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Kunal K Sindhu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive reduction of glomerular filtration rate and subsequent retention of organic waste compounds called uremic toxins. While patients with CKD are at a higher risk of premature death due to cardiovascular complications, this increased risk cannot be completely explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Instead, recent research suggests that uremic toxins may play a key role in explaining this marked increase in cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Yang Ou, Shang-Jui Wang, Dawei Li, Bo Chu, Wei Gu
Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ayesha Kabir, Devawati Dutta, Chhabinath Mandal, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
A major thrust of anticancer therapeutics is the dynamic quest for small molecules that binds and modifies nucleic acids and proteins effectively. The role of tRNA in the protein translational machinery and the influence of polyamines on the interaction of acylated and deacylated tRNA to ribosomes,47-48 make polyamine-tRNA interactions conspicuous. Therefore, we have studied the interaction of two biogenic polyamines spermine and spermidine with tRNAPhe and compared the interaction with the polyamine analog, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine to fathom the thermodynamic and structural basis of the binding interaction...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michał Baciak, Łukasz Sikorski, Agnieszka I Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Barbara Adomas
Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated...
September 9, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Varun K Gupta, Ulrike Pech, Anuradha Bhukel, Andreas Fulterer, Anatoli Ender, Stephan F Mauermann, Till F M Andlauer, Emmanuel Antwi-Adjei, Christine Beuschel, Kerstin Thriene, Marta Maglione, Christine Quentin, René Bushow, Martin Schwärzel, Thorsten Mielke, Frank Madeo, Joern Dengjel, André Fiala, Stephan J Sigrist
Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that specifically colonizes the gastric ecological niche. During the infectious process, which results in diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, the host response is characterized by the activation of the innate immunity of gastric epithelial cells and macrophages. These cells thus produce effector molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to counteract the infection. The generation of ROS in response to H. pylori involves two canonical pathways: 1) the NADPH-dependent reduction of molecular oxygen to generate O2(•-), which can dismute to generate ROS; and 2) the back-conversion of the polyamine spermine into spermidine through the enzyme spermine oxidase, leading to H2O2 production...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Steven D Aird, Alejandro Villar Briones, Michael C Roy, Alexander S Mikheyev
While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid) for spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Most venoms contained all four polyamines, although some in essentially trace quantities. Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g); however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed...
2016: Toxins
Tracy R Murray-Stewart, Patrick M Woster, Robert A Casero
The chemically simple, biologically complex eukaryotic polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are positively charged alkylamines involved in many crucial cellular processes. Along with their diamine precursor putrescine, their normally high intracellular concentrations require fine attenuation by multiple regulatory mechanisms to keep these essential molecules within strict physiologic ranges. Since the metabolism of and requirement for polyamines are frequently dysregulated in neoplastic disease, the metabolic pathway and functions of polyamines provide rational drug targets; however, these targets have been difficult to exploit for chemotherapy...
October 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Janina Sprenger, Jannette Carey, Bo Svensson, Verena Wengel, Lo Persson
The aminopropyltransferase spermidine synthase (SpdS) is a promising drug target in cancer and in protozoan diseases including malaria. Plasmodium falciparum SpdS (PfSpdS) transfers the aminopropyl group of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcAdoMet) to putrescine or to spermidine to form spermidine or spermine, respectively. In an effort to understand why efficient inhibitors of PfSpdS have been elusive, the present study uses enzyme activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry with verified or predicted inhibitors of PfSpdS to analyze the relationship between binding affinity as assessed by KD and inhibitory activity as assessed by IC50...
2016: PloS One
Mario Maresca, Laura Micheli, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Barbara Tenci, Marzia Innocenti, Mohamad Khatib, Nadia Mulinacci, Carla Ghelardini
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Capparis spinosa L. originates from dry regions of Asia and Mediterranean basin. In traditional medicine of these areas, infusions from caper root are considered to be beneficial for the treatment of rheumatism, gout and against abdominal pains. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the pain relieving properties of a Syrian cultivar of Capparis spinosa roots in rat models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Decoction (DEC) and hydroalcoholic extract (EtH2O) were obtained from powdered roots; the latter was further separated in CH2Cl2 and aqueous (H2O-Res) fractions...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rosa Guarcello, Maria De Angelis, Luca Settanni, Sabino Formiglio, Raimondo Gaglio, Fabio Minervini, Giancarlo Moschetti, Marco Gobbetti
: Accumulation of biogenic amines (BAs) in cheese and other foods is a matter of public health concern. This study aimed at identifying enzyme activities responsible for BAs degradation in lactic acid bacteria, which were previously isolated from traditional Sicilian and Apulian cheeses. Selected strains would control the concentration of BAs during cheese manufacture. First, 431 isolates, not showing genes encoding for decarboxylases responsible for BA formation, were selected using PCR-based methods...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Gilles Simard, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Zainab Safiedeen, Delphine Prunier-Mirebeau, Stéphanie Chupin, Cédric Gadras, Lydie Tessier, Naïg Gueguen, Arnaud Chevrollier, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Marc Ferré, Céline Bris, Judith Kouassi Nzoughet, Cinzia Bocca, Stéphanie Leruez, Christophe Verny, Dan Miléa, Dominique Bonneau, Guy Lenaers, M Carmen Martinez, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (MIM#535000), the commonest mitochondrial DNA-related disease, is caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I. The clinical expression of the disorder, usually occurring in young adults, is typically characterized by subacute, usually sequential, bilateral visual loss, resulting from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As the precise action of mitochondrial DNA mutations on the overall cell metabolism in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is unknown, we investigated the metabolomic profile of the disease...
September 15, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Xiaole Xia, Qingwen Zhang, Bin Zhang, Wuji Zhang, Wu Wang
Inspired by concerns about food safety, the metabolic landscape of biogenic amines (BAs) was elucidated during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine fermentation. The main fermentation process represented the largest contribution to BA formation, which corresponded to 69.1% (54.3 mg/L). Principal component analysis revealed that total acid and ethanol were strongly correlated with BAs, indicating that BA formation favored acidic and stressful conditions. Other than putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM), 5 BAs exhibited strong relationships with the precursor amino acids (R(2) > 0...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Weifeng Yao, Hui Li, Qinan Liu, Ye Gao, Jin Dai, Beihua Bao, Li Zhang, Anwei Ding
Amentoflavone is one of the important bioactive flavonoids in the ethylacetate extract of "Cebaiye", which is a blood cooling and hematostatic herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The previous work in our group has demonstrated that the ethylacetate extract of Cebaiye has a notable antagonistic effect on the injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The present investigation was designed to assess the effects and possible mechanism of cytoprotection of amentoflavone via metabolomics...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aradhana Chopra, Swati Krishnan, Friedrich C Simmel
DNA origami structures are artificial molecular nanostructures in which DNA double helices are forced into a closely packed configuration by a multitude of DNA strand crossovers. We show that three different types of origami structures (a flat sheet, a hollow tube, and a compact origami block) can be formed in magnesium-free buffer solutions containing low (<1 mM) concentrations of the condensing agent spermidine. Much like in DNA condensation, the amount of spermidine required for origami folding is proportional to the DNA concentration...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Oliver Gräb, Maryna Abacilar, Fabian Daus, Armin Geyer, Claudia Steinem
Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) are intimately involved in the biomineralization process of diatoms taking place in silica deposition vesicles being acidic compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Here, we addressed the question whether and how LCPAs interact with lipid membranes composed of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids mimicking the membranes of diatoms and higher plants. Solid supported lipid bilayers and monolayers containing the three major components that are unique in diatoms and higher plants, i...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Katalin Gemes, Yu Jung Kim, Ky Young Park, Panagiotis Nikolaou Moschou, Efthimios Andronis, Chryssanthi Valassakis, Andreas Roussis, Kalliopi A Roubelakis-Angelakis
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generating and scavenging pathways balance ROS levels. The intracellular NADPH-oxidase is considered as the primary ROS-generating source in cells. Recently, the apoplastic polyamine (PA) oxidase (PAO) emerged as a significant ROS source in plants. The apoplastic PAO catalyzes the oxidation of the higher PAs, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and is considered as a secondary ROS-generating source. Here we unravel a feedback loop that controls ROS burst under salinity and includes NADPH-oxidase and PAO...
September 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
Shih-Yi Sheu, Li-Ping Liu, Wen-Ming Chen
A bacterial strain designated STM-24T was isolated from a spring in Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain STM-24T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly--hydroxybutyrate-accumulating, non-motile, rod-shaped and forming light yellow-colored colonies. Growth occurred at 15-30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0) and with 0-0.5 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain STM-24T belonged to the genus Novosphingobium and was most closely related to Novosphingobium piscinae SLH-16T with sequence similarity of 98...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
William M Aumiller, Fatma Pir Cakmak, Bradley W Davis, Christine D Keating
Liquid-liquid phase separation is responsible for formation of P granules, nucleoli, and other membraneless subcellular organelles composed of RNA and proteins. Efforts to understand the physical basis of liquid organelle formation have thus far focused on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) as major components that dictate occurrence and properties. Here, we show that complex coacervates composed of low complexity RNA (polyuridylic acid, polyU) and short polyamines (spermine and spermidine) share many features of IDP-based coacervates...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tik-Hung Tsoi, Chi-Fai Chan, Wai-Lun Chan, Ka-Fung Chiu, Wing-Tak Wong, Chi-Fai Ng, Ka-Leung Wong
Current screening methods towards prostate cancer (PCa) are not without limitations. Research work has been on-going to assess if there are other better tests suitable for primary or secondary screening of PCa to supplement the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, which fails to work accurately in a grey zone of 4-10ng/ml. In this pilot study, the potential roles of urinary polyamines as prostate cancer biomarkers were evaluated. PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and healthy controls (HC) showing PSA>4...
2016: PloS One
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