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Francesca Cardinale, Paolo Korwin Krukowski, Andrea Schubert, Ivan Visentin
After quickly touching upon general aspects of strigolactones biology and functions, including structure, synthesis and perception, this review focuses on the role and regulation of the strigolactone pathway during osmotic stress, in light of the most recent research developments. We discuss available data on organ-specific dynamics of strigolactone synthesis and interaction with abscisic acid in the acclimatization response, with emphasis on the ecophysiological implications of the effects on the stomatal closure process...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
James W Cooper, Yan Hu, Leila Beyyoudh, H Yildiz Dasgan, Karl Kunert, Christine A Beveridge, Christine H Foyer
Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines...
January 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hiromu Kameoka, Junko Kyozuka
Strigolactones are plant hormones that control many aspects of plant development and environmental responses. Despite recent and rapid progress in the biochemical and molecular understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, transport, and signaling, our knowledge about where strigolactones are produced and where they act is fragmented. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about these aspects of strigolactones, obtained from mutant phenotypes, grafting experiments, gene expression patterns, and protein localization studies...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Muhammad Jamil, Boubacar A Kountche, Imran Haider, Xiujie Guo, Valentine O Ntui, Kun-Peng Jia, Shawkat Ali, Umar S Hameed, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Ying Lyu, Kai Jiang, Kei Hirabayashi, Masaru Tanokura, Stefan T Arold, Tadao Asami, Salim Al-Babili
Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of phytohormones that also act as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, such as Striga spp., and as branching factors for symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sources for natural SLs are very limited. Hence, efficient and simple SL analogs are needed for elucidating SL-related biological processes as well as for agricultural applications. Based on the structure of the non-canonical SL methyl carlactonoate, we developed a new, easy to synthesize series of analogs, termed methyl phenlactonoates (MPs), evaluated their efficacy in exerting different SL functions, and determined their affinity for SL receptors from rice and Striga hermonthica...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Guillaume Brun, Lukas Braem, Séverine Thoiron, Kris Gevaert, Sofie Goormachtig, Philippe Delavault
Obligate root parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanchaceae family are deadly pests for major crops all over the world. Because these heterotrophic plants severely damage their hosts even before emerging from the soil, there is an unequivocal need to design early and efficient control methods. Their germination process has probably undergone numerous selective pressure events along evolution, in that the perception of host-derived molecules is a sine qua non condition for seeds to germinate. Although most of these molecules belong to the strigolactones, structurally different molecules have been identified...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Francisco J R Mejías, Miguel Lopez-Haro, Lionel C Gontard, Antonio Cala, Monica Fernandez-Aparicio, Jose M G Molinillo, José J Calvino, Francisco A Macias
Nanoencapsulation has proven to be an efficient route to increase significantly the solubility and bioavailability of organic compounds. This aspect of nanotechnology is illustrated for the case of phthalimide-lactone (PL), a recently synthesized strigolactone mimic whose very limited solubility in water, as a free chemical, precludes its practical use as an agrochemical in the fight against parasitic plants. Pluronic F-127® (P127) nanoparticles functionalized with PL have been synthesized and embedded in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)...
December 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola, Markku Laakso
Insulin resistance is a characteristic finding in hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes. SIRT1 is a NAD+ dependent deacetylase that plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. SIRT1 activators, including plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle tissue. We hypothesised that the novel plant-derived compounds, strigolactone and pinosylvin, beneficially enhance SIRT1 function, insulin signalling, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yasmine Ligerot, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Tanya Waldie, Christelle Troadec, Sylvie Citerne, Nikita Kadakia, Jean-Paul Pillot, Michael Prigge, Grégoire Aubert, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Ottoline Leyser, Mark Estelle, Frédéric Debellé, Catherine Rameau
Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Shalini Tiwari, Charu Lata, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Vivek Prasad, Manoj Prasad
Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that negatively influence crop performance and productivity. Plants acclimatize to drought stress conditions through altered molecular, biochemical and physiological responses. Gene and/or protein expression and regulation are thought to be modulated upon stress perception and signal transduction for providing requisite endurance to plants.Plant growth regulators or phytohormones are important molecules required for various biological processes in plants and are also central to stress signalling pathways...
December 2017: Current Genomics
Naveed Ur Rehman, Mohammed Ali, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ahmad, Guo Liang, Jian Zhao
Strigolactones (SLs) play an important role in controlling root growth, shoot branching, and plant-symbionts interaction. Despite the importance, the components of SL biosynthesis and signaling have not been unequivocally explored in soybean. Here we identified the putative components of SL synthesis enzymes GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a with tissue expression patterns and were apparently regulated by rhizobia infection and changed during nodule development. GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a were further characterized in soybean nodulation with knockdown transgenic hairy roots...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Toshi M Foster, Susan E Ledger, Bart J Janssen, Zhiwei Luo, Revel S M Drummond, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Chethi N Waite, Keith A Funnell, Ben M van Hooijdonk, Ali Saei, Alla N Seleznyova, Kimberley C Snowden
Branching has a major influence on the overall shape and productivity of a plant. Strigolactones (SLs) have been identified as plant hormones that have a key role in suppressing the outgrowth of axillary meristems. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes are integral to the biosynthesis of SLs and are well characterized in annual plants, but their role in woody perennials is relatively unknown. We identified CCD7 and CCD8 orthologues from apple and demonstrated that MdCCD7 and MdCCD8 are able to complement the Arabidopsis branching mutants max3 and max4 respectively, indicating conserved function...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Michael Christian Dieckmann, Pierre-Yves Dakas, Alain De Mesmaeker
Strigolactones are plant hormones regulating essential stages of a plants development. Their low natural abundance combined with a low chemical stability significantly hampered the detailed investigation of their biological activity. Non-canonical strigolactones lack the fused tricyclic ABC-ring system commonly present in canonical-type strigolactones, but feature an open chain unit linking structurally diverse A-ring moieties to the butenolide D-ring. We herein present an efficient synthetic access to enantiomerically pure non-canonical strigolactones by a Stille cross-coupling approach to forge the central diene moiety and demonstrate this strategy by syntheses of natural products methyl carlactonoate (MeCLA) and carlactonic acid (CLA)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Qingliang Hu, Yajun He, Lei Wang, Simiao Liu, Xiangbing Meng, Guifu Liu, Yanhui Jing, Mingjiang Chen, Xiaoguang Song, Liang Jiang, Hong Yu, Bing Wang, Jiayang Li
Strigolactones (SLs) are the latest confirmed phytohormones that regulate shoot branching by inhibiting bud outgrowth in higher plants. Perception of SLs depends on a novel mechanism employing an enzyme-receptor DWARF14 (D14) that hydrolyzes SLs and becomes covalently modified. This stimulates the interaction between D14 and D3, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of the transcriptional repressor protein D53. However, the regulation of SL perception in rice remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidences that D14 is ubiquitinated after SL treatment and degraded through the 26S proteasome system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wuwu Xu, Wenchao Huang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs) are Ca(2+)-sensors that decode Ca(2+) signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Weiqiang Li, Kien Huu Nguyen, Ha Duc Chu, Chien Van Ha, Yasuko Watanabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Marco Antonio Leyva-González, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Laura Voges, Maho Tanaka, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Motoaki Seki, Mitsunori Seo, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, David C Nelson, Chunjie Tian, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Drought causes substantial reductions in crop yields worldwide. Therefore, we set out to identify new chemical and genetic factors that regulate drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Karrikins (KARs) are a class of butenolide compounds found in smoke that promote seed germination, and have been reported to improve seedling vigor under stressful growth conditions. Here, we discovered that mutations in KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), encoding the proposed karrikin receptor, result in hypersensitivity to water deprivation...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Ruifeng Yao, Jiayang Li, Daoxin Xie
Strigolactones (SLs) are a very special class of plant hormones, which act as endogenous signals to regulate shoot branching in plants, and also serve as rhizosphere signals to regulate interactions of host plants with heterologous organisms such as symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic weeds. In this short review, we give a brief description of novel discoveries in SL biosynthesis pathway, and mainly summarize the recent advances in SL perception and signal transduction.
November 6, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
Fang Liu, Pandi Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xiaohong Yan, Donghui Fu, Gang Wu
This review presents genetic and molecular basis of crop height using a rice crop model. Height is controlled by multiple genes with potential to be manipulated through breeding strategies to improve productivity. Height is an important factor affecting crop architecture, apical dominance, biomass, resistance to lodging, tolerance to crowding and mechanical harvesting. The impressive increase in wheat and rice yield during the 'green revolution' benefited from a combination of breeding for high-yielding dwarf varieties together with advances in agricultural mechanization, irrigation and agrochemical/fertilizer use...
November 6, 2017: Planta
Ya Zhou Bao, Zhao Qun Yao, Xiao Lei Cao, Jin Feng Peng, Ying Xu, Mei Xiu Chen, Si Feng Zhao
P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone) and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis) both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds)...
2017: PloS One
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