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Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Taraka Ramji Moturu, Sravan Kumar Thula, Ravi Kumar Singh, Tomasz Nodzynski, Radka Svobodová Vareková, Jirí Friml, Sibu Simon
Strigolactones (SLs) are relatively recent addition to plant hormones that reported to control different aspects of plant development. SL signalling is perceived by an α/β hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14). A close homologue of D14, KARRIKIN INSENSTIVE2 (KAI2) involved in perception of an uncharacterized molecule called Karrikin (KR). Recent studies identified the SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) and SMXL7 in Arabidopsis to be potential SCF-MAX2 complex mediated proteasome targets of KAI2 and D14 respectively. Genetic studies on SMXL7 and SMAX1 demonstrated distinct developmental roles of each but very little sequence features are known about these repressors...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Imran Haider, Beatriz Andreo-Jimenez, Mark Bruno, Andrea Bimbo, Kristýna Floková, Haneen Abuauf, Valentine Otang Ntui, Xiujie Guo, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Salim Al-Babili, Harro J Bouwmeester, Carolien Ruyter-Spira
Both strigolactones (SLs) and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetically originate from carotenoids. Considering their common origin, the interaction of these two hormones at the biosynthetic and/or regulatory level may be anticipated. Here, we show in rice that drought simultaneously induces SL production in the root, and ABA production and the expression of SL biosynthetic genes in the shoot. Under control conditions, the ABA concentration was higher in shoots of the SL biosynthetic rice mutants dwarf10 (d10) and d17 than in wild-type plants, while a similar trend was observed for SL-perception mutant d3...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Masahiko Yoshimura, Ayato Sato, Keiko Kuwata, Yoshiaki Inukai, Toshinori Kinoshita, Kenichiro Itami, Yuichiro Tsuchiya, Shinya Hagihara
DWARF14 (D14) is a strigolactone receptor that plays a central role in suppression of shoot branching, and hence is a potential target to increase crop productions and biomass. Recently, we reported a fluorescence turn-on probe, Yoshimulactone Green (YLG), which generates a strong fluorescence upon the hydrolysis by D14-type strigolactone receptors. Herein, we applied a YLG-based in vitro assay to a high-throughput chemical screening and identified a novel small molecule DL1 as a potent inhibitor of D14. DL1 competes with endogenous strigolactones, thereby increasing the number of shoot branching in a model plant Arabidopsis as well as in rice...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Cyril Hamiaux, Revel S M Drummond, Zhiwei Luo, Hui Wen Lee, Prachi Sharma, Bart J Janssen, Nigel B Perry, William A Denny, Kimberley C Snowden
The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signalling, and transport offer many opportunities for discovering new plant growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14) and Arabidopsis (AtD14)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Koichi Yoneyama, Xiaonan Xie, Kaori Yoneyama, Takaya Kisugi, Takahito Nomura, Yoshifumi Nakatani, Kohki Akiyama, Christopher S P McErlean
Strigolactones (SLs) can be classified into two structurally distinct groups: canonical and non-canonical SLs. Canonical SLs contain the ABCD ring system, and non-canonical SLs lack the A, B, or C ring but have the enol ether-D ring moiety which is essential for biological activities. The simplest non-canonical SL is the SL biosynthetic intermediate carlactone (CL). In plants, CL and its oxidized metabolites such as carlactonoic acid and methyl carlactonoate, are present in root and shoot tissues. In some plant species including black oat (Avena strigosa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and maize (Zea mays), non-canonical SLs are major germination stimulants in the root exudates...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanting Wang, Harro Bouwmeester
Strigolactones are a class of signaling molecules secreted by the roots of plants into the rhizosphere. On the one hand, they serve as the signal for recruiting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which have a symbiotic relationship with plants. On the other hand, they are also host-detection signals for the non-symbiotic, pathogenic, root parasitic plants, which use the strigolactones as germination stimulants. Finally, recently the SLs were discovered to be a new class of plant hormones that regulate processes such as branching/tillering and root architecture...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jie Wang, Kai Lu, Haipeng Nie, Qisen Zeng, Bowen Wu, Junjie Qian, Zhongming Fang
BACKGROUND: Rice tiller number is one of the most important factors that determine grain yield, while nitrogen is essential for the crop growth and development, especially for tiller formation. Genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency processes have been identified in the previous studies, however, only a small number of these genes have been found to improve grain yield by promoting tillering. RESULTS: We constructed over-expression (OX) lines and RNA-interference (Ri) lines, and selected a mutant of OsNPF7...
February 27, 2018: Rice
Kaori Yoneyama, Narumi Mori, Tomoyasu Sato, Akiyoshi Yoda, Xiaonan Xie, Masanori Okamoto, Masashi Iwanaga, Toshiyuki Ohnishi, Hisashi Nishiwaki, Tadao Asami, Takao Yokota, Kohki Akiyama, Koichi Yoneyama, Takahito Nomura
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones which regulate shoot branching and function as host recognition signals for symbionts and parasites in the rhizosphere. However, steps in SL biosynthesis after carlactone (CL) formation remain elusive. This study elucidated the common and diverse functions of MAX1 homologs which catalyze CL oxidation. We have reported previously that ArabidopsisMAX1 converts CL to carlactonoic acid (CLA), whereas a rice MAX1 homolog has been shown to catalyze the conversion of CL to 4-deoxyorobanchol (4DO)...
February 26, 2018: New Phytologist
Zsuzsanna Kolbert
Both strigolactones (SLs) and nitric oxide (NO) are regulatory signals with diverse roles during plant development and stress responses. This review aims to discuss the so far available data regarding SLs-NO interplay in plant systems. The majority of the few articles dealing with SL-NO interplay focuses on the root system and it seems that NO can be an upstream negative regulator of SL biosynthesis or an upstream positive regulator of SL signaling depending on the nutrient supply. From the so far published results it is clear that NO modifies the activity of target proteins involved in SL biosynthesis or signaling which may be a physiologically relevant interaction...
February 26, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yuichiro Tsuchiya, Masahiko Yoshimura, Shinya Hagihara
Plant-derived strigolactones have diverse functions at ecological scale including the growth of plants themselves. The parasitic plants from a family of Orobanchaceae tinker with the ecological and hormonal functions to generate unique germination abilities based on sensing of host-derived strigolactones. Although the recent discovery of strigolactone receptors has begun the elucidation of the mechanism of strigolactone perception, how it relates to plant parasitism is still a mystery. In this review, we reveal emerging questions by introducing recent advances in strigolactone research in parasitic plants, and attempt to construct a conceptual framework for the unique in planta dynamics of strigolactone perception unveiled through fluorescent probes for strigolactone receptors...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yonghong Zhang, Shuo Lv, Guodong Wang
Strigolactones (SLs) have been implicated in many plant biological processes, including growth and development and the acclimation to environmental stress. We recently reported that SLs intrinsically acted as prominent regulators in induction of stomatal closure. Here we present evidence that the effect of SLs on stotamal closure is not limited to Arabidopsis, and thus SLs could serve as common regulators in the modulation of stomatal apertures of various plant species. Nevertheless, TIS108, a SL-biosynthetic inhibitor, exerted no effect on stomatal apertures...
February 23, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mohammed Nihal Hasan, Hani Choudhry, Syed Shoeb Razvi, Said Salama Moselhy, Taha Abduallah Kumosani, Mazin A Zamzami, Ziad Omran, Majed A Halwani, Salim Al-Babili, Khalid Omer Abualnaja, Abdulrahman Labeed Al-Malki, Mahmoud Alhosin, Tadao Asami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The complex etiology is attributed to many factors like heredity, cirrhosis, hepatitis infections or the dysregulation of the different molecular pathways. Nevertheless, the current treatment regimens have either severe side effects or tumors gradually acquire resistance upon prolonged use. Thus, developing a new selective treatment for HCC is the need of the hour. Many anticancer agents derived from plants have been evaluated for their cytotoxicity towards many human cancer cell lines...
February 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xiaojuan Ran, Jian Liu, Meifang Qi, Yuejun Wang, Jingfei Cheng, Yijing Zhang
Phytohormones regulate diverse aspects of plant growth and environmental responses. Recent high-throughput technologies have promoted a more comprehensive profiling of genes regulated by different hormones. However, these omics data generally result in large gene lists that make it challenging to interpret the data and extract insights into biological significance. With the rapid accumulation of theses large-scale experiments, especially the transcriptomic data available in public databases, a means of using this information to explore the transcriptional networks is needed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nasreldin Mohemed, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Emilie F Fradin, Juriaan Rienstra, Abdelgabar G T Babiker, Harro J Bouwmeester
Sorghum is an important food, feed and industrial crop worldwide. Parasitic weeds of the genus Striga constitute a major constraint to sorghum production particularly in the dryer parts of the world. In this study we analysed the Striga germination stimulants, strigolactones, in the root exudate of 36 sorghum genotypes and assessed Striga germination and infection. Low germination stimulatory activity and low Striga infection correlated with exudation of low amounts of 5-deoxystrigol and high amounts of orobanchol, whereas susceptibility to Striga and high germination stimulatory activity correlated with high concentrations of 5-deoxystrigol and low concentrations of orobanchol...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Manuela Ferrero, Chiara Pagliarani, Ondrej Novák, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Cardinale, Ivan Visentin, Andrea Schubert
Besides signalling to soil organisms, strigolactones (SL) control above- and below-ground morphology, in particular shoot branching. Furthermore, SL interact with stress responses, possibly thanks to a cross-talk with the abscisic acid (ABA) signal. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), ABA drives the accumulation of anthocyanins over the ripening season. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with a synthetic strigolactone analogue, GR24, on anthocyanin accumulation in grape berries, in presence or absence of exogenous ABA treatment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gunilla H Carlsson, Dirk Hasse, Francesca Cardinale, Cristina Prandi, Inger Andersson
Strigolactones, a group of terpenoid lactones, control many aspects of plant growth and development, but the active forms of these plant hormones and their mode of action at the molecular level are still unknown. The strigolactone protein receptor is unusual because it has been shown to cleave the hormone and supposedly forms a covalent bond to the cleaved hormone fragment. This interaction is suggested to induce a conformational change in the receptor that primes it for subsequent interaction with partners in the signalling pathway...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zenglin Zhang, Yongfeng Guo
As the last stage of plant development, senescence can be regulated by a large number of signals such as aging, reproductive growth, nutrient availability, and stresses. Various plant hormones have been shown to be involved in regulating plant senescence. For example, ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and strigolactones (SLs) promote senescence, whereas cytokinins (CKs) inhibit senescence. Different hormones regulate senescence via distinct pathways, while cross talks between signaling pathways exist...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Binne Zwanenburg, Daniel Blanco-Ania, Cristina Prandi
The development and growth of plants are regulated by interplay of a plethora of complex chemical reactions in which plant hormones play a pivotal role. In recent years, a group of new plant hormones, namely strigolactones (SLs), was discovered and identified. The first SL, strigol, was isolated in 1966, but it took almost 20 years before the details of its structure were fully elucidated. At present, two families of SLs are known, one having the stereochemistry of (+)-strigol and the other that of (-)-orobanchol, the most abundant naturally occurring SL...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hao Du, Fei Huang, Nai Wu, Xianghua Li, Honghong Hu, Lizhong Xiong
Many plants have evolved a drought escape (DE) mechanism to shorten their life cycle when facing water-deficit conditions. While drought tolerance has been intensively investigated, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of DE remain elusive. We found that low water-deficit treatment (LWT) at the early stage of rice development can trigger early flowering and reduced tiller numbers. LWT induced the accumulation of ABA which in turn feedback affected the light perception and circadian clock by synchronously regulating many flowering-related genes to promote early flowering...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Plant
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