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R Bregier-Jarzębowska, L Łomozik, A Gąsowska
Potentiometric and NMR spectroscopic studies of the nucleotide (NucP)/polyamine (PA) system (where NucP = CDP, CTP, PA = putrescine or spermidine) revealed the formation of molecular complexes (NucP)(Hx+y )(PA) (where Hx+y  = number of protons; x - from NucP and y - from PA). Their thermodynamic parameters were determined and the modes of their interactions were proposed. The main reaction centers were found to be the protonated amine groups of polyamine (positive centers) and phosphate groups of nucleotide (negative centers)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Shruti Shukla, Jong Suk Lee, Vivek K Bajpai, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, Myunghee Kim
Meju, a cooked and fermented soy bean based food product, is used as a major ingredient in Korean traditional fermented foods such as Doenjang. We developed a novel type of Meju using single and combined extracts of Allium sativum (garlic clove), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus leaves), and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo leaves) at 1% and 10% concentrations to improve the safety of Meju-based fermented products. Biogenic amines (BAs) in protein-rich fermented food products pose considerable toxical risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding selected plant extracts in Meju samples during fermentation...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dong Wang, Qian Liu, Di Wu, Binfeng He, Jin Li, Chengde Mao, Guansong Wang, Hang Qian
Programmable DNA nanostructure self-assembly offer great potentials in nanomedicine, drug delivery, biosensing and bioimaging. However, the intrinsically negative-charged DNA backbones, the instability of DNA nanostructures in physiological settings pose serious challenges to their practical applications. To overcome this challenge, a strategy that combines the magnesium-free DNA self-assembly and functionalization is proposed in this study. We hypothesize that naturally abundant spermidine may not only mediate the self-assembly of DNA nanostructures, but also shield them from harsh physiological environments...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu-Hong Jing, Ji-Long Yan, Qing-Jun Wang, Hai-Chao Chen, Xue-Zhu Ma, Jie Yin, Li-Ping Gao
Changes in mitochondrial structure and function are the initial factors of cell aging. Spermidine has an antiaging effect, but its effect on neuronal aging and mitochondrial mechanisms is unclear. In this study, mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells were treated with d‑galactose (d‑Gal) to establish cell aging to investigate the antiaging effect and mechanisms of spermidine. Changes in the cell cycle and β-galactosidase activity were analyzed to evaluate the extent of cell aging. Stabilities of mitochondrial mRNA and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated in the process of cell aging under different treatments...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Christina James, Tian Yun Zhao, Anisa Rahim, Parul Saxena, Nazreen Abdul Muthalif, Takeshi Uemura, Norihiro Tsuneyoshi, Sheena Ong, Kazuei Igarashi, Chin Yan Lim, N Ray Dunn, Leah A Vardy
Embryonic stem cells have the ability to self-renew or differentiate and these processes are under tight control. We previously reported that the polyamine regulator AMD1 is critical for embryonic stem cell self-renewal. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential organic cations that play a role in a wide array of cellular processes. Here, we explore the essential role of the polyamines in the promotion of self-renewal and identify a new stem cell regulator that acts downstream of the polyamines: MINDY1...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cells
Hwang Eui Cho, Min H Kang
Altered levels of polyamines in biological specimens have been suggested as potential biomarkers for cancer. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) is reported to modulate polyamines to potentially attenuate proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. A clinical trial is being conducted to evaluate DFMO in various cancers. To determine the pharmacodynamics effect of DFMO, an analytical assay is needed to accurately measure the changes in polyamines in cancer cells. In this study, a novel pH gradient LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitation of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in cancer cells...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marion Donnier-Maréchal, Jean Septavaux, Emeric Jeamet, Alexandre Héloin, Florent Perret, Elise Dumont, Jean-Christophe Rossi, Fabio Ziarelli, Julien Leclaire, Laurent Vial
The extension of the family of dyn[ n]arenes toward a three-membered macrocycle is reported. Through a templated approach, a single diastereoisomer of a dyn[3]arene that bears six carboxyl groups could be isolated by precipitation in 59-63% yield and excellent purity (≥95%). A combination of experimental and computational experiments in water at physiological pH revealed that the macrocycle could bind parent biogenic polyamines with a unique diversity of surface-binding modes. Whereas no binding event could be accurately measured with 1,3-diaminopropane, spermidine formed a classical stoichiometric complex with the dyn[3]arene in the millimolar concentration range...
April 6, 2018: Organic Letters
Jeong-Hwan Park, Jeong-Woo Park, Ju-Hyeon Lee, Dong-Yun Kim, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Young-Seuk Bae
We have previously shown that phospholipase D (PLD) downregulation accelerates cellular senescence, which is widely believed to play an important role in aging, by stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in human cells. In this study, we examined the role of PLD in aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mRNA level of pld-1 was found to be inversely correlated with aging. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pld-1 expression in nematodes enhanced ROS and lipofuscin accumulation and decreased lifespan, motility, and resistance to stress compared to that in nematodes treated with control RNAi...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Victor A Becerra-Rivera, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, Michael F Dunn
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations derived from basic l-amino acids whose physiological roles are still being defined. Their biosynthesis and functions in nitrogen-fixing rhizobia such as Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been extensively investigated. Thin layer chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed that S. meliloti Rm8530 produces the PAs, putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and homospermidine (HSpd), in their free forms and norspermidine (NSpd) in a form bound to macromolecules. The S...
April 2018: Microbiology
Rajtilak Majumdar, Matt Lebar, Brian Mack, Rakesh Minocha, Subhash Minocha, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Christine Sickler, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Jeffrey W Cary
Aspergillus flavus is a soil-borne saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen of both humans and plants. This fungus not only causes disease in important food and feed crops such as maize, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts but also produces the toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites (SMs) known as aflatoxins. Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations that influence normal growth, development, and stress responses in living organisms and have been shown to play a significant role in fungal pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Taibo Liu, Binbin Huang, Lin Chen, Zhiqiang Xian, Shiwei Song, Riyuan Chen, Yanwei Hao
Polyamines (PAs), including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and thermospermine (T-Spm), play key roles in plant development, including fruit setting and ripening, morphogenesis, and abiotic/biotic stress. Their functions appear to be intimately related to their synthesis, which occurs via arginine/ornithine decarboxylase (ADC/ODC), Spd synthase (SPDS), Spm synthase (SPMS), and Acaulis5 (ACL5), respectively. Unfortunately, the expression and function of these PA synthesis-relate genes during specific developmental process or under stress have not been fully elucidated...
March 29, 2018: Gene
Yiyong Chen, Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Fang Dong, Youying Tu, Ziyin Yang
Tea ( Camellia sinensis ) is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investigations into these functional molecules in tea flowers, including functional molecules similar to those in tea leaves, as well as the preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers...
March 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zengming Zheng, Zhou-Guang Wang, Yu Chen, Jian Chen, Sinan Khor, Jiawei Li, Zili He, Qingqing Wang, Hongyu Zhang, Ke Xu, Gong Fanghua, Jian Xiao, Xiangyang Wang
Spermidine has therapeutic effects in many diseases including as heart diastolic function, myopathic defects and neurodegenerative disorders via autophagy activation. Autophagy has been found to mitigate cell apoptosis in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Accordingly, we theorize that spermidine may have beneficial effects on IDD via autophagy stimulation. In this study, spermidine's effect on IDD was evaluated in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated nucleus pulposus cells of SD rats in vitro as well as in a puncture-induced rat IDD model...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Attilio Naccarato, Rosangela Elliani, Brunella Cavaliere, Giovanni Sindona, Antonio Tagarelli
Polyamines are aliphatic amines with low molecular weight that are widely recognized as one of the most important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a rapid and simple method for the quantification of free polyamines (i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine) and N-monoacetylated polyamines (i.e., N1 -Acetylspermidine, N8 -Acetylspermidine, and N1 -Acetylspermine) in human urine. A preliminary derivatization with propyl chloroformate combined with the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed for an easy and automatable protocol involving minimal sample handling and no consumption of organic solvents...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Andrej Ščavničar, Irena Rogelj, Drago Kočar, Sevim Kӧse, Matevž Pompe
A new method for determination of underivatized biogenic amines in cheese based on ion exchange chromatographycoupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection was proposed. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 biogenic amines (trimethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, tryptamine, agmatine, and tyramine) in different types of cheese. The amines were extracted only with water without any additional derivatization step or sample cleanup. This is a great advantage in terms of simplicity of sample pretreatment procedure compared with other currently existing methods in the literature...
March 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Breandan R Quinn, Laura Yunes-Medina, Gail V W Johnson
Members of the transglutaminase family catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between a polypeptide-bound glutamine and a low molecular weight amine (e.g., spermidine) or the ɛ-amino group of a polypeptide-bound lysine. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a prominent member of this family, is unique because in addition to being a transamidating enzyme, it exhibits numerous other activities. As a result, TG2 plays a role in many physiological processes, and its function is highly cell type specific and relies upon a number of factors, including conformation, cellular compartment location, and local concentrations of Ca2+ and guanine nucleotides...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elodie Jagu, Sébastien Pomel, Alba Diez-Martinez, Estelle Rascol, Stéphanie Pethe, Philippe M Loiseau, Raphaël Labruère
This study describes the synthesis and the biological evaluation of twenty-four original bis(benzyl)spermidines. Structural modifications of the polyamine scaffold were performed in order to avoid easily metabolized bonds. Some bis(benzyl)polyamine derivatives have demonstrated promising activity in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Leishmania donovani. From the enzymatic experiments on trypanothione reductase, we observed that this enzyme was not targeted by our compounds. In vivo evaluation on Swiss mice model infected by T...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Luciana Romão, Vanessa P do Canto, Paulo A Netz, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Ângelo C Pinto, Cristian Follmer
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and devastating type of primary brain tumor, being considered the deadliest of human cancers. In this context, extensive efforts have been undertaken to develop new drugs that exhibit both antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on GBM. 1,4-Naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) scaffold has been found in compounds able to inhibit important biological targets associated with cancer, which includes DNA topoisomerase, Hsp90 and monoamine oxidase. Among potential antineoplastic 1,4-NQs is the plant-derived lapachol (2-hydroxy-3-prenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) that was found to be active against the Walker-256 carcinoma and Yoshida sarcoma...
March 20, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Stefanie P Glaeser
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain KSS165-70T ) was isolated from a coolant lubricant emulsion. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain KSS165-70T showed high sequence similarity to the type strains of Novosphingobium subterraneum (98.1 %), Novosphingobium lentum (97.9 %) and Novosphingobium taihuense (97.8 %). Sequence similarities to type strains of all other Novosphingobium species were below 97.5 %. Ubiquinone Q-10 was detected as the major respiratory quinone...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Balaram Mohapatra, Pinaki Sar, Sufia Khannam Kazy, Mrinal Kumar Maiti, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Reductive transformation of toxic arsenic (As) species by As reducing bacteria (AsRB) is a key process in As-biogeochemical-cycling within the subsurface aquifer environment. In this study, we have characterized a Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped As reducing bacterium designated KAs 5-3T, isolated from highly As-contaminated groundwater of India. Strain KAs 5-3T displayed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, with P. mexicana AMX 26BT (99.25% similarity), P...
2018: PloS One
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