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Kunal K Sindhu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive reduction of glomerular filtration rate and subsequent retention of organic waste compounds called uremic toxins. While patients with CKD are at a higher risk of premature death due to cardiovascular complications, this increased risk cannot be completely explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Instead, recent research suggests that uremic toxins may play a key role in explaining this marked increase in cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Alexandra Ioana Lupulescu, Wei Qin, Jeffrey D Rimer
Nonclassical mechanisms of crystal growth often involve the formation of amorphous precursors that play a direct role in what is generally referred to as crystallization by particle attachment (or CPA). One of the most studied CPA systems in literature is zeolite MFI, which is a microporous crystal with siliceous (silicalite-1) and aluminosilicate (ZSM-5) isostructures. The self-assembly, microstructural evolution, and mechanistic role of nanoparticle precursors (1 - 6 nm) during silicalite-1 crystallization have been the subjects of prior investigation by combined experimental and modeling techniques...
October 17, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Qunjun Duan, Weijun Yang, Daming Jiang, Kaiyu Tao, Aiqiang Dong, Haifeng Cheng
Myocardial infarction could result in high morbidity and mortality and heart diseases of children have becoming prevalent. Functions of spermine administration on cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of spermine pretreatment on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). A cell model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by incubating neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cardiomyocytes in ischemia medium and re-cultured in normal medium. Of note, spermine pretreatment significantly reduced apoptosis and increased viability of immature cardiomyocytes...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Frank Vandenbussche, Elisabeth Mathijs, David Lefebvre, Kris De Clercq, Steven Van Borm
Non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5'-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. Despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. To address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RT-qPCR assays using an FMDV reference panel. Tailing of the panFMDV-5UTR primers mainly affected the shape of the amplification curves...
2016: PloS One
Laura K Müller, Leonard Kaps, Detlef Schuppan, Alexander Brose, Wenqiang Chai, Karl Fischer, Sophie Müller, Holger Frey, Manfred Schmidt, Kristin Mohr
We here report on a liposomal system for siRNA delivery consisting of cholesterol (Chol), distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and surfactant TF (1-hydroxy-50-amino-3,4,7,10,13,16,19,22-octaoxa-37,41,45-triaza-pentacontane), a novel spermine derivative (HO-EG8-C12-spermine) for improved siRNA delivery to cells in vitro and in vivo. Predominantly single walled liposomes with reproducible sizes and moderately broad size distributions were generated with an automated extrusion device. The liposomes remained stable when prepared in the presence of siRNA at N/P ratios of 17 to 34...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Yang Ou, Shang-Jui Wang, Dawei Li, Bo Chu, Wei Gu
Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ayesha Kabir, Devawati Dutta, Chhabinath Mandal, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
A major thrust of anticancer therapeutics is the dynamic quest for small molecules that binds and modifies nucleic acids and proteins effectively. The role of tRNA in the protein translational machinery and the influence of polyamines on the interaction of acylated and deacylated tRNA to ribosomes,47-48 make polyamine-tRNA interactions conspicuous. Therefore, we have studied the interaction of two biogenic polyamines spermine and spermidine with tRNAPhe and compared the interaction with the polyamine analog, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine to fathom the thermodynamic and structural basis of the binding interaction...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michał Baciak, Łukasz Sikorski, Agnieszka I Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Barbara Adomas
Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated...
September 9, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that specifically colonizes the gastric ecological niche. During the infectious process, which results in diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, the host response is characterized by the activation of the innate immunity of gastric epithelial cells and macrophages. These cells thus produce effector molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to counteract the infection. The generation of ROS in response to H. pylori involves two canonical pathways: 1) the NADPH-dependent reduction of molecular oxygen to generate O2(•-), which can dismute to generate ROS; and 2) the back-conversion of the polyamine spermine into spermidine through the enzyme spermine oxidase, leading to H2O2 production...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Steven D Aird, Alejandro Villar Briones, Michael C Roy, Alexander S Mikheyev
While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid) for spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Most venoms contained all four polyamines, although some in essentially trace quantities. Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g); however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed...
2016: Toxins
Tracy R Murray-Stewart, Patrick M Woster, Robert A Casero
The chemically simple, biologically complex eukaryotic polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are positively charged alkylamines involved in many crucial cellular processes. Along with their diamine precursor putrescine, their normally high intracellular concentrations require fine attenuation by multiple regulatory mechanisms to keep these essential molecules within strict physiologic ranges. Since the metabolism of and requirement for polyamines are frequently dysregulated in neoplastic disease, the metabolic pathway and functions of polyamines provide rational drug targets; however, these targets have been difficult to exploit for chemotherapy...
October 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Oussama Bakhta, Hussein Kalakech, Gilles Simard, Sophie Tamareille, Véronique Catros, Jacques Callebert, Cédric Gadras, Lydie Tessier, Pascal Reynier, Fabrice Prunier, Delphine Mirebeau-Prunier
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an attractive therapeutic procedure for protecting the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Despite evidence of humoral mediators transported through the circulation playing a critical role, their actual identities so far remain unknown. We sought to identify plasmatic RIPC-induced metabolites that may play a role. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat plasma samples from RIPC and control groups were analyzed using a targeted metabolomic approach aimed at measuring 188 metabolites...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Janina Sprenger, Jannette Carey, Bo Svensson, Verena Wengel, Lo Persson
The aminopropyltransferase spermidine synthase (SpdS) is a promising drug target in cancer and in protozoan diseases including malaria. Plasmodium falciparum SpdS (PfSpdS) transfers the aminopropyl group of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcAdoMet) to putrescine or to spermidine to form spermidine or spermine, respectively. In an effort to understand why efficient inhibitors of PfSpdS have been elusive, the present study uses enzyme activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry with verified or predicted inhibitors of PfSpdS to analyze the relationship between binding affinity as assessed by KD and inhibitory activity as assessed by IC50...
2016: PloS One
Rosa Guarcello, Maria De Angelis, Luca Settanni, Sabino Formiglio, Raimondo Gaglio, Fabio Minervini, Giancarlo Moschetti, Marco Gobbetti
: Accumulation of biogenic amines (BAs) in cheese and other foods is a matter of public health concern. This study aimed at identifying enzyme activities responsible for BAs degradation in lactic acid bacteria, which were previously isolated from traditional Sicilian and Apulian cheeses. Selected strains would control the concentration of BAs during cheese manufacture. First, 431 isolates, not showing genes encoding for decarboxylases responsible for BA formation, were selected using PCR-based methods...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Erdem Kanber, Hiroe Yamada, Brigitta Loretz, Elise Lepeltier, Claus-Michael Lehr
Nucleotide analogues are a therapeutic class that is very promising and currently used in clinics, notably against viral infectious diseases and cancer. However, their therapeutic potential is often restricted by a poor stability in vivo, the induction of severe side effects, and limited passive intracellular diffusion due to their hydrophilicity. Polysaccharide-based polymers (e.g., starch) have considerable advantages, including a lack of toxicity and the absence of antigenicity. The aim of this study was to develop new cationic starches able to form complexes with nucleotide analogues, thus protecting them and increasing their cell uptake...
October 3, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Ikunobu Muramatsu, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Junsuke Uwada, Takayoshi Masuoka, Kiyonao Sada, Takanobu Taniguchi, Matomo Nishio
Functional acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were recently demonstrated to exist not only in the plasma membrane but also intracellularly in brain tissues. In order to activate intracellular AChRs, endogenous hydrophilic ACh must cross the plasma membrane. Here, we examined the pharmacological characteristics of this process, including whether it is mediated by active ACh uptake. When ACh esterase (AChE) was suppressed by diisopropylfluorophosphate, [(3) H]ACh was effectively taken up into segments of rat cerebral cortex and other brain regions, in contrast to peripheral tissues such as liver and kidney...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Xiaole Xia, Qingwen Zhang, Bin Zhang, Wuji Zhang, Wu Wang
Inspired by concerns about food safety, the metabolic landscape of biogenic amines (BAs) was elucidated during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine fermentation. The main fermentation process represented the largest contribution to BA formation, which corresponded to 69.1% (54.3 mg/L). Principal component analysis revealed that total acid and ethanol were strongly correlated with BAs, indicating that BA formation favored acidic and stressful conditions. Other than putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM), 5 BAs exhibited strong relationships with the precursor amino acids (R(2) > 0...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Silvia Grancara, Shinji Ohkubo, Marco Artico, Mauro Ciccariello, Sabrina Manente, Marcantonio Bragadin, Antonio Toninello, Enzo Agostinelli
Mitochondria represent cell "powerhouses," being involved in energy transduction from the electrochemical gradient to ATP synthesis. The morphology of their cell types may change, according to various metabolic processes or osmotic pressure. A new morphology of the inner membrane and mitochondrial cristae, significantly different from the previous one, has been proposed for the inner membrane and mitochondrial cristae, based on the technique of electron tomography. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport (the transporter has been isolated) generates reactive oxygen species and induces the mitochondrial permeability transition of both inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, leading to induction of necrosis and apoptosis...
October 2016: Amino Acids
Oliver Gräb, Maryna Abacilar, Fabian Daus, Armin Geyer, Claudia Steinem
Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) are intimately involved in the biomineralization process of diatoms taking place in silica deposition vesicles being acidic compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Here, we addressed the question whether and how LCPAs interact with lipid membranes composed of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids mimicking the membranes of diatoms and higher plants. Solid supported lipid bilayers and monolayers containing the three major components that are unique in diatoms and higher plants, i...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Katalin Gemes, Yu Jung Kim, Ky Young Park, Panagiotis Nikolaou Moschou, Efthimios Andronis, Chryssanthi Valassakis, Andreas Roussis, Kalliopi A Roubelakis-Angelakis
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generating and scavenging pathways balance ROS levels. The intracellular NADPH-oxidase is considered as the primary ROS-generating source in cells. Recently, the apoplastic polyamine (PA) oxidase (PAO) emerged as a significant ROS source in plants. The apoplastic PAO catalyzes the oxidation of the higher PAs, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and is considered as a secondary ROS-generating source. Here we unravel a feedback loop that controls ROS burst under salinity and includes NADPH-oxidase and PAO...
September 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
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