which contagious cancers reside have not been subjected to comprehensive investigation...
July 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Xiang-Xiang Sheng, Ying-Jie Sun, Yuan Zhan, Yu-Rong Qu, Hua-Xia Wang, Miao Luo, Ying Liao, Xu-Sheng Qiu, Chan Ding, Hong-Jie Fan, Xiang Mao
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease that affects most species of birds. Its causative pathogen, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also exhibits considerable oncolytic activity against mammalian cancers. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of NDV will help us design efficient vaccines and novel anticancer strategies. GW3965, a widely used synthetic ligand of liver X receptor (LXR), induces the expression of LXRs and its downstream genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). ABCA1 regulates cellular cholesterol homeostasis...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Gladys B Asiedu, Katherine Carroll, Meaghan Tenney, Aminah Jatoi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Some of the most promising avenues of cancer clinical investigation center on immunotherapeutic approaches. These approaches have provided notable gains in cancer therapeutics with recent Food and Drug Administration approvals of agents of this class in several types of cancers, although gains for ovarian cancer lag behind. This study examined perceptions of therapeutic trials including immunotherapy and virotherapy among ovarian cancer patients and their family members...
December 2016: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Abraham Yacoub, Sowmya Nanjappa, Tyler Janz, John N Greene
We illustrate 2 cases of pneumonia associated with Bordetella pertussis infection in 72-year-old and 61-year-old patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or myelosuppressive therapy are at increased risk. The infection was detected and the 2 patients had good outcomes following azithromycin treatment...
April 2016: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
M Borobia, M De Las Heras, J J Ramos, L M Ferrer, D Lacasta, A De Martino, A Fernández, A Loste, D Marteles, A Ortín
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer of sheep caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is generally accepted that transmission by the respiratory route occurs under natural conditions. However recent studies strongly indicate that JSRV can also be transmitted to lambs perinatally via colostrum and milk (C/M). The aim of this work was to confirm that C/M can transmit JSRV infection to lambs under natural conditions and investigate the initial events associated with this transmission route...
May 6, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Bo Han, Ling Lian, Xin Li, Chunfang Zhao, Lujiang Qu, Changjun Liu, Jiuzhou Song, Ning Yang
Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), which can lead to huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found in various cancers and tumors. In recent years, 994 mature miRNAs have been identified through deep sequencing in chickens, but only a few miRNAs have been investigated further in terms of their function. Previously, gga-miR-103-3p was found downregulated in MDV-infected samples by using Solexa deep sequencing...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yuanyuan Cheng, Samantha Fox, David Pemberton, Carolyn Hogg, Anthony T Papenfuss, Katherine Belov
BACKGROUND: The Tasmanian devil, the world's largest carnivorous marsupial, is at risk of extinction due to devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a fatal contagious cancer. The Save the Tasmanian Devil Program has established an insurance population, which currently holds over 600 devils in captive facilities across Australia. Microbes are known to play a crucial role in the health and well-being of humans and other animals, and increasing evidence suggests that changes in the microbiota can influence various aspects of host physiology and development...
2015: Microbiome
Samia Al-Amoudi, Moaiad Tariq Abdul-Aziz AlHomied, Nasser Youssef Nasser AlSayegh, Osama Naseem Ismail Radi, Mohammed Majed Suliman Zagzoog, Omar Faisal Mubarak Aloufi, Abdullah Abdulkarim Ali Al-Harbi, Safwan Tayeb, Mohammed Hassanien, Mahmoud Al-Ahwal, Basem Eldeek, Steve Harakeh
Breast cancer (BC) accounts for 24 % of all women cancer cases diagnosed in Saudi Arabia each year. Awareness is extremely important in combating this disease. This study was undertaken to assess male high school students' response to BC. This cross-sectional survey was performed on male high school students across schools in Jeddah. A questionnaire gathered data on respondent demographics, beliefs about BC, BC risk factors, early screening methods, and role of men in BC. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Belinda Wright, Katrina Morris, Catherine E Grueber, Cali E Willet, Rebecca Gooley, Carolyn J Hogg, Denis O'Meally, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna Jones, Claire Wade, Katherine Belov
BACKGROUND: The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) has undergone a recent, drastic population decline due to the highly contagious devil facial tumor disease. The tumor is one of only two naturally occurring transmissible cancers and is almost inevitably fatal. In 2006 a disease-free insurance population was established to ensure that the Tasmanian devil is protected from extinction. The insurance program is dependent upon preserving as much wild genetic diversity as possible to maximize the success of subsequent reintroductions to the wild...
2015: BMC Genomics
A Larruskain, A Esparza-Baquer, E Minguijón, R A Juste, B M Jugo
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is present in many sheep-rearing countries causing economic and welfare issues, as currently no efficient vaccines or treatments are available. Breed differences suggest a host genetic component may influence the pathogenesis of OPA, but so far few genes have been identified. In this work, a genetic association study was carried out in Latxa dairy sheep which were classified as cases/controls based on the presence/absence of OPA lung tumours...
December 2015: Animal Genetics
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