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Air transport medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608962/image-based-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-the-lung-virtual-reality-or-new-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Jan De Backer, Haribalan Kumar
The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems...
June 13, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509774/the-role-of-the-anaesthesiologist-in-air-ambulance-medicine
#2
Stephen J M Sollid, Marius Rehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The care administered on air ambulances has become increasing complex. This has led to a discussion among experts as to whether air ambulance travel should be manned by physicians. This review provides evidence in support of anaesthesiologists being the physician-leaders in air ambulance medicine, because of their training in advanced airway management, critical care, and resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful prehospital care requires the ability to perform a complex set of advanced diagnostics and interventions...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502428/non-proximate-mass-spectrometry-using-a-heated-1-m-long-ptfe-tube-and-an-air-tight-apci-ion-source
#3
Dilshadbek T Usmanov, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Wada, Masaya Matsumura, Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura, Hiroshi Nonami, Shinichi Yamabe
Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device...
June 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398905/an-integrated-model-of-scintillator-reflector-properties-for-advanced-simulations-of-optical-transport
#4
Emilie Roncali, Mariele Stockhoff, Simon R Cherry
Accurately modeling the light transport in scintillation detectors is essential to design new detectors for nuclear medicine or high energy physics. Optical models implemented in software such as Geant4 and GATE suffer from important limitations that we addressed by implementing a new approach in which the crystal reflectance was computed from 3D surface measurements. The reflectance was saved in a look-up-table (LUT) then used in Monte Carlo simulation to determine the fate of optical photons. Our previous work using this approach demonstrated excellent agreement with experimental characterization of crystal light output in a limited configuration, i...
April 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236201/indoor-air-quality-in-public-utility-environments-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Monika Śmiełowska, Mariusz Marć, Bożena Zabiegała
Indoor air quality has been the object of interest for scientists and specialists from the fields of science such as chemistry, medicine and ventilation system design. This results from a considerable number of potential factors, which may influence the quality of the broadly understood indoor air in a negative way. Poor quality of indoor air in various types of public utility buildings may significantly affect an increase in the incidence of various types of civilisation diseases. This paper presents information about a broad spectrum of chemical compounds that were identified and determined in the indoor environment of various types of public utility rooms such as churches, museums, libraries, temples and hospitals...
April 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061918/clinical-experience-and-learning-style-of-flight-nurse-and-aeromedical-evacuation-technician-students
#6
Marla J De Jong, Susan F Dukes, Karey M Dufour, Darcy L Mortimer
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience and preferred learning style of U.S. Air Force flight nurses and aeromedical evacuation technicians are unknown. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, we gathered data regarding the clinical experience, level of comfort providing clinical care, and preferred learning style of 77 active duty (AD), Air Force Reserve (AFR), and Air National Guard (ANG) nurses enrolled in the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Flight Nurse course, and 121 AD, AFR, and ANG medical technicians enrolled in the Aeromedical Evacuation Technician course...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771338/tools-for-assessment-of-communication-skills-of-hospital-action-teams-a-systematic-review
#7
Shady A Rehim, Stephanie DeMoor, Richard Olmsted, Daniel L Dent, Jessica Parker-Raley
BACKGROUND: Hospital action teams comprise interdisciplinary health care providers working simultaneously to treat critically ill patients. Assessments designed to evaluate communication effectiveness or "nontechnical" performance of these teams are essential to minimize medical errors and improve team productivity. Although multiple communication tools are available, the characteristics and psychometric validity of these instruments have yet to be systematically compared. OBJECTIVE: To identify assessments used to evaluate the communication or "nontechnical" performance of hospital action teams and summarize evidence to develop and validate these instruments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738573/emergency-medicine-in-remote-regions
#8
EDITORIAL
Tia Renouf, Megan Pollard
Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today's learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions...
September 9, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627340/wake-sleep-transition-as-a-noisy-bifurcation
#9
Dong-Ping Yang, Lauren McKenzie-Sell, Angela Karanjai, P A Robinson
A recent physiologically based model of the ascending arousal system is used to analyze the dynamics near the transition from wake to sleep, which corresponds to a saddle-node bifurcation at a critical point. A normal form is derived by approximating the dynamics by those of a particle in a parabolic potential well with dissipation. This mechanical analog is used to calculate the power spectrum of fluctuations in response to a white noise drive, and the scalings of fluctuation variance and spectral width are derived versus distance from the critical point...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492568/a-versatile-modular-bioreactor-platform-for-tissue-engineering
#10
Sebastian Schuerlein, Thomas Schwarz, Steffan Krziminski, Sabine Gätzner, Anke Hoppensack, Ivo Schwedhelm, Matthias Schweinlin, Heike Walles, Jan Hansmann
Tissue Engineering (TE) bears potential to overcome the persistent shortage of donor organs in transplantation medicine. Additionally, TE products are applied as human test systems in pharmaceutical research to close the gap between animal testing and the administration of drugs to human subjects in clinical trials. However, generating a tissue requires complex culture conditions provided by bioreactors. Currently, the translation of TE technologies into clinical and industrial applications is limited due to a wide range of different tissue-specific, non-disposable bioreactor systems...
February 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379221/transportation-of-critically-ill-patients-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#11
REVIEW
L Mikael Broman, Björn Frenckner
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be a life-saving procedure for patients with severe reversible pulmonary or cardiac failure or for patients in need for a bridge to transplantation. ECMO is provided by specialized centers, but patients in need of ECMO are frequently taken care of at other centers. Conventional transports to an ECMO center can be hazardous and deaths have been described. For this reason, many ECMO centers have developed transport programs with mobile ECMO. After request, the mobile team including all necessary equipment to initiate ECMO is sent to the referring hospital, where the patient is cannulated and ECMO commenced...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057583/the-creation-of-a-biocontainment-unit-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-the-johns-hopkins-medicine-experience
#12
Brian T Garibaldi, Gabor D Kelen, Roy G Brower, Gregory Bova, Neysa Ernst, Mallory Reimers, Ronald Langlotz, Anatoly Gimburg, Michael Iati, Christopher Smith, Sally MacConnell, Hailey James, John J Lewin, Polly Trexler, Meredith A Black, Chelsea Lynch, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Lori J Sokoll, Karen C Carroll, Nicole M Parish, Kim Dionne, Elizabeth L D Biddison, Howard S Gwon, Lauren Sauer, Peter Hill, Scott M Newton, Margaret R Garrett, Redonda G Miller, Trish M Perl, Lisa L Maragakis
In response to the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, Johns Hopkins Medicine created a biocontainment unit to care for patients infected with Ebola virus and other high-consequence pathogens. The unit team examined published literature and guidelines, visited two existing U.S. biocontainment units, and contacted national and international experts to inform the design of the physical structure and patient care activities of the unit. The resulting four-bed unit allows for unidirectional flow of providers and materials and has ample space for donning and doffing personal protective equipment...
May 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955943/non-technical-skills-evaluation-in-the-critical-care-air-ambulance-environment-introduction-of-an-adapted-rating-instrument-an-observational-study
#13
Julia A Myers, David M C Powell, Alex Psirides, Karyn Hathaway, Sarah Aldington, Michael F Haney
BACKGROUND: In the isolated and dynamic health-care setting of critical care air ambulance transport, the quality of clinical care is strongly influenced by non-technical skills such as anticipating, recognising and understanding, decision making, and teamwork. However there are no published reports identifying or applying a non-technical skills framework specific to an intensive care air ambulance setting. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate a non-technical skills rating framework for the air ambulance clinical environment...
March 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955878/nanotechnology-for-the-environment-and-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Patrizia Formoso, Rita Muzzalupo, Lorena Tavano, Giovanni De Filpo, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta
Nanotechnology encompasses the production and applications of physical, chemical, and biological systems at scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to around 100 nanometres, as well as the integration of the resulting nanostructures into larger systems. Nanomaterials differ from bulk materials for their relatively larger surface-area-to-mass ratio, consequently they become more chemically reactive and can show different optical, magnetic and electrical behaviours. In recent years, engineered nanomaterials have gained a particular attention in some fields such as environmental protection (soil, air and water remediation/treatment) and medicine (bio-sensing, imaging, and drug delivery)...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926476/using-drugs-to-probe-the-variability-of-trans-epithelial-airway-resistance
#15
Kendra Tosoni, Diane Cassidy, Barry Kerr, Stephen C Land, Anil Mehta
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine aims to combat the variability of the therapeutic response to a given medicine by delivering the right medicine to the right patient. However, the application of precision medicine is predicated on a prior quantitation of the variance of the reference range of normality. Airway pathophysiology provides a good example due to a very variable first line of defence against airborne assault. Humans differ in their susceptibility to inhaled pollutants and pathogens in part due to the magnitude of trans-epithelial resistance that determines the degree of epithelial penetration to the submucosal space...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895306/a-stochastic-model-of-carbon-nanotube-deposition-in-the-airways-and-alveoli-of-the-human-respiratory-tract
#16
Robert Sturm
CONTEXT: In the past two decades, possible exposure of workers to nanoparticles has excited the attention of occupational medicine, resulting in the conception of related risk assessments. Although most nanoparticles have been categorized as hazardous substances in the meantime, their behavior in the human respiratory tract still bears some enigmas, which require clarification. OBJECTIVES: The study pursues the goal to provide detailed theoretical lung deposition data of carbon nanotubes (CNT) with various diameters and lengths...
2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842343/an-overview-of-occupational-risks-from-climate-change
#17
REVIEW
Katie M Applebaum, Jay Graham, George M Gray, Peter LaPuma, Sabrina A McCormick, Amanda Northcross, Melissa J Perry
Changes in atmosphere and temperature are affecting multiple environmental indicators from extreme heat events to global air quality. Workers will be uniquely affected by climate change, and the occupational impacts of major shifts in atmospheric and weather conditions need greater attention. Climate change-related exposures most likely to differentially affect workers in the USA and globally include heat, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, other chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms, vector-borne diseases, violence, and wildfires...
March 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700302/portrait-of-rural-emergency-departments-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-and-utilization-of-the-provincial-emergency-department-management-guide-cross-sectional-survey
#18
Richard Fleet, Julien Poitras, Patrick Archambault, Fatoumata Korika Tounkara, Jean-Marc Chauny, Mathieu Ouimet, Josée Gauthier, Gilles Dupuis, Alain Tanguay, Jean-Frédéric Lévesque, Geneviève Simard-Racine, Jeannie Haggerty, France Légaré
BACKGROUND: Rural emergency departments (EDs) constitute crucial safety nets for the 20% of Canadians who live in rural areas. Pilot data suggests that the province of Québec appears to provide more comprehensive access to services than do other provinces. A difference that may be attributable to provincial policy/guidelines "the provincial ED management Guide". The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of rural EDs in Québec and utilization of the provincial ED management Guide...
2015: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26482350/the-role-of-medical-air-rescue-services-in-medical-transport-of-organ-recipients-in-poland-organizational-solutions-supporting-transplantation-medicine
#19
Robert Gałązkowski, Agata Pawlak, Daniel Rabczenko, Grzegorz Michalak, Michał M Farkowski, Roman Danielewicz, Maciej Sterliński
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of fixed-wing air ambulance (FWAA) services in Poland during the period 2012-2013, with particular emphasis on air transport of organ recipients to transplantation centers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of data derived from standard FWAA medical documentation. RESULTS: In the years 2012-2013 there were 500 emergency (52.7%) and 447 elective (47...
2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26334607/guidelines-for-the-management-of-a-pregnant-trauma-patient
#20
Venu Jain, Radha Chari, Sharon Maslovitz, Dan Farine, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Melanie Basso, Hayley Bos, Richard Brown, Stephanie Cooper, Katy Gouin, N Lynne McLeod, Savas Menticoglou, William Mundle, Christy Pylypjuk, Anne Roggensack, Frank Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: Physical trauma affects 1 in 12 pregnant women and has a major impact on maternal mortality and morbidity and on pregnancy outcome. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to optimize outcome for both the mother and her fetus. The aim of this document is to provide the obstetric care provider with an evidence-based systematic approach to the pregnant trauma patient. OUTCOMES: Significant health and economic outcomes considered in comparing alternative practices...
June 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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