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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232652/effect-of-ornithine-decarboxylase-and-norspermidine-in-modulating-cell-division-in-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#1
Annalisa Tassoni, Nahid Awad, Gareth Griffiths
The extensive genetic resources of Chlamydomonas has led to its widespread use as a model system for understanding fundamental processes in plant cells, including rates of cell division potentially modulated through polyamines. Putrescine was the major polyamine in both free (88%) and membrane-bound fractions (93%) while norspermidine was the next most abundant in these fractions accounting for 11% and 6%, respectively. Low levels of diaminopropane, spermidine and spermine were also observed although no cadaverine or norspermine were detected...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224337/spermidine-activated-satellite-cells-are-associated-with-hypoacetylation-in-acvr2b-and-smad3-binding-to-myogenic-genes-in-mice
#2
Luchu Zhang, Huiying Gong, Qinwei Sun, Ruqian Zhao, Yimin Jia
Spermidine is an acetyltransferase inhibitor and a specific inducer of autophagy. Recently, spermidine is identified as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related muscle atrophy and inherited myopathies. However, the effect of spermidine on non-pathological skeletal muscle remains unclear. In this study, long-term spermidine administration in mice lowered the mean cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle, and reduced the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the muscle, which was associated with ubiquitination...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216408/a-cold-responsive-erf-from-medicago-falcata-confers-cold-tolerance-by-up-regulation-of-polyamine-turnover-antioxidant-protection-and-proline-accumulation
#3
Chunliu Zhuo, Lu Liang, Yaqing Zhao, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
ERF subfamily transcription factors play an important role in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. A cold responsive ethylene responsive factor (ERF), MfERF1, was isolated from Medicago falcata, an important forage legume that has great cold tolerance. Overexpression of MfERF1 resulted in an increased tolerance to freezing and chilling in transgenic tobacco plants, while down-regulation of the ortholog of MfERF1 in M. truncatula resulted in reduced freezing tolerance in RNAi plants. Higher transcript levels of some stress responsive genes (CHN50, OSM, ERD10C, and SAMS) and those involved in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) synthesis (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SPDS1, SPDS2, and SPMS) and catabolism (PAO) were observed in transgenic plants than in WT...
December 7, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215586/investigation-of-polyamine-metabolism-and-homeostasis-in-pancreatic-cancers
#4
Chelsea Massaro, Jenna Thomas, Otto Phanstiel Iv
Pancreatic cancers are currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and new therapies are desperately needed. The most common pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This report describes the development of therapies, which effectively deplete PDAC cells of their required polyamine growth factors. Of all human tissues, the pancreas has the highest level of the native polyamine spermidine. To sustain their high growth rates, PDACs have altered polyamine metabolism, which is reflected in their high intracellular polyamine levels and their upregulated import of exogenous polyamines...
December 7, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214104/a-spermidine-based-nutritional-supplement-prolongs-the-anagen-phase-of-hair-follicles-in-humans-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#5
Fabio Rinaldi, Barbara Marzani, Daniela Pinto, Yuval Ramot
Background: Spermidine has been shown both in vitro and in mice models to have an anagen-prolonging effect on hair follicles (HFs). Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a spermidine-based nutritional supplement on the anagen phase of HFs in healthy human subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: One hundred healthy males and females were randomized to receive a tablet containing a spermidine-based nutritional supplement or a placebo once daily for 90 days...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205125/sphingopyxis-nepalensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-oil-contaminated-soil
#6
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
During a study of oil-degrading bacteria, three yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18, were isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal. The strains were able to grow at 15-37 °C, pH 4.5-10.0 and 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18 were characterized by multiple taxonomic approaches. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18 belonged to the genus Sphingopyxis and shared highest sequence similarity with Sphingopyxis ginsengisoliGsoil 250T (98...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196820/functional-roles-of-agmatinase-during-the-peri-implantation-period-of-pregnancy-in-sheep
#7
Yasser Y Lenis, Mohammed A Elmetwally, Wanjin Tang, Carey Satterfield, Kathrin Dunlap, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9)...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189891/coralloluteibacterium-stylophorae-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-lysobacteraceae-isolated-from-the-reef-building-coral-stylophora-sp
#8
Wen-Ming Chen, Pei-Bei Xie, Sen-Lin Tang, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated Sty a-1T, was isolated from a reef-building coral Stylophora sp., collected off coast of Southern Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Sty a-1T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating, motile by means of flagella, non-spore forming, straight rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 6.5-8) and with 0-7% NaCl (optimum, 2-3%)...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159700/expression-and-distribution-patterns-of-spermine-spermidine-and-putrescine-in-rat-hair-follicle
#9
Yutaro Yamamoto, Takamitsu Makino, Hideo Kudo, Hironobu Ihn, Yasuko Murakami, Senya Matsufuji, Kunio Fujiwara, Masashi Shin
No expression and distribution patterns of polyamines (PAs), spermine, spermidine, and their precursor putrescine in mammalian hair follicle are available, although polyamines are known to correlate well with hair growth and epidermal tumor genesis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using our original two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) ASPM-29 specific for spermine or spermidine, and APUT-32 specific for putrescine allowed us to detect immunoreactivity for polyamines in hair follicles from normal adult rats. A wide range of immunoreactivity for the total spermine and spermidine was observed in the compartments of hair follicle: The highest degree of immunoreactivity for polyamines was observed in the matrix, in the Huxley's layer, in the deeper Henle's layer, and in the cuticle of the inner root sheath/the hair cuticle, while moderate immunoreactivity existed in the lower-to-mid cortex and the companion layer, followed by lower immunoreactivity in the outer root sheath, including the bulge region and in the deeper medulla, in which the immunoreactivity was also evident in their nuclei...
November 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152037/complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-corrugata-strain-rm1-1-4-a-stress-protecting-agent-from-the-rhizosphere-of-an-oilseed-rape-bait-plant
#10
Christin Zachow, Henry Müller, Christina M Laireiter, Ralf Tilcher, Gabriele Berg
10.1601/nm.2592 strain RM1-1-4 is a rhizosphere colonizer of oilseed rape. A previous study has shown that this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective stress protecting and biocontrol agent, which protects their hosts against abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of P. corrugata RM1-1-4 consisting of a single 6.1 Mb circular chromosome that encodes 5189 protein coding genes and 85 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting functions such as detoxifying mechanisms, stress inhibitors, exoproteases, lipoproteins or volatile components as well as rhizobactin siderophores and spermidine...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147966/polyamine-concentration-is-increased-in-thoracic-ascending-aorta-of-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#11
Amalia Forte, Mario Grossi, Ciro Bancone, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Per Hellstrand, Lo Persson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Alessandro Della Corte
Polyamines are cationic molecules synthesized via a highly regulated pathway, obtained from the diet or produced by the gut microbiota. They are involved in general molecular and cellular phenomena that play a role also in vascular disease. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital malformation associated to a greater risk of thoracic ascending aorta (TAA) aneurysm, whose pathogenesis is not yet well understood. We focused on differential analysis of key members of polyamine pathway and on polyamine concentration in non-dilated TAA samples from patients with either stenotic tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) or BAV (diameter ≤ 45 mm), vs...
November 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143845/pulse-laser-induced-fragmentation-of-carbon-quantum-dots-a-structural-analysis
#12
Han-Wei Chu, Ju-Yi Mao, Chia-Wen Lien, Pang-Hung Hsu, Yu-Jia Li, Jui-Yang Lai, Tai-Chia Chiu, Chih-Ching Huang
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years owing to their low cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility and strong fluorescence. They have been successfully employed in sensor, bio-imaging, and drug carrier applications. A complete understanding of their core-surface structure is essential for tuning their physical and chemical properties for various applications. Conventional characterizations of CQDs are conducted with electron microscopy or spectroscopy, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142164/bacterial-degradation-of-spermine-and-expression-of-spermidine-spermine-acetyltransferase-in-bacillus-subtilis-natto-under-liquid-cultivation
#13
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuji Kubo, Yuichiro Horii, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Shin Kamiyama, Hideyuki Sone, Satoshi Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138259/spectroscopic-and-calorimetric-characterization-of-spermine-oxidase-and-its-association-forms
#14
Alessia Leonetti, Laura Cervoni, Fabio Polticelli, Yuta Kanamori, Zuleyha Nihan Yurtsever, Enzo Agostinelli, Paolo Mariottini, Pasquale Stano, Manuela Cervelli
Spermine oxidase (SMOX) is a flavin-containing enzyme that oxidizes spermine to produce spermidine, 3-aminopropanaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. SMOX has been shown to play key roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis; indeed it is differentially expressed in several human cancer types. Our previous investigation has revealed that SMOX purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli actually consists of monomers, covalent homodimers, and other higher-order forms. All association forms oxidise spermine and, after treatment with DTT, revert to SMOX monomer...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127816/comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-putrescine-and-spermidine-pre-treatment-on-cadmium-stress-in-wheat
#15
Judit Tajti, Tibor Janda, Imre Majláth, Gabriella Szalai, Magda Pál
In several cases a correlation was found between polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the individual polyamines may have different effects, which also vary depending on the type of treatment. When applied as seed soaking or added hydroponically 0.5mM putrescine and spermidine, different changes were induced during 50µM cadmium stress in wheat plants. Seed-soaked plants were exposed to cadmium immediately after germination for 5 days, while plants pre-treated with polyamines hydroponically were stressed at age of 14 days for 7 days...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127104/chemical-suppressors-of-mlo-mediated-powdery-mildew-resistance
#16
Hongpo Wu, Mark Kwaaitaal, Roxana Strugala, Ulrich Schaffrath, Pawel Bednarek, Ralph Panstruga
Loss of function of barley Mlo confers durable broad-spectrum penetration resistance to the barley powdery mildew pathogen , Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei ( Bgh ). Given the importance of mlo mutants in agriculture, surprisingly few molecular components have been identified to be required for this type of resistance in barley. With the aim to identify novel cellular factors contributing to mlo -based resistance, we devised a pharmacological inhibitor screen. Of the 41 rationally chosen compounds tested, five caused a partial suppression of mlo resistance in barley, indicated by increased levels of Bgh host cell entry...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123168/clinical-parameters-and-gut-microbiome-changes-before-and-after-surgery-in-thoracic-aortic-dissection-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-complications
#17
Shuai Zheng, Shulin Shao, Zhiyu Qiao, Xue Chen, Chunmei Piao, Ying Yu, Feng Gao, Jie Zhang, Jie Du
Thoracic aortic dissection (TAAD) is one of the most common types of aortic diseases. Although surgery remains the main method of treatment, the high rate of postoperative gastrointestinal complications significantly influences the effects of surgery and the recovery process. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying this disease remain unclear. To address these problems, we examined changes in the gut microbiota in 40 thoracic aortic dissection patients with abdominal complications after surgery. Levels of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophile granulocytes (NE), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in all patients after surgery...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123034/the-virulence-associated-protein-hsva-from-the-fire-blight-pathogen-erwinia-amylovora-is-a-polyamine-amidinotransferase
#18
Sreejesh Shanker, Grace K Schaefer, Benjamin K Barnhart, Vicki L Wallace-Kneale, Dorsin Chang, Thomas J Coyle, David A Metzler, Jeffrey Huang, Jeffrey A Lawton
Studies of virulence determinants in the bacterial phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora, the cause of devastating fire blight disease in apple and pear, have shown that HsvA, a putative amidinotransferase enzyme located in the Hrp pathogenicity island, is required for systemic infection in apple. However, the mechanism by which HsvA contributes to virulence is unclear. To investigate the role of HsvA in virulence, we carried out a series of biochemical and structural studies to characterize the amidinotransferase activity of HsvA...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116034/castellaniella-fermenti-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-fermented-meal
#19
Shih-Yao Lin, Asif Hameed, Yu-Ting Hsieh, Yi-Han Hsu, Wei-An Lai, Chiu-Chung Young
A polyphasic taxonomic approach was used to characterize a presumably novel bacterium, designated strain CC-YTH191(T), isolated from a fermented meal in Taiwan. Cells of strain CC-YTH191(T) were Gram-stain-negative aerobic rods, which grew at 15-40 °C (optimal 25-30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimal 7.0) and 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal 1 %). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-YTH191(T) appeared to belong to the genus Castellaniella, and was closely related to Castellaniella hirudinis (96...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109780/metabolomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-alternative-normalization-methods-reveal-enriched-metabolites-and-strategies-to-study-prostate-cancer-related-changes
#20
Maija Puhka, Maarit Takatalo, Maria-Elisa Nordberg, Sami Valkonen, Jatin Nandania, Maria Aatonen, Marjo Yliperttula, Saara Laitinen, Vidya Velagapudi, Tuomas Mirtti, Olli Kallioniemi, Antti Rannikko, Pia R-M Siljander, Taija Maria Af Hällström
Body fluids are a rich source of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which carry cargo derived from the secreting cells. So far, biomarkers for pathological conditions have been mainly searched from their protein, (mi)RNA, DNA and lipid cargo. Here, we explored the small molecule metabolites from urinary and platelet EVs relative to their matched source samples. As a proof-of-concept study of intra-EV metabolites, we compared alternative normalization methods to profile urinary EVs from prostate cancer patients before and after prostatectomy and from healthy controls...
2017: Theranostics
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