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Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hao Chen, Yueyue Chen, Han Wu, Jiang-Fei Xu, Zhiwei Sun, Xi Zhang
We develop a strategy of supramolecular polymeric chemotherapy based on a new kind of water-soluble polymer that bears cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in the main-chain. To this end, we synthesized a bis-alkynyl functionalized CB[7] and polymerized it with α,ω-diazide-PEG through click reaction to form the desired CB[7] based main-chain polymer (poly-CB[7]). Anticancer drug, oxaliplatin, could be encapsulated into the cavity of poly-CB[7] to form a supramolecular polymeric complex, which displayed low cytotoxicity to normal cells...
February 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Huiling Wang, Menglan Zhao, Jialong Chen, Yixian Ren, Guanghai Wang, Wenjun Li, Fei Zou
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. The etiology of sporadic PD remains unknown. One prominent hypothesis is that impaired mitochondrial function may underlie slow and progressive neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a crucial component that regulates the intramitochondrial Ca level. Ca uptake to the mitochondria by MCU, resulting in activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and stimulation of ATP synthesis, but excessive Ca uptake to the mitochondria resulting in cell apoptosis...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
T J Thomas, Thresia Thomas
Polyamine levels are elevated in breast tumors compared to those of adjacent normal tissues. The female sex hormone, estrogen is implicated in the origin and progression of breast cancer. Estrogens stimulate and antiestrogens suppress the expression of polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylate (ODC). Using several bis(ethyl)spermine analogues, we found that these analogues inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells in culture. There was structure-activity relationship in the efficacy of these compounds in suppressing cell growth...
March 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Stephen Shinsky, David W Christianson
Polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are small aliphatic cations that serve myriad biological functions in all forms of life. While polyamine biosynthesis and cellular trafficking pathways are generally well defined, it is only recently that the molecular basis of reversible polyamine acetylation has been established. In particular, enzymes that catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions have been identified and structurally characterized: histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) from Homo sapiens and Danio rerio (zebrafish) is a highly specific N8-acetylspermidine deacetylase, and its prokaryotic counterpart, acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) from Mycoplana ramosa, is a broad-specificity polyamine deacetylase...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Tetsushi Nakajima, Kenji Katsumata, Hiroshi Kuwabara, Ryoko Soya, Masanobu Enomoto, Tetsuo Ishizaki, Akihiko Tsuchida, Masayo Mori, Kana Hiwatari, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Masahiro Sugimoto
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most daunting diseases due to its increasing worldwide prevalence, which requires imperative development of minimally or non-invasive screening tests. Urinary polyamines have been reported as potential markers to detect CRC, and an accurate pattern recognition to differentiate CRC with early stage cases from healthy controls are needed. Here, we utilized liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to profile seven kinds of polyamines, such as spermine and spermidine with their acetylated forms...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tinkara Mastnak, Aleksandra Lobnik, Gerhard J Mohr, Matejka Turel
The synthesis of two new azobenzene dyes, namely CR-528 and CR-555, and their spectral properties in ethanol solution are described. The recognition of sulfur-containing analytes (2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)), and biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, ethanolamine) bestowed significant spectral changes with color changes from pink/purple to pale yellow/orange-yellow. The nitro acceptor group in the dicyanovinyl reactive dye contributes to higher sensitivity and lower detected analyte concentrations...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Laura Itzel Quintas-Granados, Laura Isabel Vázquez-Carrillo, Jonathan Puente-Rivera, Alma Villalobos-Osnaya, María Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Minerva Camacho-Nuez
Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis produces a malodorous seropurulent vaginal discharge due to several chemicals, including polyamines. The presence of 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) reduces the amount of intracellular putrescine by 90%, preventing the cotransport of exogenous spermine. DAB-treated parasites present morphological changes, which are restored by adding exogenous putrescine into the culture medium. However, the effect of polyamines over the trichomonad proteomic profile is unknown. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the polyamine-depletion and restoration effect by exogenous putrescine on T...
March 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Laura Recalde, Analía Vázquez, María D Groppa, María Patricia Benavides
Polyamines (PAs) produce H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) during their normal catabolism and modulate plant growth and development. To explore the biochemical basis of PAs-induced growth inhibition in Triticum aestivum L seedlings, we examined the role of O2 ·- , H2 O2 or NO in shoot and root development. Although all PA treatments resulted in a variable reduction of root and shoot elongation, spermine (Spm) caused the greater inhibition in a similar way to that observed with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
March 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Hang Su, Yun-Tong Jiao, Fang-Fang Wang, Yue-E Liu, Wei-Li Niu, Guo-Tian Liu, Yan Xu
Putrescine and spermidine increase the transformation efficiency of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson seedless. Accumulation of VpPR10.1 in transgenic V. vinifera Thompson seedless, likely increases its resistance to downy mildew. A more efficient method is described for facilitating Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless somatic embryogenesis using polyamines (PAs). The efficacies of putrescine, spermidine and spermine are identified at a range of concentrations (10 µM, 100 µM and 1 mM) added to the culture medium during somatic embryo growth...
March 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ai Kanemura, Yuko Yoshikawa, Wakao Fukuda, Kanta Tsumoto, Takahiro Kenmotsu, Kenichi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Polyamines have various biological functions including marked effects on the structure and function of genomic DNA molecules. Changes in the higher-order structure of DNA caused by polyamines are expected to be closely related to genetic activity. To clarify this issue, we examined the relationship between gene expression and the higher-order structure of DNA under different polyamine concentrations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of polyamines, spermidine SPD(3+) and spermine SP(4+), on gene expression by a luciferase assay...
2018: PloS One
Ajda Coker Gurkan, Elif Damla Arisan, Pinar Obakan Yerlikaya, Halime Ilhan, Narcin Palavan Unsal
PURPOSE: One of the recently developed polyamine (PA) analogues, N1 ,N11 -diethylnorspermine (DENSpm), has been found to act as an apoptotic inducer in melanoma, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells. Also, its potential to induce autophagy has been established. Unfolded protein responses and starvation of amino acids are known to trigger autophagy. As yet, however, the molecular mechanism underlying PA deficiency-induced autophagy is not fully clarified. Here, we aimed to determine the apoptotic effect of DENSpm after autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or siRNA-mediated Beclin-1 silencing in colon cancer cells...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Yuanyuan Tang, Sufang Liu, Hui Shu, Ying Xing, Feng Tao
Migraine is the third most common disease worldwide; however, the mechanisms underlying migraine headache are still not fully understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor phosphorylation plays an important role in central sensitization of pain transmission. In the present study, we observed that AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser831 phosphorylation was enhanced in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) after intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTG)...
February 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Nam Hoon Kim, Wooseup Hwang, Kangkyun Baek, Md Rumum Rohman, Jeehong Kim, Hyun Woo Kim, Jungho Mun, So Young Lee, Gyeongwon Yun, James Murray, Ji Won Ha, Junsuk Rho, Martin Moskovits, Kimoon Kim
Single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) offers new opportunities for exploring the complex chemical and biological processes that cannot be easily probed using ensemble techniques. However, the ability to place the single molecule of interest reliably within a hot spot, to enable its analysis at the single-molecule level, remains challenging. Here we describe a novel strategy for locating and securing a single target analyte in a SERS hot spot at a plasmonic nanojunction. The "smart" hot spot was generated by employing a thiol-functionalized cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) as a molecular spacer linking a silver nanoparticle to a metal substrate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Takashi Masuko, Koichi Takao, Keijiro Samejima, Akira Shirahata, Kazuei Igarashi, Robert A Casero, Yasuo Kizawa, Yoshiaki Sugita
Inhibitors for polyamine oxidizing enzymes, spermine oxidase (SMOX) and N1 -acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAOX), were designed and evaluated for their effectiveness in a photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) mouse model. N1 -Nonyl-1,4-diaminobutane (C9-4) and N1 -tridecyl-1,4-diaminobutane (C13-4) competitively inhibited the activity of PAOX and SMOX in a manner comparable to N1 ,N4 -bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butanediamine (MDL72527), an irreversible inhibitor of both enzymes. The two compounds were then tested for their effects in the PIT model...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Miao Chen, Jingjing Chen, Na Luo, Rongda Qu, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
Dwarfism and drought tolerance are two valuable traits in breeding of many crops. In this study we report the novel physiological roles of cholesterol in regulation of plant growth and drought tolerance. Compared to the wild type, sterol-C24-methyltransferase 1 (SMT1) gene transcript was greatly reduced in a bermudagrass mutant with dwarfism and enhanced drought tolerance, accompanied with cholesterol accumulation, elevated transcript levels of a small group of genes including SAMDC, and increased concentrations of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)...
February 21, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jaana Vuosku, Katja Karppinen, Riina Muilu-Mäkelä, Tomonobu Kusano, G H M Sagor, Komlan Avia, Emmi Alakärppä, Johanna Kestilä, Marko Suokas, Kaloian Nickolov, Leena Hamberg, Outi Savolainen, Hely Häggman, Tytti Sarjala
Background and Aims: Polyamines are small metabolites present in all living cells and play fundamental roles in numerous physiological events in plants. The aminopropyltransferases (APTs), spermidine synthase (SPDS), spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (ACL5), are essential enzymes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. In angiosperms, SPMS has evolved from SPDS via gene duplication, whereas in gymnosperms APTs are mostly unexplored and no SPMS gene has been reported...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
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