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Lim Hui Kheng, Anisa B Rahim, Vonny Ivon Leo, Das Shatarupa, Thiam Chye Lim, Takeshi Uemura, Kazuei Igarashi, John Common, Leah A Vardy
Wound healing is a dynamic process involving gene-expression changes that drive re-epithelialization. Here, we describe an essential role for polyamine regulator, AMD1 in driving cell migration at the wound edge. The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine are small cationic molecules that play essential roles in many cellular processes. We demonstrate that AMD1, is rapidly upregulated following wounding in human skin biopsies. Knockdown of AMD1 with shRNAs causes a delay in cell migration that is rescued by the addition of spermine...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Andreas Zimmermann, Sebastian Hofer, Tobias Pendl, Katharina Kainz, Frank Madeo, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez
In the search for interventions against aging and age-related diseases, biological screening platforms are indispensable tools to identify anti-aging compounds among large substance libraries. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as a powerful chemical and genetic screening platform, as it combines a rapid workflow with experimental amenability and the availability of a wide range of genetic mutant libraries. Given the amount of conserved genes and aging mechanisms between yeast and human, testing candidate anti-aging substances in yeast gene-deletion or overexpression collections, or de novo derived mutants, has proven highly successful in finding potential molecular targets...
September 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Miao Yu, Chunlong Mu, Chuanjian Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host's later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotics from postnatal days 7-23 ( n = 8)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dong-Hun Bae, Darius J R Lane, Patric J Jansson, Des R Richardson
Polyamines are ubiquitous positively charged amines found in all organisms. These molecules play a crucial role in many biological functions including cell growth, gene regulation and differentiation. The three major polyamines produced in all mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The intracellular levels of these polyamines depend on the interplay of the biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of the polyamine and methionine salvage pathway, as well as the involvement of polyamine transporters...
June 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anna Czajkowska-Mysłek, Joanna Leszczyńska
Baby food has never been the object of biogenic amine profiling. The aim of this study was to develop a highly sensitive method for analysis of biogenic amines in ready-to-eat baby foods. The principle of the developed method involves high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) of dansyl derivatives, presented also in comparison with common diode array and fluorescence detection systems. The confirmation of correct identification of derivatives was performed by in-source fragmentation of the product ion at 170  m / z , performed only in one MS analyzer...
2018: Chromatographia
Sunetra Sen, Daipayan Ghosh, Sridev Mohapatra
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a diverse group of beneficial soil bacteria that help plants in myriad ways. They are implicated in the processes of general growth and development, as well as stress mitigation. Although the physiology of plant-PGPR interaction for abiotic stress tolerance has been well reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms in this phenomenon are not clearly understood. Among the many endogenous molecules that have been reported to impart abiotic stress tolerance in plants are a group of aliphatic amines called polyamines...
May 31, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hélène Blasco, Franck Patin, Amandine Descat, Guillaume Garçon, Philippe Corcia, Patrick Gelé, Timothée Lenglet, Peter Bede, Vincent Meininger, David Devos, Jean François Gossens, Pierre-François Pradat
There is an urgent and unmet need for accurate biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. A pharmaco-metabolomics study was conducted using plasma samples from the TRO19622 (olesoxime) trial to assess the link between early metabolomic profiles and clinical outcomes. Patients included in this trial were randomized into either Group O receiving olesoxime (n = 38) or Group P receiving placebo (n = 36). The metabolomic profile was assessed at time-point one (V1) and 12 months (V12) after the initiation of the treatment...
2018: PloS One
Paul D Donovan, Linda M Holland, Lisa Lombardi, Aisling Y Coughlan, Desmond G Higgins, Kenneth H Wolfe, Geraldine Butler
Riboswitches are non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to specific ligands. They are primarily found in bacteria. However, one riboswitch type, the thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch, has also been described in some plants, marine protists and fungi. We find that riboswitches are widespread in the budding yeasts (Saccharomycotina), and they are most common in homologs of DUR31, originally described as a spermidine transporter. We show that DUR31 (an ortholog of N. crassa gene NCU01977) encodes a thiamin transporter in Candida species...
May 31, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Yuta Sugiyama, Misaki Nara, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Aya Kitakata, Shujiro Okuda, Shin Kurihara
Bifidobacteria are members of the human intestinal microbiota, being numerically dominant in the colon of infants, and also being prevalent in the large intestine of adults. In this study, we measured the concentrations of major polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in cells and culture supernatant of 13 species of human indigenous Bifidobacterium at growing and stationary phase. Except for Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium gallicum, 11 species contained spermidine and/or spermine when grown in Gifu-anaerobic medium (GAM)...
May 30, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xiaoqing Gong, Fangfang Dou, Xi Cheng, Jing Zhou, Yangjun Zou, Fengwang Ma
Polyamines (PAs) in plants are growth substrates with functions similar to phytohormones. Although they contribute to diverse processes, little is known about their role in stress responses, especially for perennial woody plants. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of 18 sequences involved in PA biosynthesis in the genome of apple (Malus domestica). Further analysis was performed to construct a phylogenetic tree, analyze their protein motifs and gene structures. In addition, we developed their expression profiles in response to stressed conditions...
May 22, 2018: Gene
Rui Kang, Guido Kroemer, Daolin Tang
Ferroptosis is a form of lipid peroxidation-induced cell death that can be regulated in many ways, from altering the activity of antioxidant enzymes to the level of transcription factors. The p53 tumor suppressor is 'the guardian of the genome' that participates in the control of cell survival and division under various stresses. Beyond its effects on apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle, p53 also regulates ferroptosis either through a transcriptional or posttranslational mechanism. On one hand, p53 can enhance ferroptosis by inhibiting the expression of SLC7A11 (solute carrier family 7 member 11) or by enhancing that of SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1) and GLS2 (glutaminase 2)...
May 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shih-Yi Sheu, Wei-Ting Chen, Chiu-Chung Young, Wen-Ming Chen
A bacterial strain designated TAPG2T was isolated from a freshwater creek in Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of TAPG2T were Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, short rods surrounded by a thick capsules and forming cream to dark-green colonies. Growth occurred at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 6.5-8 (optimum, pH 7) and with 0-1 % NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of TAPG2T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lijie Li, Wanrong Gu, Jing Li, Congfeng Li, Tenglong Xie, Danyang Qu, Yao Meng, Caifeng Li, Shi Wei
Drought stress (DS) is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to DS. The effects of exogenous Spd on plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and chloroplast ultrastructure as well as changes in endogenous polyamines (PAs) and phytohormones were investigate in DS-resistant (Xianyu 335) and DS-sensitive (Fenghe 1) maize seedlings under well-watered and DS treatments. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthesis rate (Pn ) and photochemical quenching (qP ) parameters, including the maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv /Fm ), PSII operating efficiency (ФPSII), and qP coefficient...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sophia Wedel, Maria Manola, Maria Cavinato, Ioannis P Trougakos, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
Organismal ageing is associated with increased chance of morbidity or mortality and it is driven by diverse molecular pathways that are affected by both environmental and genetic factors. The progression of ageing correlates with the gradual accumulation of stressors and damaged biomolecules due to the time-dependent decline of stress resistance and functional capacity, which eventually compromise cellular homeodynamics. As protein machines carry out the majority of cellular functions, proteome quality control is critical for cellular functionality and is carried out through the curating activity of the proteostasis network (PN)...
May 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jianqiang Wu, Sheng Shu, Chengcheng Li, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H2 O2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H2 O2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Darius J R Lane, Dong-Hun Bae, Aritee R Siafakas, Yohan Suryo Rahmanto, Lina Al-Akra, Patric J Jansson, Robert A Casero, Des R Richardson
Many biological processes result from the coupling of metabolic pathways. Considering this, proliferation depends on adequate iron and polyamines, and although iron-depletion impairs proliferation, the metabolic link between iron and polyamine metabolism has never been thoroughly investigated. This is important to decipher, as many disease states demonstrate co-dysregulation of iron and polyamine metabolism. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate that cellular iron levels robustly regulate 13 polyamine pathway proteins...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Shih-Yi Sheu, Cheng-Wen Huang, Jhen-Ci Chen, Zih-Han Chen, Wen-Ming Chen
A bacterial strain, designated Jyi-02T , was isolated from a flooded rice field in Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Jyi-02T were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and formed yellowish orange coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C (optimum, 20 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %, w/v). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain Jyi-02T were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 2-OH...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Shun Zhou, Jian Gu, Rui Liu, Song Wei, Qi Wang, Hongbing Shen, Yifan Dai, Haoming Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ling Lu
Liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs) and autophagy play critical roles in the pathogenesis of toxin-induced liver injury. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy can regulate macrophage M1/M2 polarization under different inflammatory conditions. Polyamines, including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (SPM), are polycations with anti-oxidative, anti-aging, and cell autophagy induction properties. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms by which SPM protects against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fuguang Xue, Xiaohua Pan, Linshu Jiang, Yuming Guo, Benhai Xiong
Introduction: Thiamine is known to attenuate high-concentrate diet induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The major objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of thiamine supplementation on high-concentrate diet induced SARA. Methods: Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Barbara Marzani, Daniela Pinto, Elisabetta Sorbellini, Fabio Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Considering the importance of hair in our modern society and the impact of hair loss, the efforts of researchers are addressed to better understand the mechanisms behind the hair cycle regulation and dysregulation. Because hair loss is multifactorial, differenced and new approaches are required. In particular we addressed our attention to two recently identified targets in hair cycling and growth control: olfactory receptor and autophagy. The aim of the study was to evaluate: the possible pro-autophagic effect of N1-methylspermidine (a spermidine analogue) in vitro and, in a double blind clinical trial, the safety and efficacy of topical daily application of a lotion containing N1-methylspermidine and Sandalore®...
June 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
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