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Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tom Bennett, Yueyang Liang, Madeleine Seale, Sally Ward, Dörte Müller, Ottoline Leyser
Strigolactones are a recently identified class of hormone that regulate multiple aspects of plant development. The DWARF14 (D14) α/β fold protein has been identified as a strigolactone receptor, which can act through the SCF(MAX2) ubiquitin ligase, but the universality of this mechanism is not clear. Multiple proteins have been suggested as targets for strigolactone signalling, including both direct proteolytic targets of SCF(MAX2), and downstream targets. However, the relevance and importance of these proteins to strigolactone signalling in many cases has not been fully established...
December 15, 2016: Biology Open
Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörman, Tijs Ketelaar, Alexander van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions, influence the stromule frequency (SF) in a positive or negative way. A relatively recently discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones; strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: SF correlates with strigolactone levels in the wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), and SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Ruifeng Yao, Zhenhua Ming, Liming Yan, Suhua Li, Fei Wang, Sui Ma, Caiting Yu, Mai Yang, Li Chen, Linhai Chen, Yuwen Li, Chun Yan, Di Miao, Zhongyuan Sun, Jianbin Yan, Yuna Sun, Lei Wang, Jinfang Chu, Shilong Fan, Wei He, Haiteng Deng, Fajun Nan, Jiayang Li, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Daoxin Xie
Classical hormone receptors reversibly and non-covalently bind active hormone molecules, which are generated by biosynthetic enzymes, to trigger signal transduction. The α/β hydrolase DWARF14 (D14), which hydrolyses the plant branching hormone strigolactone and interacts with the F-box protein D3/MAX2, is probably involved in strigolactone detection. However, the active form of strigolactone has yet to be identified and it is unclear which protein directly binds the active form of strigolactone, and in which manner, to act as the genuine strigolactone receptor...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Zhaoqun Yao, Fang Tian, Xiaolei Cao, Ying Xu, Meixiu Chen, Benchun Xiang, Sifeng Zhao
Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Weiqiang Li, Kien Huu Nguyen, Yasuko Watanabe, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yueyang Liang, Sally Ward, Ping Li, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
Strigolactones (SLs) are hormonal signals that regulate multiple aspects of shoot architecture, including shoot branching. Like many plant hormonal signaling systems, SLs act by promoting ubiquitination of target proteins and their subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Recently, SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8, members of the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family of chaperonin-like proteins, have been identified as proteolytic targets of SL signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana However, the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate downstream events remain largely unclear...
July 2016: Plant Cell
Alan Walton, Elisabeth Stes, Geert Goeminne, Lukas Braem, Marnik Vuylsteke, Cedrick Matthys, Carolien De Cuyper, An Staes, Jonathan Vandenbussche, François-Didier Boyer, Ruben Vanholme, Justine Fromentin, Wout Boerjan, Kris Gevaert, Sofie Goormachtig
Strigolactones are plant metabolites that act as phytohormones and rhizosphere signals. Whereas most research on unraveling the action mechanisms of strigolactones is focused on plant shoots, we investigated proteome adaptation during strigolactone signaling in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Through large-scale, time-resolved, and quantitative proteomics, the impact of the strigolactone analog rac-GR24 was elucidated on the root proteome of the wild type and the signaling mutant more axillary growth 2 (max2)...
August 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Deepak Bajaj, Hari D Upadhyaya, Shouvik Das, Vinod Kumar, C L L Gowda, Shivali Sharma, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea...
April 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ortal Madmon, Moran Mazuz, Puja Kumari, Anandamoy Dam, Aurel Ion, Einav Mayzlish-Gati, Eduard Belausov, Smadar Wininger, Mohamad Abu-Abied, Christopher S P McErlean, Liam J Bromhead, Rafael Perl-Treves, Cristina Prandi, Yoram Kapulnik, Hinanit Koltai
MAX2/strigolactone signaling in the endodermis and/or quiescent center of the root is partially sufficient to exert changes in F-actin density and cellular trafficking in the root epidermis, and alter gene expression during plant response to low Pi conditions. Strigolactones (SLs) are a new group of plant hormones that regulate different developmental processes in the plant via MAX2, an F-box protein that interacts with their receptor. SLs and MAX2 are necessary for the marked increase in root-hair (RH) density in seedlings under conditions of phosphate (Pi) deprivation...
June 2016: Planta
Nicholas Morffy, Lionel Faure, David C Nelson
Karrikins and strigolactones are two classes of butenolide molecules that have diverse effects on plant growth. Karrikins are found in smoke and strigolactones are plant hormones, yet both molecules are likely recognized through highly similar signaling mechanisms. Here we review the most recent discoveries of karrikin and strigolactone perception and signal transduction. Two paralogous α/β hydrolases, KAI2 and D14, are respectively karrikin and strigolactone receptors. D14 acts with an F-box protein, MAX2, to target SMXL/D53 family proteins for proteasomal degradation, and genetic data suggest that KAI2 acts similarly...
March 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Maik Klie, Ina Menz, Marcus Linde, Thomas Debener
Chrysanthemums are important ornamental plants with abundant phenotypic diversity. Especially in cut-flower breeding, shoot branching is important for the success of new varieties. To assess the genetic regulation of shoot branching and other horticultural important traits, we phenotyped and genotyped two types of chrysanthemum populations: a genotype collection of 86 varieties and a biparental F1-population (MK11/3) of 160 individuals. Using two different statistical approaches, a genome-wide association analysis and a single marker ANOVA, with AFLP marker data and candidate gene markers for shoot branching, we tried to identify markers correlated to the traits of interest...
April 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ishwarya Soundappan, Tom Bennett, Nicholas Morffy, Yueyang Liang, John P Stanga, Amena Abbas, Ottoline Leyser, David C Nelson
The plant hormones strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins are butenolide signals that control distinct aspects of plant development. Perception of both molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2). Recent studies suggest that the homologous SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) in Arabidopsis and DWARF53 (D53) in rice (Oryza sativa) are downstream targets of MAX2. Through an extensive analysis of loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis SMAX1-LIKE genes SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8 are co-orthologs of rice D53 that promote shoot branching...
November 2015: Plant Cell
Lei Wang, Bing Wang, Liang Jiang, Xue Liu, Xilong Li, Zefu Lu, Xiangbing Meng, Yonghong Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived phytohormones that control many aspects of plant development, including shoot branching, leaf shape, stem secondary thickening, and lateral root growth. In rice (Oryza sativa), SL signaling requires the degradation of DWARF53 (D53), mediated by a complex including D14 and D3, but in Arabidopsis thaliana, the components and mechanism of SL signaling involving the D3 ortholog MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) are unknown. Here, we show that SL-dependent regulation of shoot branching in Arabidopsis requires three D53-like proteins, SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2-LIKE6 (SMXL6), SMXL7, and SMXL8...
November 2015: Plant Cell
Weiqiang Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Recent reports have shown that strigolactones play a positive role in plant responses to drought and salt stress through MAX2 (More Axillary Growth 2). Increasing evidence suggests that MAX2 is also involved in karrikin signaling, raising the question whether karrikins play any role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses.
September 2015: Trends in Plant Science
Chi Yao, Scott A Finlayson
Branching is an important process controlled by intrinsic programs and by environmental signals transduced by a variety of plant hormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) was previously shown to mediate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) branching responses to the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR; an indicator of competition) by suppressing bud outgrowth from lower rosette positions under low R:FR. However, the role of ABA in regulating branching more generally was not investigated. This study shows that ABA restricts lower bud outgrowth and promotes correlative inhibition under both high and low R:FR...
September 2015: Plant Physiology
Elisabeth Stes, Stephen Depuydt, Annick De Keyser, Cedrick Matthys, Kris Audenaert, Koichi Yoneyama, Stefaan Werbrouck, Sofie Goormachtig, Danny Vereecke
Leafy gall syndrome is the consequence of modified plant development in response to a mixture of cytokinins secreted by the biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. The similarity of the induced symptoms with the phenotype of plant mutants defective in strigolactone biosynthesis and signalling prompted an evaluation of the involvement of strigolactones in this pathology. All tested strigolactone-related Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were hypersensitive to R. fascians. Moreover, treatment with the synthetic strigolactone mixture GR24 and with the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase inhibitor D2 illustrated that strigolactones acted as antagonistic compounds that restricted the morphogenic activity of R...
August 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
Alenka Trampuš Bakija, Maruša Debeljak, Irena Preložnik Zupan, Majda Benedik Dolničar, Jernej Kovač, Janez Jazbec
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous bleeding phenotypes are observed in haemophilia A patients with the same mutation in the F8 gene. Specific mutations in the A2 domain of factor VIII are associated with mild haemophilia and a higher risk of inhibitor development. Double mutations in mild haemophilia A are rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the in vitro function of factor VIII, performing different specific and global coagulation assays, observed clinical characteristics and assessed the possible predictive diagnostic value of the differences...
October 2015: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Martine Extermann, Richard R Reich, Marina Sehovic
BACKGROUND: The National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) and adjustment rules after severe toxicity are derived by consensus, but to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the determinants of toxicity recurrence, especially in the elderly. METHODS: The authors prospectively accrued 200 patients (aged ≥65 years) before chemotherapy. For those with CTCAE grade 3 to 4 nonhematologic or CTCAE grade 4 hematologic toxicities (severe toxicity), the duration and functional impact, treatment modifications, and severe toxicity recurrence were recorded...
September 1, 2015: Cancer
Hinanit Koltai
Strigolactones are a new group of plant hormones that suppress shoot branching. In roots, they regulate primary-root growth and lateral-root formation and increase root-hair elongation. Reception of strigolactones occurs via a specific cellular system which includes a D14-like/MAX2-like/SCF complex that, upon perception of strigolactone signalling, leads to certain degradation of receptors and to the release of downstream targets. This signalling pathway may eventually result in changes in actin-filament bundling, cellular trafficking, and PIN localization in the plasma membrane...
August 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
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