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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#1
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928235/testosterone-protects-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-castrated-male-rats-mainly-via-modulating-er-stress
#2
Yue Jia, Jennifer Kuang Yee, Christina Wang, Liana Nikolaenko, Maruja Diaz-Arjonilla, Joshua N Cohen, Samuel W French, Peter Y Liu, YanHe Lue, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Ronald S Swerdloff
We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement)...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925161/-protective-effects-of-liuwei-wuling-tablet-on-acute-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#3
Ping Yin, He-Rong Cui, Cong-En Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ya-Kun Meng, Lan-Zhi He, Hui-Min Liu, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The protective action and the relevant mechanism of Liuwei Wuling tablet on acute alcoholic hepatic injury in mice were investigated. All the C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 7 groups including blank, model, bifendate (150 mg•kg⁻¹, positive control) and experimental groups consisted of extremely low dose (0.1 g•kg⁻¹), low (0.5 g•kg⁻¹), upper (4 g•kg⁻¹) and high dose (8 g•kg⁻¹) of Liuwei Wuling tablet groups. The acute liver injury model was induced by modified method that the model, positive control and experimental groups were orally administrated 56% alcohol (6 g•kg⁻¹) twice at 12 hour intervals on the fifth day after drugs administration...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924552/schisandra-sphenanthera-extract-wuzhi-tablet-protects-against-chronic-binge-and-acute-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-by-regulating-the-nrf2-are-pathway-in-mice
#4
Xuezhen Zeng, Xi Li, Chenshu Xu, Fulin Jiang, Yufei Mo, Xiaomei Fan, Yaoting Li, Yiming Jiang, Dongshun Li, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Alcohol abuse leads to alcoholic liver disease and no effective therapy is currently available. Wuzhi Tablet (WZ), a preparation of extract from Schisandra sphenanthera that is a traditional hepato-protective herb, exerted a significant protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in our recent studies, but whether WZ can alleviate alcohol-induced toxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of WZ to alcohol-induced liver injury by using chronic-binge and acute models of alcohol feeding...
September 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923496/deficiency-of-the-mitochondrial-nad-kinase-causes-stress-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#5
Kezhong Zhang, Hyunbae Kim, Zhiyao Fu, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Jiemei Wang, Deqiang Zhang, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Jing Li, Jianmei Wu, Nathan R Qi, Sander M Houten, Ren Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) kinase (NADK2, also called MNADK) catalyzes phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. Little is known about the functions of mitochondrial NADP and MNADK in liver physiology and pathology. We investigated the effects of reduced mitochondrial NADP by deleting MNADK in mice. METHODS: We generated MNADK-knockout (KO) mice on a C57BL/6NTac background; mice with a wild-type Mnadk gene were used as controls...
September 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923327/vitamin-e-deficiency-and-oxidative-status-are-associated-with-prediabetes-in-apparently-healthy-subjects
#6
Gabriela Rodríguez-Ramírez, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Manuela de la A Carrera-Gracia, Martha-Angélica Quintanar-Escorza
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that vitamin E deficiency and oxidative stress affect the beta cell function. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women aged 18-65 years were enrolled in a case-control study. Individuals with new diagnosis of prediabetes were considered as cases and compared with a control group of individuals with normal glucose tolerance...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923202/dietary-linoleic-acid-and-its-oxidized-metabolites-exacerbate-liver-injury-caused-by-ethanol-via-induction-of-hepatic-proinflammatory-response-in-mice
#7
Dennis R Warner, Huilin Liu, Matthew E Miller, Christopher E Ramsden, Bin Gao, Ariel E Feldstein, Susanne Schuster, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Alcoholic liver disease is a major human health problem leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. Dietary fat plays an important role in alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of ethanol and a diet rich in linoleic acid (LA) leads to the increased production of oxidized LA metabolites (OXLAMs), specifically 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), which contribute to a hepatic proinflammatory response exacerbating liver injury...
October 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#8
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918083/topical-fluorometholone-treatment-and-desiccating-stress-change-inflammatory-protein-expression-in-tears
#9
Janika Nättinen, Antti Jylhä, Ulla Aapola, Amalia Enríquez-de-Salamanca, José Pinto-Fraga, Alberto López-Miguel, María J González-García, Michael E Stern, Margarita Calonge, Lei Zhou, Matti Nykter, Hannu Uusitalo, Roger Beuerman
PURPOSE: It was hypothesized that tear protein biomarkers could predict the effects of topical steroid treatment and desiccating stress in patients with dry eye disease (DED). To test this concept, a randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial with 41 patients was conducted. METHODS: The patients were treated topically with either 0.1% fluorometholone (FML) or polyvinyl alcohol (PA). Tear samples were collected using 1 μl glass capillaries at recruitment into the study and after a 3-week treatment period, both before and after 2 h exposure to desiccating stress, in a controlled environment chamber...
September 13, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917394/childhood-maltreatment-severity-and-alcohol-use-in-adult-psychiatric-inpatients-the-mediating-role-of-emotion-regulation-difficulties
#10
Christina D Dutcher, Anka A Vujanovic, Daniel J Paulus, Brooke A Bartlett
OBJECTIVE: Emotion regulation difficulties are a potentially key mechanism underlying the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol use in adulthood. The current study examined the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the association between childhood maltreatment severity (i.e., Childhood Trauma Questionnaire total score) and past-month alcohol use severity, including alcohol consumption frequency and alcohol-related problems (i.e., number of days of alcohol problems, ratings of "bother" caused by alcohol problems, ratings of treatment importance for alcohol problems)...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#11
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914801/gender-differences-in-problematic-alcohol-consumption-in-university-professors
#12
Pablo Ruisoto, Silvia L Vaca, José J López-Goñi, Raúl Cacho, Iván Fernández-Suárez
The role of job satisfaction and other psychosocial variables in problematic alcohol consumption within professional settings remains understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the level of problematic alcohol consumption among male and female university professors and associated psychosocial variables. A total of 360 professors (183 men and 177 women) of a large private university in Ecuador were surveyed using standardized instruments for the following psychosocial measures: alcohol consumption, job satisfaction, psychological stress, psychological flexibility, social support and resilience...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914438/antihypercholesterolemic-antioxidant-and-renal-protective-effects-of-mengkudu-rubiaceae-fruit-in-nephropathy-induced-albino-rats
#13
U S Mahadeva Rao, C Shanmuga Sundaram
OBJECTIVE: To assess the modulatory impact of alcoholic extract of fruit of Mengkudu (AEFM, Morinda citrifolia L., Rubiaceae) on renal oxido-lipidemic stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups with six rats in each group: group I as control, group II fed with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 days (4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid), Group III rats fed with HCD for 45 days + AEFM (300 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for last 30 days and group IV normal rats fed AEFM alone...
September 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913713/ethnic-groups-differ-in-how-poor-self-rated-mental-health-reflects-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Shervin Assari
AIM: This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912063/differential-expression-by-chromatin-modifications-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-1-of-chorispora-bungeana-in-cold-stress
#15
Lijun Liu, Yuan Song, Jun Xu, Dongming Li, Gaopeng Li, Lizhe An
Epigenetic modifications regulate plant genes to cope with a variety of environmental stresses. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant with strong tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, especially cold stress. In this study, we characterized the alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene from Chorispora bungeana, CbADH1, that is up-regulated in cold conditions. Overexpression of CbADH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana improved cold tolerance, as indicated by a decreased lethal temperature (LT50). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that histone H3 is removed from the promoter region and the middle-coding region of the gene...
September 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911936/exercise-training-in-patients-with-pulmonary-and-systemic-hypertension-a-unique-therapy-for-two-different-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Leggio, Augusto Fusco, Giorgio Limongelli, Luca Sgorbini
Pulmonary hypertension is a potentially life-threatening condition. Given its evolving definition, the incidence and prevalence of the disease is difficult to define, but registries suggest an increased global awareness. The management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension is highly specialised and requires multi-disciplinary input from a range of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, respiratory physicians, rheumatologists, rehabilitation physicians and cardio-pulmonary physiotherapists...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911644/nephroprotective-effect-of-paeonia-emodi-via-inhibition-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Lalit Kishore, Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol (PA) and hydroalcohol (PHA) extract of Paeonia emodi Royale roots in treatment of streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally) 15 minutes after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration and diabetic nephropathy was assessed by measuring serum glucose, renal parameters (urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen level) and lipid profile...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910184/the-impact-of-alexithymia-on-desire-for-alcohol-during-a-social-stress-test
#18
Cindy Knapton, Gillian Bruce, Lynn Williams
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality construct comprising difficulty in identifying and describing emotions and externally oriented thinking. Its role in heavy and problematic alcohol consumption is well documented, together with its relationship with social stress. However, little research has examined whether social stress has any effect on desire for alcohol among alexithymic individuals. OBJECTIVES: In this experimental study, we explored the relationship between alexithymia and desire for alcohol in response to an experimental social stressor...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902430/reduced-serum-igf-1-associated-with-hepatic-osteodystrophy-is-a-main-determinant-of-low-cortical-but-not-trabecular-bone-mass
#19
Zhongbo Liu, Tianzhen Han, Haim Werner, Clifford J Rosen, Mitchell B Schaffler, Shoshana Yakar
Hepatic osteodystrophy is multifactorial in its pathogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that impairments of the hepatic growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis (GH/IGF-1) are common in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and chronic cholestatic liver disease. Moreover these conditions are also associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and greater fracture risk, particularly in cortical bone sites. Hence, we addressed whether disruptions in the GH/IGF-1 axis were causally related to the low bone mass in states of chronic liver disease using a mouse model of liver-specific GH-receptor (GHR) gene deletion (Li-GHRKO)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901327/selective-lesioning-of-nuclear-factor-kb-activated-cells-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-attenuates-alcohol-place-preference
#20
S E Nennig, H D Fulenwider, S H Chimberoff, B M Smith, J E Eskew, M K Sequeira, C Karlsson, C Liang, J Chen, M Heilig, J R Schank
Nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a transcription factor commonly associated with innate immunity, and is activated by infection and inflammation. NFkB has recently gained attention as a mediator of complex psychiatric phenomena like stress and addiction. In regards to alcohol, most research on NFkB has focused on neurotoxicity, and few studies have explored the role of NFkB in alcohol reward, reinforcement, or consumption. In these studies, we used conditioned place preference to assess the activity of NFkB in response to rewarding doses of alcohol...
September 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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