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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075556/biosynthesis-of-the-methylthioxylose-capping-motif-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Shiva Kumar Angala, Michael R McNeil, Libin Shi, Maju Joe, Ha Pham, Sophie Zuberogoitia, Jerome Nigou, Claudia M Boot, Todd L Lowary, Martine Gilleron, Mary Jackson
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipoglycan found in abundant quantities in the cell envelope of all mycobacteria. The non-reducing arabinan termini of LAM display species-specific structural micro-heterogeneity that impacts the biological activity of the entire molecule. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for instance, produces mannoside caps made of one to three α(1→2)-Manp-linked residues that may be further substituted with an α(1→4)-linked methylthio-D-xylose (MTX) residue. While the biological functions and catalytic steps leading to the formation of the mannoside caps of M...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070313/decarboxylase-positive-enterococcus-faecium-strains-isolated-from-rabbit-meat-and-their-sensitivity-to-enterocins
#2
Andrea Lauková, Renata Szabóová, Pavel Pleva, Leona Buňková, Ľubica Chrastinová
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine sensitivity of Enterococcus faecium strains from rabbit meat to enterocins. RESULTS: Twenty-five decarboxylase-positive strains (from rabbit meat) allotted to the species E. faecium by genotypization and by MALDI TOF MS spectrometry identification (evaluation score value range 2.104-2.359; in the range for highly probable species identification-score value 2.300-3.000 and secure probable species identification/probable species identification-2...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068214/paenibacillus-rhizoplanae-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-zea-mays
#3
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, John A McInroy, Chia-Hui Hu, Joseph W Kloepper, Stefanie P Glaeser
A Gram-positive staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays was studied for its detailed taxonomic allocation. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-64T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus silagei (99%) and Paenibacillus borealis (97.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other Paenibacillus species was ≤ 97.5%. DNA-DNA hybridization values to the type strains of P...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052993/spermine-and-spermidine-alter-gene-expression-and-antigenic-profile-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#4
Ying-Han Lin, Jesus A Romo, Trever C Smith, Ann N Reyes, S L Rajasekhar Karna, Christine L Miller, Tricia A Van Laar, Raghunandan Yendapally, James P Chambers, J Seshu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. Molecular mechanisms that enable B. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the borrelial genome revealed the presence of polyamine transport components (PotA, B, C and D) while homologs for polyamine biosynthesis were conspicuously absent...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052719/comparison-of-soybean-cultivars-for-enhancement-of-the-polyamine-contents-in-the-fermented-soybean-natto-using-bacillus-subtilis-natto
#5
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuichiro Horii, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuji Kubo, Kumiko Koguchi, Yoshihiro Hoshi, Ken-Ichi Matsumoto, Kuniyasu Soda
Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine...
January 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049439/exogenous-spermidine-improves-seed-germination-of-sweet-corn-via-involvement-in-phytohormone-interactions-h2o2-and-relevant-gene-expression
#6
Yutao Huang, Cheng Lin, Fei He, Zhan Li, Yajing Guan, Qijuan Hu, Jin Hu
BACKGROUND: The low seed vigor and poor field emergence are main factors that restricting the extension of sweet corn in China. Spermidine (Spd) plays an important role in plant growth and development, but little is known about the effect of Spd on sweet corn seed germination. Therefore the effect of exogenous Spd on seed germination and physiological and biochemical changes during seed imbibition of Xiantian No.5 were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Spd soaking treatment not only improved seed germination percentage but also significantly enhanced seed vigor which was indicated by higher germination index, vigor index, shoot heights and dry weights of shoot and root compared with the control; while exogenous CHA, the biosynthesis inhibitor of Spd, significantly inhibited seed germination and declined seed vigor...
January 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045514/specific-conformational-change-in-giant-dna-caused-by-anticancer-tetrazolato-bridged-dinuclear-platinum-ii-complexes-middle-length-alkyl-substituents-exhibit-minimum-effect
#7
Seiji Komeda, Hiroki Yoneyama, Masako Uemura, Akira Muramatsu, Naoto Okamoto, Hiroaki Konishi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Akimitsu Takagi, Wakao Fukuda, Tadayuki Imanaka, Toshio Kanbe, Shinya Harusawa, Yuko Yoshikawa, Kenichi Yoshikawa
Derivatives of the highly antitumor-active compound [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+) (5-H-Y), which is a tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, were prepared by substituting a linear alkyl chain moiety at C5 of the tetrazolate ring. The general formula for the derivatives is [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-5-R-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+), where R is (CH2)nCH3 and n = 0 to 8 (complexes 1-9). The cytotoxicity of complexes 1-4 in NCI-H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells decreased with increasing alkyl chain length, and those of complexes 5-9 increased with increasing alkyl chain length...
January 3, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043891/adaptive-responses-of-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-to-spermine-oxidase-overexpression-evaluation-of-a-new-transgenic-mouse-model
#8
Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Alessia Leonetti, Stefano Pietropaoli, Federico Spinozzi, Lucia Marcocci, Roberto Amendola, Francesco Cecconi, Stefania Sabatini, Paolo Mariottini, Manuela Cervelli
Spermine oxidase oxidizes spermine to produce H2O2, spermidine, and 3-aminopropanal. It is involved in cell drug response, apoptosis, and in the etiology of several pathologies, including cancer. Spermine oxidase is an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size and, when repressed, leads to muscle atrophy. We have generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Smox gene in all organs, named Total-Smox. The spermine oxidase overexpression was revealed by β-Gal staining and reverse-transcriptase/PCR analysis, in all tissues analysed...
December 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039518/polyamine-catabolism-adds-fuel-to-leaf-senescence
#9
REVIEW
E Sobieszczuk-Nowicka
Leaf senescence is a terminal step in plant growth and development. Considerable information on processes and signals involved in this process has been obtained, although comparatively little is known about leaf senescence in monocotyledonous plants. In particular, little is known about players involved in leaf senescence imposed by a prolonged dark treatment. New information has now been unveiled on dark-induced leaf senescence in a monocot, barley. A close association has been found between ubiquitous polyamines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence of barley leaves during prolonged darkness...
December 30, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034972/the-association-between-musculoskeletal-pain-and-circulating-ornithine-a-population-based-study
#10
Pekka Mäntyselkä, Toni Ali-Sisto, Hannu Kautiainen, Leo Niskanen, Heimo Viinamäki, Vidya Velagapudi, Soili M Lehto
OBJECTIVE:  Based on several previous clinical studies, we hypothesized that ornithine levels are different among subjects with persistent musculoskeletal pain compared with other subjects in the population. DESIGN:  The study sample consisted of 221 adults with nonpersistent pain, 76 with persistent pain, and 61 with no pain. Concentrations of glutamic acid, ornithine, citrulline, arginine, proline, and spermidine were analyzed using a mass spectrometer. SETTING:  Lapinlahti municipality in Finland...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029774/the-structure-of-murine-n-1-acetylspermine-oxidase-reveals-molecular-details-of-vertebrate-polyamine-catabolism
#11
Tove Sjögren, Carola M Wassvik, Arjan Snijder, Anna Aagaard, Taichi Kumanomidou, Louise Barlind, Tim P Kaminski, Akiko Kashima, Takehiro Yokota, Ola Fjellström
N(1)-Acetylspermine oxidase (APAO) catalyzes the conversion of N(1)-acetylspermine or N(1)-acetylspermidine to spermidine or putrescine, respectively, with concomitant formation of N-acetyl-3-aminopropanal and hydrogen peroxide. Here we present the structure of murine APAO in its oxidized holo form and in complex with substrate. The structures provide a basis for understanding molecular details of substrate interaction in vertebrate APAO, highlighting a key role for an asparagine residue in coordinating the N(1)-acetyl group of the substrate...
January 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026976/spermidine-boosts-autophagy-to-protect-from-synapse-aging
#12
Anuradha Bhukel, Frank Madeo, Stephan Sigrist
All animals form memories to adapt their behavior in a context-dependent manner. With increasing age, however, forming new memories becomes less efficient. While synaptic plasticity promotes memory formation, the etiology of age-induced memory formation remained enigmatic. Previous work showed that simple feeding of polyamine spermidine protects from age-induced memory impairment in Drosophila. Most recent work now shows that spermidine operates directly at synapses, allowing for an autophagy-dependent homeostatic regulation of presynaptic specializations...
December 27, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018606/characterization-of-spermidine-hydroxycinnamoyl-transferases-from-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l-and-its-wild-relative-solanum-richardii-dunal
#13
Hui Peng, Tianbao Yang, Bruce D Whitaker, Frances Trouth, Lingfei Shangguan, Wen Dong, Wayne M Jurick
Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004823/paclobutrazol-induces-tolerance-in-tomato-to-deficit-irrigation-through-diversified-effects-on-plant-morphology-physiology-and-metabolism
#14
Sikander Pal, Jiangsan Zhao, Asif Khan, Narendra Singh Yadav, Albert Batushansky, Simon Barak, Boris Rewald, Aaron Fait, Naftali Lazarovitch, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Dwindling water resources combined with meeting the demands for food security require maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) both in rainfed and irrigated agriculture. In this regard, deficit irrigation (DI), defined as the administration of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is a valuable practice to contain irrigation water use. In this study, the mechanism of paclobutrazol (Pbz)-mediated improvement in tolerance to water deficit in tomato was thoroughly investigated. Tomato plants were subjected to normal irrigated and deficit irrigated conditions plus Pbz application (0...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982735/differential-scanning-calorimetric-study-of-antibiotic-distamycin-a-binding-with-chromatin-within-isolated-rat-liver-nuclei
#15
Andrey N Prusov, Galina Ya Kolomijtseva, Tatiana A Smirnova
CONTEXT: Natural oligopeptide antibiotic distamycin A (Dst) biosynthesized by Streptomyces distallicus is traditionally used in medical practice as an anti-inflammatory and antitumour drug. OBJECTIVE: Dst was investigated for its effect on the structural components of native chromatin directly within isolated rat liver nuclei in the presence of physiologically significant cations (magnesium or spermine and spermidine). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the Dst action at molar ratio Dst/DNA = 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968713/a-new-multiresponse-optimization-approach-in-combination-with-a-d-optimal-experimental-design-for-the-determination-of-biogenic-amines-in-fish-by-hplc-fld
#16
A Herrero, S Sanllorente, C Reguera, M C Ortiz, L A Sarabia
A new strategy to approach multiresponse optimization in conjunction to a D-optimal design for simultaneously optimizing a large number of experimental factors is proposed. The procedure is applied to the determination of biogenic amines (histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in swordfish by HPLC-FLD after extraction with an acid and subsequent derivatization with dansyl chloride. Firstly, the extraction from a solid matrix and the derivatization of the extract are optimized...
November 16, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959775/ruficoccus-amylovorans-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-amylolytic-and-nitrate-reducing-diazotroph-of-the-family-puniceicoccaceae
#17
Shih-Yao Lin, Asif Hameed, You-Cheng Liu, Yi-Han Hsu, Mei-Hua Hung, Wei-An Lai, Chiu-Chung Young
A novel amylolytic, nitrate-reducing and diazotrophic bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0563T, isolated from a fermentor was assessed for its taxonomic status using polyphasic taxonomy. Cells of strain CC-MHH0563T was Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, mesophilic and aerobic cocci, which produced reddish nondiffusible-pigments. Growth was observed at 15-37 ºС (optimal 25 ºС), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimal pH 7.0) and salinity (0-3 %, w/v). Strain CC-MHH0563T showed highest pair-wise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of genera Cerasicoccus (89...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957878/polyamine-trypanothione-pathway-an-update
#18
Andrea Ilari, Annarita Fiorillo, Ilaria Genovese, Gianni Colotti
In trypanosomatids, polyamine and trypanothione pathways can be considered as a whole unique metabolism, where most enzymes are essential for parasitic survival and infectivity. Leishmania parasites and all the other members of the Trypanosomatids family depend on polyamines for growth and survival: the enzymes involved in the synthesis and utilization of spermidine and trypanothione, i.e., arginase, ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermidine synthase and in particular trypanothione synthetase-amidase, trypanothione reductase and tryparedoxin-dependent peroxidase are promising targets for drug development...
January 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923032/spermidine-to-the-rescue-for-an-aging-heart
#19
Rafael de Cabo, Pácido Navas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921397/nitric-oxide-induced-by-polyamines-involves-antioxidant-systems-against-chilling-stress-in-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-mill-seedling
#20
Qian-Nan Diao, Yong-Jun Song, Dong-Mei Shi, Hong-Yan Qi
Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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