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Corticotropin releasing hormone

Naveen Kumar Thakral, Robert J Behme, Aktham Aburub, Jeffrey A Peterson, Timothy A Woods, Benjamin A Diseroad, Raj Suryanarayanan, Gregory A Stephenson
Disproportionation propensity of salts (HCl, HBr, hemi-napadisylate) and adipic acid co-crystal of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor-1 antagonist, was studied using model free kinetics. Using thermogravimetic weight loss profile or heat flow curves from differential scanning calorimetry, an activation energy plot for salts and co-crystal was generated based on model free kinetics. This activation energy of disproportionation provided qualitative information about the solid state salt stability. To ensure the stability throughout the shelf life, "prototype" formulations of salts and co-crystal in tablet form, were stored at 40 °C and several water vapor pressures...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Chulin Yu, Meiling Li, Yue Wang, Ying Liu, Chengzhi Yan, Jirong Pan, Jiali Liu, Sheng Cui
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling system is involved in numbers of stress-related physiological and pathological responses,including its inhibiting effects on estradiol (E2) synthesis and follicular development in the ovary. In addition, there are reports that microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the function of animal reproductive system. The aim of present study was to investigate the functions of miR-375 and the relationship between miR-375 and CRH signaling molecules in the porcine ovary. First, our common PCR results show that miR-375 and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) are expressed in porcine ovary, whereas CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) is not detected...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Hyoseung Shin, Soon-Jin Choi, A-Ri Cho, Dong Young Kim, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. METHODS: Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Roshan R Naik, Trynke R de Jong
Motherhood brings about a multitude of behavioral and physiological changes in dams and some of these persist until after weaning. We studied behavioral changes associated with reproductive experience at lactating day (LD)8, at weaning (LD21), and 28 days post-weaning (PW28) compared to nulliparous (NP) females. Furthermore, in another cohort of animals, we quantified mRNA expression of five target genes known to be associated with maternal experience: arginin-vasopressin(Avp) and its 1A receptor(Avpr1a), oxytocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr), and corticotropin-releasing hormone(Crh) in three key maternal region: the medial preoptic area (MPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus(PVN)...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Cezary Skobowiat, Arnold E Postlethwaite, Andrzej T Slominski
The back skin of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to a single 400 mJ/cm(2) dose of ultraviolet B (UVB), and parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in relation to immune activity were tested after 30-90 min following irradiation. Levels of brain and/or plasma corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) were enhanced by UVB. Hypophysectomy had no effect on UVB-induced increases of CORT. Mitogen induced IFNγ production by splenocytes from UVB-treated mice was inhibited at 30, 90 min and after 24 h...
September 26, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
P Schüssler, M Kluge, W Gamringer, T C Wetter, A Yassouridis, M Uhr, R Rupprecht, A Steiger
We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mei Hua Gao, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, N Chin Lai, Evelyn Walenta, Vivian Almeida Paschoal, Young Chul Kim, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tracy Guo, Min Liao, Li Liu, Zhen Tan, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simon Schenk, Aditi Bhargava, Da Young Oh, H Kirk Hammond
Using mice rendered insulin resistant with high fat diets (HFD), we examined blood glucose levels and insulin resistance after i.v. delivery of an adeno-associated virus type 8 encoding murine urocortin 2 (AAV8.UCn2). A single i.v. injection of AAV8.UCn2-normalized blood glucose and glucose disposal within weeks, an effect that lasted for months. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps showed reduced plasma insulin, increased glucose disposal rates, and increased insulin sensitivity following UCn2 gene transfer...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Hossein Tezval, Natalia Dubrowinskaja, Inga Peters, Christel Reese, Katrin Serth, Faranaz Atschekzei, Jörg Hennenlotter, Arnulf Stenzl, Markus A Kuczyk, Jürgen Serth
The relevance of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)-system in human malignancies is a question of growing interest. Here we investigated hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing of the CRH-Binding Protein (CRHBP) gene in clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC). Relative methylation of the CRHBP CpG island (CGI) was determined in 17 tumor cell lines as well as 86 ccRCC samples and 66 paired normal tissues using pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation specific PCR of bisulfite converted DNA. Results were statistically compared with relative mRNA expression levels of CRHBP and clinicopathological parameters of patients...
2016: PloS One
O G Shaker, S M R Eltahlawi, S O Tawfic, A M Eltawdy, N I E Bedair
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a disorder characterized by depigmented patches in the skin. Psychological stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the brain as well as on the peripheral level and aggravate autoimmune skin diseases. Skin appendages have dual functions dually as prominent targets and sources of the peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-proopiomelanocortin axis. AIM: To assess the role of CRH and CRHR-1 in vitiligo, and its possible association with psychological stress...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Xun Helen Hou, Minsuk Hyun, Julian Taranda, Kee Wui Huang, Emmalee Todd, Danielle Feng, Emily Atwater, Donyell Croney, Mark Lawrence Zeidel, Pavel Osten, Bernardo Luis Sabatini
Urine release (micturition) serves an essential physiological function as well as a critical role in social communication in many animals. Here, we show a combined effect of olfaction and social hierarchy on micturition patterns in adult male mice, confirming the existence of a micturition control center that integrates pro- and anti-micturition cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a cluster of neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) in the pontine micturition center (PMC) is electrophysiologically distinct from their Crh-negative neighbors and sends glutamatergic projections to the spinal cord...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Kun Li, Miho Nakajima, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
The frequency of human social and emotional disorders varies significantly between males and females. We have recently reported that oxytocin receptor interneurons (OxtrINs) modulate female sociosexual behavior. Here, we show that, in male mice, OxtrINs regulate anxiety-related behaviors. We demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding protein (CRHBP), an antagonist of the stress hormone CRH, is specifically expressed in OxtrINs. Production of CRHBP blocks the CRH-induced potentiation of postsynaptic layer 2/3 pyramidal cell activity of male, but not female, mice, thus producing an anxiolytic effect...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Michael Peroski, Nikoletta Proudan, George Grignol, Istvan Merchenthaler, Bertalan Dudas
It is a general consensus that stress is one of the major factors that suppresses growth. Previous studies revealed that the catecholaminergic and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems, involved in the activation of stress-related neuronal circuits, influence growth hormone (GH)-release via modulating growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion. Indeed, catecholaminergic and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) axon varicosities abut on the surface of the GHRH neurons forming contacts. These juxtapositions appear to be real synapses and may represent the morphological substrate of the impact of stress on growth...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Franciele Donato, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Leandro Cattelan Souza, Renata Giacomeli, Michelle Antunes, Cristiane Luchese, Silvane Souza Roman, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Chrysin is a flavonoid which is found in bee propolis, honey and various plants. Antidepressant-like effect of chrysin in chronically stressed mice was previously demonstrated by our group. Conversely, neurochemical factors associated with this effect require further investigations. Thus, we investigated the possible involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, kynurenine pathway (KP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism and caspases activities in the effect of chrysin in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS)...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
R Zhang, M Asai, C E Mahoney, M Joachim, Y Shen, G Gunner, J A Majzoub
A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, whereas extra-hypothalamic CRH has a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jia Du, Shutao Wang, Hong You, Zhongqiang Liu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) are widely distributed in the environment. However, the potential toxicity of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO remains to be fully elucidated. The test investigated the effects of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to a combination of PFOS (0.2, 0.4, 0.8mg/L) and nano-ZnO (50mg/L) from their early stages of life (0-14days). The whole-body content of TH and the expression of genes and proteins related to the HPT axis were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Marina Eliava, Joachim Hanke, Herbert Schwegler, Esther Asan
The cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation of the amygdala plays an important role in attention, emotional arousal, aversive forms of associative learning, conditioned responses, and stress responsivity. Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) rats are an ideal model to study the potential impact of this innervation on behavioral responses, because they were selected bidirectionally for differences in their two-way active avoidance performance. RHA rats are known to quickly acquire two-way active avoidance and show indications of enhanced impulsive behavior, novelty seeking, and vulnerability to substance abuse, whereas RLA rats exhibit a passive coping style with high levels of immobility and enhanced stress responsivity...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Shinya Kinoshita, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Hiroki Kikuyama, Hiroshi Yoneda
BACKGROUND: To reduce the number of patients with depression, biomarkers for clarifying psychiatric disorders are warranted. Numerous candidates have been proposed; however, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with multi-channel probes and a dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) test are still surviving for practical demand. Thirty-one outpatients with depressed moods were analyzed using both biological tests. RESULTS: The non-suppressors, as indicated by the DEX/CRH test, exhibited a high severity on the Hamilton Depression Scale and severe anxiety on the State Trait Anxiety Scale...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Reiko Okada, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Itaru Hasunuma, Jota Asahina, Sakae Kikuyama
In a previous study, we showed that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing factor in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) hypothalamus. Our findings prompted us to ascertain whether CRF or arginine vasotocin (AVT), a known adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretagogue in several vertebrates, is the main stimulator of the release of ACTH from the bullfrog pituitary. Both the frog CRF and AVT stimulated the release of immunoassayable ACTH from dispersed anterior pituitary cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Stan de Kleijn, Gerben Ferwerda, Michelle Wiese, Jos Trentelman, Jan Cuppen, Tamas Kozicz, Linda de Jager, Peter W M Hermans, B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade
There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT...
October 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
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