keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Corticotropin releasing hormone

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#1
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#2
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183242/decoding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-type-1-crystal-structures
#3
Andrew S Doré, Andrea Bortolato, Kaspar Hollenstein, Robert K Y Cheng, Randy J Read, Fiona H Marshall
The structural analysis of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), cell surface proteins responding to peptide hormones, has until recently been restricted to the extracellular domain (ECD). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) is a class B receptor mediating stress response and also considered a drug target for depression and anxiety. Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in complex with the small-molecule antagonist CP-376395 in a hexagonal setting with translational non-crystallographic symmetry...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174066/discovery-of-4-chloro-2-2-4-dichloro-6-methylphenoxy-1-methyl-7-pentan-3-yl-1h-benzimidazole-a-novel-crf1-receptor-antagonist
#4
Michiyo Mochizuki, Takuto Kojima, Katsumi Kobayashi, Etsuo Kotani, Yuji Ishichi, Naoyuki Kanzaki, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Teruaki Okuda, Yohei Kosugi, Takahiko Yano, Yuu Sako, Maiko Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Aso
Compound 1 exhibits potent binding inhibition activity against a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor (IC50=9.5nM) and in vitro antagonistic activity (IC50=88nM) but is rapidly metabolized by human hepatic microsomes (182μL/min/mg). Here we identified metabolically stable compounds with potent CRF binding inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies considering in vitro metabolic stability revealed that 4-chloro-2-(2,4-dichloro-6-methylphenoxy)-1-methyl-7-(pentan-3-yl)-1H-benzimidazole 24d was more stable in human microsomes (87μL/min/mg) than compound 1...
November 8, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162848/altered-functionality-of-the-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-hyperphagic-maternally-separated-rats
#5
V Alcántara-Alonso, M I Amaya, G Matamoros-Trejo, P de Gortari
Early-life stress induces endocrine and metabolic alterations that increase food intake and overweight in adulthood. The stress response activates the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins' (Ucns) system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These peptides induce anorexic effects through CRH-R2 receptor activation; however, chronic stressed animals develop hyperphagia despite of high PVN CRH expression. We analyzed this paradoxical behavior in adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180min/daily during post-natal days 2-14, evaluating their body weight gain, food intake, serum corticosterone and vasopressin concentrations, PVN mRNA expression of CRH-R1, CRH-R2, CRH, Ucn2, Ucn3, vasopressin and CRH-R2 protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151936/promoter-methylation-pattern-controls-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene-activity-in-human-trophoblasts
#6
Xin Pan, Maria Bowman, Rodney J Scott, John Fitter, Roger Smith, Tamas Zakar
Placental CRH production increases with advancing pregnancy in women and its course predicts gestational length. We hypothesized that CRH gene expression in the placenta is epigenetically controlled setting gestational trajectories characteristic of normal and pathological pregnancies. Here we determined histone modification and DNA methylation levels and DNA methylation patterns at the CRH promoter in primary trophoblast cultures by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with clonal bisulfite sequencing and identified the transcriptionally active epialleles that associate with particular histone modifications and transcription factors during syncytialisation and cAMP-stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137650/functional-evidence-that-the-nucleus-of-the-hippocampal-commissure-shows-an-earlier-activation-from-a-stressor-than-the-paraventricular-nucleus-implication-of-an-additional-structural-component-of-the-avian-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#7
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Despite extensive data addressing the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in vertebrates, the neuroendocrine regulation of stress in birds remains incomplete. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains the key neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), containing neurons. However, another population of CRH neurons was recently identified in a septal nucleus called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Therefore, the current study investigated changes in gene expression of CRH and AVT in the PVN and CRH in the NHpC, as well as changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations following a stressor, food deprivation...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134998/endocannabinoid-signaling-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#8
Cecilia J Hillard, Margaret Beatka, Jenna Sarvaideo
The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system. A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132133/stress-response-brain-noradrenergic-system-and-cognition
#9
Pawel J Winklewski, Marek Radkowski, Magdalena Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Urszula Demkow
Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response...
January 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119322/the-role-of-glucocorticoids-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-regulation-on-anxiety-symptoms-and-response-to-treatment
#10
Greta Bielaczyc Raglan, Louis A Schmidt, Jay Schulkin
The stress response has been linked to the expression of anxiety and depression, but the mechanisms for these connections are under continued consideration. The activation and expression of glucocorticoids and CRH are variable, and may hold important clues to individual experiences of mood disorders. This paper explores the interactions of glucocorticoids and CRH in the presentation of anxiety and depressive disorders in an effort to better describe their differing roles in each of these clinical presentations...
January 24, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115688/sex-specific-gene-environment-interactions-underlying-asd-like-behaviors
#11
Sara M Schaafsma, Khatuna Gagnidze, Anny Reyes, Natalie Norstedt, Karl Månsson, Kerel Francis, Donald W Pfaff
The male bias in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is one of the most notable characteristics of this group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of this sex bias is far from known, but pivotal for understanding the etiology of ASDs in general. Here we investigate whether a "three-hit" (genetic load × environmental factor × sex) theory of autism may help explain the male predominance. We found that LPS-induced maternal immune activation caused male-specific deficits in certain social responses in the contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) mouse model for ASD...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103786/crh-receptor-signalling-potential-roles-in-pathophysiology
#12
Styliani Ourailidou, Dimitris Grammatopoulos
To maintain homeostatic equilibrium, living organisms have evolved complex adaptation systems that control an array of behavioural, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune responses. One of the important switches The master switch of this system is the hypothalamic hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which together with a family of related peptides (urocortins, UCNs) orchestrate stress-coping responses that reinstate homeostasis. Persistent disturbances in the homeostatic equilibrium either due to inadequate or persistently uncontrolled responses have been associated with pathogenic mechanisms of disease...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103783/understanding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-crfr-activation-using-structural-models
#13
Arnau Cordomi, George Liapakis, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas
The corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptors (CRF1R and CRF2R) belong to the secretin-like family, also known as class B1, of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several endogenous hormones mediate their responses through the CRF receptors, such as CRF and the urocortins. The structures for the N-terminus extracellular domain of both CRF1R and CRF2R in complex with peptidic ligands were released a few years ago and permitted the study of hormone binding to the orthosteric binding site. It was not until more recently, when the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in its inactive state bound to an allosteric antagonist became available...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101317/corticotropin-releasing-factor-overexpression-in-mice-abrogates-sex-differences-in-body-weight-visceral-fat-and-food-intake-response-to-a-fast-and-alters-levels-of-feeding-regulatory-hormones
#14
Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. METHODS: Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096430/testing-hypotheses-about-individual-variation-in-plasma-corticosterone-in-free-living-salamanders
#15
Jessica R Thomas, Andrew J Magyan, Peter E Freeman, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, many responses to stress as well as homeostatic maintenance of basal metabolism are regulated by plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Despite having crucial functions, levels of GCs are typically variable among individuals. We examined the contribution of several physiological factors to individual variation in plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the magnocellular preoptic area of the brain in free-living Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#16
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#17
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090002/easy-detection-of-hormone-secretion-from-l%C3%AE-t2-cells-by-using-gaussia-luciferase
#18
Kazuhiro Satou, Yuta Mochimaru, Takashi Nakakura, Tomoyuki Kusada, Jun Negishi, Shiori Musha, Nanaka Yoshimura, Yukio Kato, Hideaki Tomura
Reproduction is regulated by gonadotropins secreted from gonadotrophs. The production and secretion of gonadotropins are mainly regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Agonists or antagonists that influence GnRH action on gonadotrophs are important to regulate reproduction; however, these factors have not been fully characterized due to the lack of simple and easy-to-use techniques to detect gonadotropin secretion from gonadotropin-producing cells. In the present study, we found that Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), which was expressed in LβT2 cells, can be secreted like a luteinizing-hormone (LH) upon stimulation with GnRH...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089702/the-visible-burrow-system-a-view-from-across-the-hall
#19
REVIEW
James P Herman, Kellie L Tamashiro
The visible burrow system (VBS) is an ethologically relevant social stress model that creates a distinct dominance hierarchy in rats. Randall Sakai's laboratory performed an impressive series of studies documenting the very different impact of VBS exposure on the brain and behavior of dominants (DOM) and subordinates (SUBs). Hierarchy formation causes pronounced changes in metabolism in SUBs relative to both DOMs and unstressed controls, resulting in marked weight loss and metabolic imbalance. Stress testing revealed multiple phenotypes in the VBS, including DOMs, stress-responsive SUBs and stress-non-responsive SUBs...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071586/milestones-in-crh-research
#20
George P Chrousos, Emmanouil Zoumakis
The Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) mammalian family members include CRH, urocortin I, Stresscopin (SCP) and Stresscopin-related peptide (SRP), along with the CRH receptors type 1 (CRHR1) and type 2 (CRHR2), and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). These family members differ in their tissue distribution and pharmacology. Several studies have provided evidence supporting an important role of this family in the regulation of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. Regulation of the relative contribution of CRH and its homologs and the two CRH receptors in brain CRH pathways may be essential in coordinating physiologic responses to stress...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
keyword
keyword
76564
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"