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Weiqiang Li, Rie Nishiyama, Yasuko Watanabe, Chien Van Ha, Mikiko Kojima, Ping An, Lei Tian, Chunjie Tian, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mauricio Lopez-Obando, Ruan de Villiers, Beate Hoffmann, Linnan Ma, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Jens Kossmann, Yoan Coudert, C Jill Harrison, Catherine Rameau, Paul Hills, Sandrine Bonhomme
Strigolactones (SLs) are key hormonal regulators of flowering plant development and are widely distributed amongst streptophytes. In Arabidopsis, SLs signal via the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2), affecting multiple aspects of development including shoot branching, root architecture and drought tolerance. Previous characterization of a Physcomitrella patens moss mutant with defective SL synthesis supports an ancient role for SLs in land plants, but the origin and evolution of signalling pathway components are unknown...
May 21, 2018: New Phytologist
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Sylwia Struk, Lukas Braem, Alan Walton, Annick De Keyser, François-Didier Boyer, Geert Persiau, Geert De Jaeger, Kris Gevaert, Sofie Goormachtig
Phytohormones tightly regulate plant growth by integrating changing environmental and developmental cues. Although the key players have been identified in many plant hormonal pathways, the molecular mechanisms and mode of action of perception and signaling remain incompletely resolved. Characterization of protein partners of known signaling components provides insight into the formed protein complexes, but, unless quantification is involved, does not deliver much, if any, information about the dynamics of the induced or disrupted protein complexes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jun Chen, Limin Zhang, Mengjiao Zhu, Lijie Han, Ya Lv, Yishan Liu, Pan Li, Haichun Jing, Hongwei Cai
Tillering contributes to grain yield and plant architecture and therefore is an agronomically important trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Here, we identified and functionally characterized a mutant of the Non-dormant Axillary Bud 1 (NAB1) gene from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized sorghum population. The nab1 mutants have increased tillering and reduced plant height. Map-based cloning revealed that NAB1 encodes a carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7) orthologous to rice (Oryza sativa) HIGH-TILLERING DWARF1/DWARF17 and Arabidopsis thaliana MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Jun Takeuchi, Kai Jiang, Kei Hirabayashi, Yusaku Imamura, Yashan Wu, Yuqun Xu, Takuya Miyakawa, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Masaru Tanokura, Tadao Asami
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and act as signals in communications with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds in the rhizosphere. SL signaling is mediated by DWARF14 (D14), which is an α/β-hydrolase that cleaves SLs into an ABC tricyclic lactone and a butenolide group (i.e., D-ring). This cleavage reaction (hydrolysis and dissociation) is important for inducing the interaction between D14 and its target proteins, including D3 and D53. In this study, a hydrolysis-resistant SL analog was predicted to inhibit the activation of the D14 receptor, thereby disrupting the SL signaling pathway...
May 2, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Cheng-Gang Ren, Cun-Cui Kong, Zhi-Hong Xie
BACKGROUND: Strigolactones (SLs) are considered to be a novel class of phytohormone involved in plant defense responses. Currently, their relationships with other plant hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA), during responses to salinity stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the relationship between SL and ABA during the induction of H2 O2 - mediated tolerance to salt stress were studied in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Sesbania cannabina seedlings. The SL levels increased after ABA treatments and decreased when ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in AM plants...
May 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Yuan Yuan, Xiaohua Jin, Juan Liu, Xing Zhao, Junhui Zhou, Xin Wang, Deyi Wang, Changjiangsheng Lai, Wei Xu, Jingwen Huang, Liangping Zha, Dahui Liu, Xiao Ma, Li Wang, Menyan Zhou, Zhi Jiang, Hubiao Meng, Huasheng Peng, Yuting Liang, Ruiqiang Li, Chao Jiang, Yuyang Zhao, Tiegui Nan, Yan Jin, Zhilai Zhan, Jian Yang, Wenkai Jiang, Luqi Huang
We present the 1.06 Gb sequenced genome of Gastrodia elata, an obligate mycoheterotrophic plant, which contains 18,969 protein-coding genes. Many genes conserved in other plant species have been deleted from the G. elata genome, including most of those for photosynthesis. Additional evidence of the influence of genome plasticity in the adaptation of this mycoheterotrophic lifestyle is evident in the large number of gene families that are expanded in G. elata, including glycoside hydrolases and urease that likely facilitate the digestion of hyphae are expanded, as are genes associated with strigolactone signaling, and ATPases that may contribute to the atypical energy metabolism...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Qiannan Hu, Shuoxin Zhang, Bingru Huang
Strigolactones (SL) have recently been found to play roles in regulating root development. However, it remains unclear how SL may mediate root elongation of perennial grass species under different temperatures that differentially affect root growth. The objectives of this study were to examine effects of SL on root elongation of tall fescue and to examine the interactive effects of SL and auxin in regulating root growth under both non-stress and heat stress conditions. Tall fescue (cv. 'Kentuck-31') plants were treated with GR24 (a synthetic strigolactones), NAA (α-naphthylacetic acid), or NPA (auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphalamic acid) or their combination under non-stress control and heat stress (35/30 °C) in growth chamber...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Piotr Rozpądek, Agnieszka M Domka, Michał Nosek, Rafał Ważny, Roman J Jędrzejczyk, Monika Wiciarz, Katarzyna Turnau
Over the last years the role of fungal endophytes in plant biology has been extensively studied. A number of species were shown to positively affect plant growth and fitness, thus attempts have been made to utilize these microorganisms in agriculture and phytoremediation. Plant-fungi symbiosis requires multiple metabolic adjustments of both of the interacting organisms. The mechanisms of these adaptations are mostly unknown, however, plant hormones seem to play a central role in this process. The plant hormone strigolactone (SL) was previously shown to activate hyphae branching of mycorrhizal fungi and to negatively affect pathogenic fungi growth...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Junping Gao, Tong Zhang, Bingxin Xu, Ling Jia, Bingguang Xiao, He Liu, Lijing Liu, Hao Yan, Qingyou Xia
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones that regulate plant architecture. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase ( CCD ) genes are involved in the biosynthesis of SLs and are identified and characterized in many plants. However, the function of CCD genes in tobacco remains poorly understood. In this study, two closely related genes NtCCD8A and NtCCD8B were cloned from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.). The two NtCCD8 genes are orthologues of the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 ( SlCCD8 ) gene...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jae Sung Shim, Nuri Oh, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Ju-Kon Kim
Plants have evolved to have sophisticated adaptation mechanisms to cope with drought stress by reprograming transcriptional networks through drought responsive transcription factors. NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are known to be associated with various developmental processes and stress tolerance. In this study, we functionally characterized the rice drought responsive transcription factor OsNAC14 . OsNAC14 was predominantly expressed at meiosis stage but is induced by drought, high salinity, ABA, and low temperature in leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huan Liu, Chi Zhang, Jun Yang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Leguminous plants can establish symbiotic associations with diazotropic rhizobia to form nitrogen-fixating nodules, which are classified as determinate or indeterminate based on the persistence of nodule meristem. The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules requires coordinating rhizobial infection and root nodule organogenesis. The formation of infection thread and the extent of nodule formation are largely under plant control but vary with environmental conditions and the physiological state of the host plants...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Le Luo, Hongxuan Wang, Xiaohong Liu, Jinqi Hu, Xueli Zhu, Shou Pan, Ruyi Qin, Yifeng Wang, Pingping Zhao, Xiaorong Fan, Guohua Xu
Strigolactones (SLs) are involved in the nutrient-dependent control of plant root and shoot architecture. The total sufficient uptake of nitrogen (N), and also its appropriate distribution, is essential for the normal growth and development of plants; however, the effect of SLs on N translocation in plants remains unknown. Here, the SL-signaling mutant dwarf 3 (d3), the biosynthesis mutant dwarf 10 (d10), and wild-type (WT) rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare) were used to investigate the relationship between N nutrition and the regulatory role of SLs...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Arjan van Zeijl, Titis A K Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Luuk Rutten, Fengjiao Bu, Marijke Hartog, Sidney Linders, Elena E Fedorova, Ton Bisseling, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts
Parasponia represents five fast-growing tropical tree species in the Cannabaceae and is the only plant lineage besides legumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium. Comparative analyses between legumes and Parasponia allows identification of conserved genetic networks controlling this symbiosis. However, such studies are hampered due to the absence of powerful reverse genetic tools for Parasponia . Here, we present a fast and efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of Parasponia andersonii ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elena Sanchez, Emma Artuso, Chiara Lombardi, Ivan Visentin, Beatrice Lace, Wajeeha Saeed, Marco L Lolli, Piermichele Kobauri, Zahid Ali, Francesca Spyrakis, Pilar Cubas, Francesca Cardinale, Cristina Prandi
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones with various functions in development, responses to stress and interaction with (micro)organisms in the rhizosphere, including seeds of parasitic plants. Their perception for hormonal functions requires an α,β-hydrolase belonging to the D14 clade in higher plants; perception of host-produced SLs in parasitic seeds relies on similar but phylogenetically distinct proteins (D14-like). D14 and D14-like proteins are peculiar receptors, because they cleave SLs before undergoing a conformational change that elicits downstream events...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Bing Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Shoot architecture is determined by the organization and activities of apical, axillary, intercalary, secondary, and inflorescence meristems and by the subsequent development of stems, leaves, shoot branches, and inflorescences. In this review, we discuss the unifying principles of hormonal and genetic control of shoot architecture including advances in our understanding of lateral branch outgrowth; control of stem elongation, thickness, and angle; and regulation of inflorescence development. We focus on recent progress made mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, pea, maize, and tomato, including the identification of new genes and mechanisms controlling shoot architecture...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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