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Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Tijs Ketelaar, Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro J Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörmann, Alexander R van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions influence the stromule frequency in a positive or negative way. A relatively recent discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones, strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrizal fungi. Here we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: stromule frequency (SF) correlates with strigolactone levels in wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Ivan Visentin, Marco Vitali, Manuela Ferrero, Yanxia Zhang, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Claudio Lovisolo, Andrea Schubert, Francesca Cardinale
Strigolactones (SL) contribute to drought acclimatization in shoots, because SL-depleted plants are hypersensitive to drought due to stomatal hyposensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). However, under drought, SL biosynthesis is repressed in roots, suggesting organ specificity in their metabolism and role. Because SL can be transported acropetally, such a drop may also affect shoots, as a systemic indication of stress. We investigated this hypothesis by analysing molecularly and physiologically wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions grafted onto SL-depleted rootstocks, compared with self-grafted WT and SL-depleted genotypes, during a drought time-course...
September 26, 2016: New Phytologist
Claudio Screpanti, Koichi Yoneyama, Harro J Bouwmeester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pest Management Science
Hiromu Kameoka, Elizabeth Ann Dun, Mauricio Lopez-Obando, Philip B Brewer, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Catherine Rameau, Christine A Beveridge, Junko Kyozuka
The cell-to-cell transport of signaling molecules is essential for multicellular organisms to coordinate the action of their cells. Recent studies identified DWARF14 (D14) as a receptor of strigolactones (SLs), molecules that act as plant hormones and inhibit shoot branching. Here, we demonstrate that RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), a pea ortholog of D14, works as a graft-transmissible signal to suppress shoot branching. In addition, we show that D14 protein is contained in phloem sap and transported through the phloem to axillary buds in rice...
September 26, 2016: Plant Physiology
Jeffrey T Mindrebo, Charisse M Nartey, Yoshiya Seto, Michael D Burkart, Joseph P Noel
The alpha/beta hydrolase (ABH) superfamily is a widespread and functionally malleable protein fold recognized for its diverse biochemical activities across all three domains of life. ABH enzymes possess unexpected catalytic activity in the green plant lineage through selective alterations in active site architecture and chemistry. Furthermore, the ABH fold serves as the core structure for phytohormone and ligand receptors in the gibberellin, strigolactone, and karrikin signaling pathways in plants. Despite recent discoveries, the ABH family is sparsely characterized in plants, a sessile kingdom known to evolve complex and specialized chemical adaptations as survival responses to widely varying biotic and abiotic ecologies...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Lu Wang, Steven M Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Marek Marzec
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones, described as regulators of plant growth and development. Recently, it was proposed that these hormones might also be involved in the biotic stress response. However, SLs do not have a universal role in plant protection, instead only playing a part in resistance to specific pathogens.
September 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Nasreldin Mohemed, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Evert J Bakker, Aad van Ast, Abdelgabar Gt Babiker, Harro J Bouwmeester
BACKGROUND: Significant losses in sorghum biomass and grain yield occur in sub-Saharan Africa owing to infection by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. One strategy to avoid these losses is to adopt resistant crop varieties. For further delineation of the role of germination stimulants in resistance, we conducted a field experiment employing six sorghum genotypes, in eastern Sudan, and in parallel analysed the strigolactone levels in the root exudates of these genotypes under controlled conditions in Wageningen...
November 2016: Pest Management Science
Marek Marzec
Strigolactones (SLs), a recently discovered class of phytohormones, are important regulators of plant growth and development. While the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules is well documented, until recently there was not much known about the molecular mechanisms underlying SL perception and signal transduction in plants. Certain aspects of their perception and signaling, including the hormone-mediated interaction between receptor and F-box protein, degradation of suppressor proteins and activation of transcription factors, are also found in other phytohormones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stefano Pavan, Adalgisa Schiavulli, Angelo Raffaele Marcotrigiano, Nicoletta Bardaro, Valentina Bracuto, Francesca Ricciardi, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Concetta Lotti, Harro Bouwmeester, Luigi Ricciardi
Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cultivars are prone to severe infestation. Here, we describe the selection of a pea line highly resistant to O. crenata, following the screening of local genetic resources. Time series observations show that delayed emergence of the parasite is an important parameter associated with broomrape resistance...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Robrecht Dierck, Ellen De Keyser, Jan De Riek, Emmy Dhooghe, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Els Prinsen, Dominique Van Der Straeten
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions...
2016: PloS One
Chuang-Qi Wei, Chih-Wei Chien, Lian-Feng Ai, Jun Zhao, Zhenzhen Zhang, Kathy H Li, Alma L Burlingame, Yu Sun, Zhi-Yong Wang
Plant growth is controlled by integration of hormonal and light-signaling pathways. BZS1 is a B-box zinc finger protein previously characterized as a negative regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR)-signaling pathway and a positive regulator in the light-signaling pathway. However, the mechanisms by which BZS1/BBX20 integrates light and hormonal pathways are not fully understood. Here, using a quantitative proteomic workflow, we identified several BZS1-associated proteins, including light-signaling components COP1 and HY5...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Yuqun Xu, Takuya Miyakawa, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Akira Nakamura, Yusaku Imamura, Tadao Asami, Masaru Tanokura
The perception of two plant germination inducers, karrikins and strigolactones, are mediated by the proteins KAI2 and D14. Recently, KAI2-type proteins from parasitic weeds, which are possibly related to seed germination induced by strigolactone, have been classified into three clades characterized by different responses to karrikin/strigolactone. Here we characterized a karrikin-binding protein in Striga (ShKAI2iB) that belongs to intermediate-evolving KAI2 and provided the structural bases for its karrikin-binding specificity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Akira Akamatsu, Ko Shimamoto, Yoji Kawano
Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) domain-containing receptor OsCERK1, as well as the mechanisms for bacterial MAMP (e...
August 2016: Current Genomics
Juan Camilo Moreno Beltran, Claudia Stange
Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Alexandre de Saint Germain, Guillaume Clavé, Marie-Ange Badet-Denisot, Jean-Paul Pillot, David Cornu, Jean-Pierre Le Caer, Marco Burger, Frank Pelissier, Pascal Retailleau, Colin Turnbull, Sandrine Bonhomme, Joanne Chory, Catherine Rameau, François-Didier Boyer
Strigolactone plant hormones control plant architecture and are key players in both symbiotic and parasitic interactions. They contain an ABC tricyclic lactone connected to a butenolide group, the D ring. The DWARF14 (D14) strigolactone receptor belongs to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolases, and is known to hydrolyze the bond between the ABC lactone and the D ring. Here we characterized the binding and catalytic functions of RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), the pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of rice (Oryza sativa) D14 strigolactone receptor...
October 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Ruifeng Yao, Zhenhua Ming, Liming Yan, Suhua Li, Fei Wang, Sui Ma, Caiting Yu, Mai Yang, Li Chen, Linhai Chen, Yuwen Li, Chun Yan, Di Miao, Zhongyuan Sun, Jianbin Yan, Yuna Sun, Lei Wang, Jinfang Chu, Shilong Fan, Wei He, Haiteng Deng, Fajun Nan, Jiayang Li, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Daoxin Xie
Classical hormone receptors reversibly and non-covalently bind active hormone molecules, which are generated by biosynthetic enzymes, to trigger signal transduction. The α/β hydrolase DWARF14 (D14), which hydrolyses the plant branching hormone strigolactone and interacts with the F-box protein D3/MAX2, is probably involved in strigolactone detection. However, the active form of strigolactone has yet to be identified and it is unclear which protein directly binds the active form of strigolactone, and in which manner, to act as the genuine strigolactone receptor...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Hanaé Roman, Tiffanie Girault, François Barbier, Thomas Péron, Nathalie Brouard, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Alain Vian, Soulaiman Sakr, Jérémy Lothier, José Le Gourrierec, Nathalie Leduc
Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
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