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Charlotte Ridler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser, Hans-Jürgen Busse
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, non-endospore forming organism, isolated from a coolant lubricant solution was studied for its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain KSS-154-50T was grouped into the genus Cohnella, most closely related to Cohnella formosensis ALFALFA-35T (97.3 %), Cohnella rhizosphaerae CSE-5610T (97.1 %) and Cohnella nanjingensis D-45T (97.0%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other Cohnella species was < 97.0 %. The fatty acid profile from whole cell hydrolysates was very similar to those reported for other Cohnella species supported the allocation to the genus Cohnella...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sha Sha, Jianan Zhong, Baowei Chen, Li Lin, Tiangang Luan
A novel Gram-negative, flagellated, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented aerobic bacterium, strain SA925T, that is capable of degrading 1-methylphenanthrene was isolated from oil-polluted soil collected from a refinery located in Guangzhou, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence demonstrated that strain SA925T belongs to the genus Novosphingobium and is evolutionarily close to N. gossypii (98.5%), N. panipatense (98.2%), N. mathurense (98.0%) and N. pentaromativorans (96.5%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 60...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Chi-Te Liu, Shih-Yao Lin, Asif Hameed, You-Cheng Liu, Yi-Han Hsu, Wai-Tak Wong, Ching-Han Tseng, Huu-Sheng Lur, Chiu-Chung Young
A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a novel bacterium, designated strain TPP412T, isolated from a paddy soil in Taiwan. Strain TPP412T was Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile with single polar flagellum and lacks bacteriochlorophyll. Growth was observed at 24-45 ºС (optimal 25 ºС), pH 5.0-10.0 (optimal pH 7.0) and salinity (0-0.75 %, w/v). Strain TPP412T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of genera Rhodocyclus (94.1-94.5 %), Azospira (93...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Cong Wang, Ping Ruan, Ying Zhao, Xiaomin Li, Jun Wang, Xiaoxiao Wu, Tong Liu, Shasha Wang, Jiuzhou Hou, Wei Li, Qian Li, Jinghua Li, Fujun Dai, Dong Fang, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are among the most common cancers across the world. Therefore, identifying the potential molecular mechanisms that promote HCC and CRC progression and metastasis are urgently needed. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a catabolic enzyme that acetylates the high-order polyamines spermine and spermidine, thus decreasing the cellular content of polyamines. Several publications have suggested that depletion of intracellular polyamines inhibited tumor progression and metastasis in various cancer cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
Leandro F de Oliveira, Paula Elbl, Bruno V Navarro, Amanda F Macedo, André L W Dos Santos, Eny I S Floh
Polyamines (PAs), such as spermidine and spermine, as well as amino acids that are substrates for their biosynthesis, are known to be essential for plant development. However, little is known about the gene expression and metabolic switches associated with the ornithine/arginine and PA biosynthetic pathway during seed development in conifers. To understand these metabolic switches, the enzyme activity of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase, as well as the contents of PAs and amino acids were evaluated in three Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
Jun-Ichi Tanase, Takehiro Yokoo, Yuuki Matsumura, Makoto Kinoshita, Yo Kikuchi, Hirofumi Suemori, Takashi Ohyama
Magnesium chloride and polyamines stabilize DNA and chromatin. Furthermore, they can induce nucleosome aggregation and chromatin condensation in vitro. To determine the effects of elevating the cation concentrations in the nucleus of a living cell, we microinjected various concentrations of mono-, di- and polyvalent cation solutions into the nuclei of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and traced their fates. Here, we show that an elevation of either MgCl2, spermidine or spermine concentration in the nucleus exerts a significant effect on mouse ES cells, and can differentiate a certain population of the cells into trophectoderm, a lineage that mouse ES cells do not normally generate, or endoderm...
November 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Agnieszka Izabela Bochyńska, Gerjon Hannink, Dennis Janssen, Pieter Buma, Dirk W Grijpma
Isocyanate-terminated adhesive amphiphilic block copolymers are attractive materials to treat meniscus tears due to their tuneable mechanical properties and good adhesive characteristics. However, a drawback of this class of materials is their relatively long curing time. In this study, we evaluate the use of an amine cross-linker and addition of catalysts as two strategies to accelerate the curing rates of a recently developed biodegradable reactive isocyanate-terminated hyper-branched adhesive block copolymer prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG), trimethylene carbonate, citric acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Akihiro Oguro, Asumi Yanagida, Yuta Fujieda, Ryo Amano, Maina Otsu, Taiichi Sakamoto, Gota Kawai, Senya Matsufuji
Though polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) bind to the specific position in RNA molecules, interaction mechanisms are poorly understood. SELEX procedure has been used to isolate high-affinity oligoribonucleotides (aptamers) from randomized RNA libraries. Selected aptamers are useful in exploring sequences and/or structures in RNAs for binding molecules. In this study, to analyze the interaction mechanism of polyamine to RNA, we selected RNA aptamers targeted for spermine. Two spermine-binding aptamers (#5 and #24) were obtained and both of them had two stem-loop structures...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
Chang-Feng Xu, Long Zhang, Jun-Wei Huang, Kai Chen, Shun-Peng Li, Jian-Dong Jiang
An aerobic, Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped, asporogenous, non-motile bacterium designated strain NK8(T) was isolated from a chlorobenzoate contaminated soil in China. Strain NK8(T) was observed to grow optimally at pH 7.0, 30 °C and in the absence of NaCl in LB medium. The G + C content of the total DNA of strain NK8(T) was found to be 65.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NK8(T) showed high similarity to that of Aquamicrobium aerolatum Sa14(T) (97.3%), followed by Aquamicrobium lusatiense S1(T) (96...
November 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mei Shigematsu, Ryosuke Nakagawa, Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
Mg deficiency induces various metabolic disturbances including glucose metabolism in the liver. However, no comprehensive information is currently available on the metabolic pathways affected by Mg deficiency. The present study examined metabolite content in the liver of Mg-deficient rats using a metabolomic analysis. In this study, 4-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet or a Mg-deficient diet for 8 weeks. The metabolomic analysis identified 105 metabolites in the liver, and significant differences were observed in the hepatic contents for thirty-three metabolites between the two groups...
November 9, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Toshisada Suzuki, Masayuki Fujita
We investigated the roles of exogenously applied Spd (0.3 mM spermidine) in alleviating Al (AlCl3, 0.5 mM, 48 and 72 h)- induced injury in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Aluminum toxicity induced oxidative damage overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2(•-)), increasing lipoxygenase activity and membrane lipid peroxidation. The toxic compound methylglyoxal (MG) also overproduced under Al stress. In order to circumvent Al-induced oxidative stress, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense were activated by the application of exogenous Spd...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study investigated the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels. Eighteen litters (total 180) of piglets on day (d) 7 were fed either a commercial creep feed or commercial creep feed + antibiotic (Olaquindox, Oxytetracycline Calcium and Kitasamycin) until d 42. On d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly fed a normal crude protein (CP) diet (20% and 18% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16% and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively), generating 4 groups, Control-Low CP (Con-LP), Control-normal CP (Con-NP), Antibiotic-Low CP (Ant-LP) and Antibiotic-Normal CP (Ant-NP), respectively...
November 2, 2016: Anaerobe
Yuta Sugiyama, Atsuo Nakamura, Mitsuharu Matsumoto, Ayaka Kanbe, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Kyohei Higashi, Kazuei Igarashi, Takane Katayama, Hideyuki Suzuki, Shin Kurihara
Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
João M P Jorge, Anh Q D Nguyen, Fernando Pérez-García, Stefanie Kind, Volker F Wendisch
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid widespread in nature. Among the various uses of GABA, its lactam form 2-pyrrolidone can be chemically converted to the biodegradable plastic polyamide-4. In metabolism, GABA can be synthesized either by decarboxylation of L-glutamate or by a pathway that starts with the transamination of putrescine. Fermentative production of GABA from glucose by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum has been described via both routes. Putrescine-based GABA production was characterized by accumulation of by-products such as N-acetyl-putrescine...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Jan M Boitz, Caslin A Gilroy, Tamara D Olenyik, Dustin Paradis, Jasmine Perdeh, Kristie Dearman, Madison J Davis, Phillip A Yates, Yuexin Li, Michael K Riscoe, Buddy Ullman, Sigrid C Roberts
Studies in Leishmania donovani have shown that both ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase, two enzymes of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, are critical for promastigote proliferation and required for maximum infection in mice. However, the importance of arginase (ARG), the first enzyme of the polyamine pathway in Leishmania, has not been analyzed in L. donovani To test ARG function in intact parasites, we generated Δarg null mutants in L. donovani and evaluated their ability to proliferate in vitro and trigger infections in mice...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Elodie Jagu, Sébastien Pomel, Alba Diez-Martinez, Florence Ramiandrasoa, R Luise Krauth-Siegel, Stéphanie Pethe, Casimir Blonski, Raphaël Labruère, Philippe M Loiseau
Thirteen new polyamine derivatives coupled to hydroxybenzotriazole have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antikinetoplastid activity. Trypanosoma Trypanothione reductase (TryR) was envisioned as a potential target. Among all tested molecules, only one compound, a N(3)-spermidine-benzotriazole derivative, displayed relevant inhibitory activity on this enzyme but was not active on parasites. The corresponding Boc-protected spermidine-benzotriazole was however trypanocidal against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an IC50 value of 1μM and was completely devoid of cytotoxicity...
October 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
M Moradi, N Sattarahmady, A Rahi, G R Hatam, S M Rezayat Sorkhabadi, H Heli
Detection of leishmaniasis is important in clinical diagnoses. In the present study, identification of Leishmania parasites was performed by a label-free, PCR-free and signal-on ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor. Gold nanoleaves were firstly electrodeposited by an electrodeposition method using spermidine as a shape directing agent. The biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of a Leishmania major specific DNA probe onto gold nanoleaves, and methylene blue was employed as a marker. Hybridization of the complementary single stranded DNA sequence with the biosensor under the selected conditions was then investigated...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Kunal K Sindhu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive reduction of glomerular filtration rate and subsequent retention of organic waste compounds called uremic toxins. While patients with CKD are at a higher risk of premature death due to cardiovascular complications, this increased risk cannot be completely explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Instead, recent research suggests that uremic toxins may play a key role in explaining this marked increase in cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Yang Ou, Shang-Jui Wang, Dawei Li, Bo Chu, Wei Gu
Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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