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Yutaro Yamamoto, Takamitsu Makino, Hideo Kudo, Hironobu Ihn, Yasuko Murakami, Senya Matsufuji, Kunio Fujiwara, Masashi Shin
No expression and distribution patterns of polyamines (PAs), spermine, spermidine, and their precursor putrescine in mammalian hair follicle are available, although polyamines are known to correlate well with hair growth and epidermal tumor genesis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using our original two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) ASPM-29 specific for spermine or spermidine, and APUT-32 specific for putrescine allowed us to detect immunoreactivity for polyamines in hair follicles from normal adult rats. A wide range of immunoreactivity for the total spermine and spermidine was observed in the compartments of hair follicle: The highest degree of immunoreactivity for polyamines was observed in the matrix, in the Huxley's layer, in the deeper Henle's layer, and in the cuticle of the inner root sheath/the hair cuticle, while moderate immunoreactivity existed in the lower-to-mid cortex and the companion layer, followed by lower immunoreactivity in the outer root sheath, including the bulge region and in the deeper medulla, in which the immunoreactivity was also evident in their nuclei...
November 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Amalia Forte, Mario Grossi, Ciro Bancone, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Per Hellstrand, Lo Persson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Alessandro Della Corte
Polyamines are cationic molecules synthesized via a highly regulated pathway, obtained from the diet or produced by the gut microbiota. They are involved in general molecular and cellular phenomena that play a role also in vascular disease. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital malformation associated to a greater risk of thoracic ascending aorta (TAA) aneurysm, whose pathogenesis is not yet well understood. We focused on differential analysis of key members of polyamine pathway and on polyamine concentration in non-dilated TAA samples from patients with either stenotic tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) or BAV (diameter ≤ 45 mm), vs...
November 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
Weiqi Zhang, Xianghui Meng, Huike Liu, Lifei Xie, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
We report that the mass ratio of the polycation to serum in the medium determines the RNAi efficiency in vitro by using spermine-modified pullulan (Ps) and spermine-modified dextran (Ds) as polycation models. The high ratio of Ps to serum protein (Ps/Pr) mediated the formation of larger polyplex, which led to the promoted cellular uptake, enhanced lysosomal escape and elevated RNAi efficiency. In addition, the supplementary of free Ps also enhanced siRNA transfection due to the elevation of Ps/Pr. Similar results were obtained with Ds...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuji Kubo, Yuichiro Horii, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Shin Kamiyama, Hideyuki Sone, Satoshi Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Alessia Leonetti, Laura Cervoni, Fabio Polticelli, Yuta Kanamori, Zuleyha Nihan Yurtsever, Enzo Agostinelli, Paolo Mariottini, Pasquale Stano, Manuela Cervelli
Spermine oxidase (SMOX) is a flavin-containing enzyme that oxidizes spermine to produce spermidine, 3-aminopropanaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. SMOX has been shown to play key roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis; indeed it is differentially expressed in several human cancer types. Our previous investigation has revealed that SMOX purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli actually consists of monomers, covalent homodimers, and other higher-order forms. All association forms oxidise spermine and, after treatment with DTT, revert to SMOX monomer...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Suleyman Kaplan, M Emin Onger, B Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ebru Elibol, Omur G Deniz, M Önder Karayiğit, Murat Yarım, Cafer Marangoz, Murat Çetin Ragbetli
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n=20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20min whereas the SG was exposed to sham operation and CG group was not exposed to any operation. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) was applied to the half number of the subjects in each group...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ran An, Ping Dong, Makoto Komiyama, Xiaoming Pan, Xingguo Liang
DNA base depurination is one of the most common forms of DNA damage in vivo and in vitro, and the suppression of depurination is very important for versatile applications of DNA in biotechnology and medicine. In this work, it was shown that the polycations chitosan (Cho) and spermine (Spm) strongly inhibit DNA depurination through the formation of polyion complexes with DNA molecules. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of positively charged polycations with DNA efficiently suppresses the protonation of purine groups, which is the key step of depurination...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans deriving from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Łukasz Krych, Witold Kot, Katja M B Bendtsen, Axel K Hansen, Finn K Vogensen, Dennis S Nielsen
The Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) induced colitis mouse model is commonly used to investigate human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nucleic acid extracts originating from these animals are often contaminated with DSS, which is a strong inhibitor of many enzymatic based molecular biology reactions including PCR and reverse-transcription (RT). Methods for removing DSS from nucleic acids extracts exist for RNA, but no effective protocol for DNA or cDNA is currently available. However, spermine has previously been shown to be an effective agent for counteracting DSS inhibition of polynucleotide kinase, which led to the hypothesis, that spermine could be used to counteract DSS inhibition of PCR and RT...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yuta Sugiyama, Misaki Nara, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Aina Gotoh, Aya Kitakata, Shujiro Okuda, Shin Kurihara
Recent studies have reported that polyamines in the colonic lumen might affect animal health and these polyamines are thought to be produced by gut bacteria. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in cells and culture supernatants of 32 dominant human gut bacterial species in their growing and stationary phases. Combining polyamine concentration analysis in culture supernatant and cells with available genomic information showed that novel polyamine biosynthetic proteins and transporters were present in dominant human gut bacteria...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Zülal Özdemir, Uladzimir Bildziukevich, David Šaman, Libor Havlíček, Lucie Rárová, Lucie Navrátilová, Zdeněk Wimmer
A series of amphiphilic derivatives of (3β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrost-5-ene-17-carboxylic acid (1) with the polyamine spermine and three other diamines, 1,2-diaminoethane, piperazine and cadaverine, were synthesized and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. Among the target compounds, several ones showed antimicrobial activity on Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. The most active compounds were 20 (Streptococcus mutans CCM 7409, 3.125 µM), 16 (Streptococcus mutans CCM 7409, 12...
October 31, 2017: Steroids
Chong Li, Jennifer M Brazill, Sha Liu, Christofer Bello, Yi Zhu, Marie Morimoto, Lauren Cascio, Rini Pauly, Zoraida Diaz-Perez, May Christine V Malicdan, Hongbo Wang, Luigi Boccuto, Charles E Schwartz, William A Gahl, Cornelius F Boerkoel, R Grace Zhai
Polyamines are tightly regulated polycations that are essential for life. Loss-of-function mutations in spermine synthase (SMS), a polyamine biosynthesis enzyme, cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS), an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome; however, little is known about the neuropathogenesis of the disease. Here we show that loss of dSms in Drosophila recapitulates the pathological polyamine imbalance of SRS and causes survival defects and synaptic degeneration. SMS deficiency leads to excessive spermidine catabolism, which generates toxic metabolites that cause lysosomal defects and oxidative stress...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
Hongwei Wang, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Xiaoyi Huang, Lin Li
This study aims at developing biocompatible starch based gene carriers with good gene delivery and transfection efficacy. By controlling the molecular weight and aggregation behavior of spermine modified cationic starch (CS) molecules, nanocomplexes spontaneously formed through electrostatic interaction using CS and plasmid pAcGFP1-C1 (pDNA) displaying different structural changes (particle size, zeta potential, shape, compactness) response to the simulated intracellular pH variation. Results indicated that CS2 with weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 6...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Takeshi Uemura, Tomokazu Takasaka, Kazuei Igarashi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Spermine oxidase (SMOX) catalyzes oxidation of spermine to generate spermidine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 3-aminopropanal, which is spontaneously converted to acrolein. SMOX is induced by a variety of stimuli including bacterial infection, polyamine analogues and acetaldehyde exposure. However, the physiological functions of SMOX are not yet fully understood. We investigated the physiological role of SMOX in liver cells using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. SMOX localized to the bile canalicular lumen, as determined by F-actin staining...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Antonio F Tiburcio, Rubén Alcázar
The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine have been implicated in a myriad of biological functions in many organisms. Research done during the last decades has accumulated a large body of evidence demonstrating that polyamines are key modulators of plant growth and development. Different experimental approaches have been employed including the measurement of endogenous polyamine levels and the activities of polyamine metabolic enzymes, the study of the effects resulting from exogenous polyamine applications and chemical or genetic manipulation of endogenous polyamine titers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kazuei Igarashi, Takeshi Uemura, Keiko Kashiwagi
It is thought that the major factor responsible for cell damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS), but our recent studies have shown that acrolein (CH2=CH-CHO) produced from spermine and spermidine is more toxic than ROS. Thus, (1) the mechanism of acrolein production during brain stroke, (2) one of the mechanisms of acrolein toxicity, and (3) the role of glutathione in acrolein detoxification are described in this chapter.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Koichi Takao, Yoshiaki Sugita
A method for determining spermine oxidase activity is described using the pentamine 1,16-diamino-4,8,13-triazahexadecane (3343) as the substrate, coupled with o-phthalaldehyde-post-label ion-exchange HPLC. The synthesis of 3343 is also described.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antonio F Tiburcio, Rubén Alcázar
The synthesis of spermidine, spermine and thermospermine requires the addition of aminopropyl groups from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dSAM). The synthesis of dSAM is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. dSAM levels are usually low, which constitutes a rate-limiting factor in the synthesis of polyamines. In this chapter, we provide a protocol for the determination of SAMDC activity in plants through the detection of radiolabelled CO2 released during the SAMDC reaction.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cristina Tortolini, Gabriele Favero, Franco Mazzei
In this work a detailed description of the development of amine oxidase-based electrochemical biosensors for the selective determination of the biogenic amines is presented. The enzymes required for this operation are Polyamine Oxidase (PAO) and Spermine Oxidase (SMO) which are physically entrapped in poly(vinyl alcohol) bearing styrylpyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ), a photo-cross-linkable gel, onto screen printed electrode (SPE) surface. The developed biosensors are deeply characterized in the analysis of biogenic amines by using flow injection amperometric (FIA) technique...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Taku Takahashi, Ayaka Takano, Jun-Ichi Kakehi
Thermospermine, a structural isomer of spermine, is widely spread in the plant kingdom and has recently been shown to play a key role in the repression of xylem differentiation in vascular plants. However, a standard high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) protocol for detecting polyamines as their dansyl derivative cannot distinguish themospermine from spermine. These isomers become separated from each other after benzoylation. In this chapter, we describe a simple protocol for extraction, benzoylation, and HPLC detection of thermospermine and spermine with other polyamines from plant material...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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