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Ourania Lantzouni, Carina Klermund, Claus Schwechheimer
The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and strigolactone (SL) are involved in essential processes in plant development. Both GA and SL signal transduction mechanisms employ α/β-hydrolase-derived receptors that confer E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated protein degradation processes. This suggests a common evolutionary origin of these pathways and possibly a molecular interaction between them. One such indication stems from rice, where the DELLA protein of the GA pathway was reported to interact with the SL receptor...
October 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Attila Végh, Norbert Incze, Attila Fábián, Heqiang Huo, Kent J Bradford, Ervin Balázs, Vilmos Soós
Strigolactones (SLs) and related butenolides, originally identified as active seed germination stimulants of parasitic weeds, play important roles in many aspects of plant development. Two members of the D14 α/β hydrolase protein family, DWARF14 (D14) and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) are essential for SL/butenolide signaling. The third member of the family in Arabidopsis, DWARF 14-LIKE2 (DLK2) is structurally very similar to D14 and KAI2, but its function is unknown. We demonstrated that DLK2 does not bind nor hydrolyze natural (+)5-deoxystrigol [(+)5DS], and weakly hydrolyzes non-natural strigolactone (-)5DS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shuo Lv, Yonghong Zhang, Chen Li, Zhijun Liu, Nan Yang, Lixia Pan, Jinbin Wu, Jiajing Wang, Jingwei Yang, Yanting Lv, Yutao Zhang, Wenqian Jiang, Xiaoping She, Guodong Wang
Accumulating data indicate that strigolactones (SLs) are implicated in the response to environmental stress, implying a potential effect of SLs on stomatal response and thus stress acclimatization. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of SLs on stomatal response and their interrelation with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The impact of SLs on the stomatal response was investigated by conducting SL-feeding experiments and by analyzing SL-related mutants. The involvement of endogenous ABA and ABA-signaling components in SL-mediated stomatal closure was physiologically evaluated using genetic mutants...
September 22, 2017: New Phytologist
Rohan Bythell-Douglas, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W D Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, David C Nelson, Tom Bennett
BACKGROUND: Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth. The SL signalling mechanism is homologous to that of karrikins (KARs), smoke-derived compounds that stimulate seed germination. In angiosperms, the SL receptor is an α/β-hydrolase known as DWARF14 (D14); its close homologue, KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), functions as a KAR receptor and likely recognizes an uncharacterized, endogenous signal ('KL'). Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the KAI2 lineage is ancestral in land plants, and that canonical D14-type SL receptors only arose in seed plants; this is paradoxical, however, as non-vascular plants synthesize and respond to SLs...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
Carolien De Cuyper, Sylwia Struk, Lukas Braem, Kris Gevaert, Geert De Jaeger, Sofie Goormachtig
The plant hormones strigolactones are synthesized from carotenoids and signal via the α/β hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2). Karrikins, molecules produced upon fire, share MAX2 for signalling, but depend on the D14 paralog KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) for perception with strong evidence that the MAX2-KAI2 protein complex might also recognize so far unknown plant-made karrikin-like molecules. Thus, the phenotypes of the max2 mutants are the complex consequence of a loss of both D14-dependent and KAI2-dependent signalling, hence, the reason why some biological roles, attributed to strigolactones based on max2 phenotypes, could never be observed in d14 or in the strigolactone-deficient max3 and max4 mutants...
May 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Qian-Feng Li, Li-Chun Huang, Ke Wei, Jia-Wen Yu, Chang-Quan Zhang, Qiao-Quan Liu
Light and brassinosteroid (BR) are master environmental stimulus and endogenous cue for plant growth and development respectively. Great progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms on the cross-talk between light and BR. However, little is known about how BZR1, the pivotal integration node, is regulated by light and dark. Here, we demonstrated that an intact BR signaling pathway is essential for dark-induced hypocotyl elongation. Consequent expression assay showed that light-dark switch affected BZR1 phosphorylation and accumulation...
April 30, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Eva-Sophie Wallner, Vadir López-Salmerón, Ilya Belevich, Gernot Poschet, Ilona Jung, Karin Grünwald, Iris Sevilem, Eija Jokitalo, Rüdiger Hell, Yrjö Helariutta, Javier Agustí, Ivan Lebovka, Thomas Greb
Plant stem cell niches, the meristems, require long-distance transport of energy metabolites and signaling molecules along the phloem tissue. However, currently it is unclear how specification of phloem cells is controlled. Here we show that the genes SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1-LIKE3 (SMXL3), SMXL4, and SMXL5 act as cell-autonomous key regulators of phloem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The three genes form an uncharacterized subclade of the SMXL gene family that mediates hormonal strigolactone and karrikin signaling...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tom Bennett, Yueyang Liang, Madeleine Seale, Sally Ward, Dörte Müller, Ottoline Leyser
Strigolactones are a recently identified class of hormone that regulate multiple aspects of plant development. The DWARF14 (D14) α/β fold protein has been identified as a strigolactone receptor, which can act through the SCF(MAX2) ubiquitin ligase, but the universality of this mechanism is not clear. Multiple proteins have been suggested as targets for strigolactone signalling, including both direct proteolytic targets of SCF(MAX2), and downstream targets. However, the relevance and importance of these proteins to strigolactone signalling in many cases has not been fully established...
December 15, 2016: Biology Open
Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörman, Tijs Ketelaar, Alexander van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions, influence the stromule frequency (SF) in a positive or negative way. A relatively recently discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones; strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: SF correlates with strigolactone levels in the wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), and SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Ruifeng Yao, Zhenhua Ming, Liming Yan, Suhua Li, Fei Wang, Sui Ma, Caiting Yu, Mai Yang, Li Chen, Linhai Chen, Yuwen Li, Chun Yan, Di Miao, Zhongyuan Sun, Jianbin Yan, Yuna Sun, Lei Wang, Jinfang Chu, Shilong Fan, Wei He, Haiteng Deng, Fajun Nan, Jiayang Li, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Daoxin Xie
Classical hormone receptors reversibly and non-covalently bind active hormone molecules, which are generated by biosynthetic enzymes, to trigger signal transduction. The α/β hydrolase DWARF14 (D14), which hydrolyses the plant branching hormone strigolactone and interacts with the F-box protein D3/MAX2, is probably involved in strigolactone detection. However, the active form of strigolactone has yet to be identified and it is unclear which protein directly binds the active form of strigolactone, and in which manner, to act as the genuine strigolactone receptor...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Zhaoqun Yao, Fang Tian, Xiaolei Cao, Ying Xu, Meixiu Chen, Benchun Xiang, Sifeng Zhao
Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Weiqiang Li, Kien Huu Nguyen, Yasuko Watanabe, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yueyang Liang, Sally Ward, Ping Li, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
Strigolactones (SLs) are hormonal signals that regulate multiple aspects of shoot architecture, including shoot branching. Like many plant hormonal signaling systems, SLs act by promoting ubiquitination of target proteins and their subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Recently, SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8, members of the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family of chaperonin-like proteins, have been identified as proteolytic targets of SL signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana However, the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate downstream events remain largely unclear...
July 2016: Plant Cell
Alan Walton, Elisabeth Stes, Geert Goeminne, Lukas Braem, Marnik Vuylsteke, Cedrick Matthys, Carolien De Cuyper, An Staes, Jonathan Vandenbussche, François-Didier Boyer, Ruben Vanholme, Justine Fromentin, Wout Boerjan, Kris Gevaert, Sofie Goormachtig
Strigolactones are plant metabolites that act as phytohormones and rhizosphere signals. Whereas most research on unraveling the action mechanisms of strigolactones is focused on plant shoots, we investigated proteome adaptation during strigolactone signaling in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Through large-scale, time-resolved, and quantitative proteomics, the impact of the strigolactone analog rac-GR24 was elucidated on the root proteome of the wild type and the signaling mutant more axillary growth 2 (max2)...
August 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Deepak Bajaj, Hari D Upadhyaya, Shouvik Das, Vinod Kumar, C L L Gowda, Shivali Sharma, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea...
April 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ortal Madmon, Moran Mazuz, Puja Kumari, Anandamoy Dam, Aurel Ion, Einav Mayzlish-Gati, Eduard Belausov, Smadar Wininger, Mohamad Abu-Abied, Christopher S P McErlean, Liam J Bromhead, Rafael Perl-Treves, Cristina Prandi, Yoram Kapulnik, Hinanit Koltai
MAX2/strigolactone signaling in the endodermis and/or quiescent center of the root is partially sufficient to exert changes in F-actin density and cellular trafficking in the root epidermis, and alter gene expression during plant response to low Pi conditions. Strigolactones (SLs) are a new group of plant hormones that regulate different developmental processes in the plant via MAX2, an F-box protein that interacts with their receptor. SLs and MAX2 are necessary for the marked increase in root-hair (RH) density in seedlings under conditions of phosphate (Pi) deprivation...
June 2016: Planta
Nicholas Morffy, Lionel Faure, David C Nelson
Karrikins and strigolactones are two classes of butenolide molecules that have diverse effects on plant growth. Karrikins are found in smoke and strigolactones are plant hormones, yet both molecules are likely recognized through highly similar signaling mechanisms. Here we review the most recent discoveries of karrikin and strigolactone perception and signal transduction. Two paralogous α/β hydrolases, KAI2 and D14, are respectively karrikin and strigolactone receptors. D14 acts with an F-box protein, MAX2, to target SMXL/D53 family proteins for proteasomal degradation, and genetic data suggest that KAI2 acts similarly...
March 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Maik Klie, Ina Menz, Marcus Linde, Thomas Debener
Chrysanthemums are important ornamental plants with abundant phenotypic diversity. Especially in cut-flower breeding, shoot branching is important for the success of new varieties. To assess the genetic regulation of shoot branching and other horticultural important traits, we phenotyped and genotyped two types of chrysanthemum populations: a genotype collection of 86 varieties and a biparental F1-population (MK11/3) of 160 individuals. Using two different statistical approaches, a genome-wide association analysis and a single marker ANOVA, with AFLP marker data and candidate gene markers for shoot branching, we tried to identify markers correlated to the traits of interest...
April 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ishwarya Soundappan, Tom Bennett, Nicholas Morffy, Yueyang Liang, John P Stanga, Amena Abbas, Ottoline Leyser, David C Nelson
The plant hormones strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins are butenolide signals that control distinct aspects of plant development. Perception of both molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2). Recent studies suggest that the homologous SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) in Arabidopsis and DWARF53 (D53) in rice (Oryza sativa) are downstream targets of MAX2. Through an extensive analysis of loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis SMAX1-LIKE genes SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8 are co-orthologs of rice D53 that promote shoot branching...
November 2015: Plant Cell
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