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Corticotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158579/rare-susceptibility-variants-for-bipolar-disorder-suggest-a-role-for-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#1
C Cruceanu, J-F Schmouth, S G Torres-Platas, J P Lopez, A Ambalavanan, E Darcq, F Gross, B Breton, D Spiegelman, D Rochefort, P Hince, J M Petite, J Gauthier, R G Lafrenière, P A Dion, C M Greenwood, B L Kieffer, M Alda, G Turecki, G A Rouleau
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a prevalent mood disorder that tends to cluster in families. Despite high heritability estimates, few genetic susceptibility factors have been identified over decades of genetic research. One possible interpretation for the shortcomings of previous studies to detect causative genes is that BD is caused by highly penetrant rare variants in many genes. We explored this hypothesis by sequencing the exomes of affected individuals from 40 well-characterized multiplex families. We identified rare variants segregating with affected status in many interesting genes, and found an enrichment of deleterious variants in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family genes, which are important drug targets...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146410/cart-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamic-area-exert-differential-controls-on-energy-homeostasis
#3
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Yue Qi, Regine Heilbronn, Mario Mietzsch, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVE: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. METHODS: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX) technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively, was achieved...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137551/environmental-manipulations-as-an-effective-alternative-treatment-to-reduce-endometriosis-progression
#4
Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Leslie L Rivera, Idhaliz Flores, Caroline B Appleyard
Treatments for endometriosis include pharmacological or surgical procedures that produce significant side effects. We aimed to determine how environmental enrichment (EE) could impact the progression of endometriosis using the autotransplantation rat model. Female rats were exposed to EE (endo-EE: toys and nesting materials, 4 rats per cage, larger area enclosure) or no enrichment (endo-NE: 2 rats per cage) starting on postnatal day 21. After 8 weeks, sham surgery or surgical endometriosis was induced by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery, then allowed to progress for 60 days during which EE or NE continued...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137071/a-comparative-study-of-biological-and-metabolic-biomarkers-between-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-acne-vulgaris-a-cross-sectional-study-protocol
#5
Kyuseok Kim, Injin Ha, Eunok Kim, Kyunglee Kim
Acne is a multifactorial dermatosis, which is influenced not only by hormones but also by the biochemical relationship between them and the pilosebaceous unit. Inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, active oxygen, and zinc are known to be associated with the development of acne. Further, steroid metabolism is known as one of the important factors related to sebum secretion and comedone formation in acne. However, there is a lack of studies comparing these human biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#6
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129606/transgenerational-blunting-of-morphine-induced-corticosterone-secretion-is-associated-with-dysregulated-gene-expression-in-male-offspring
#7
Fair M Vassoler, Anika M Toorie, Elizabeth M Byrnes
A number of parental experiences, even when occurring prior to conception, have been shown to induce transgenerational effects beyond the first generation. In the case of exposure to drugs of abuse, studies in rodents suggest that offspring demonstrate significant differences in how they respond to the drug to which their parent was exposed. We have previously observed significant alterations in morphine analgesia, conditioned place preference and self-administration in the offspring of females exposed to morphine during adolescent development...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126185/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-suppresses-synapse-formation-in-hippocampus-of-male-rats-via-inhibition-of-cxcl5-secretion-by-glia
#8
Yanmin Zhang, You Zheng, Yongjun Xu, Hui Sheng, Xin Ni
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is implicated to play a critical role in stress-induced synaptic formation and modification. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms underlying CRH modulation of synaptic formation in hippocampus using various models in vitro. In cultured hippocampal slices, CRH treatment decreased synapsin I and PSD95 levels via CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1). In isolated hippocampal neurons, however, it increased synapsin I-labeled presynaptic terminals and PSD95-labeled postsynaptic terminals via CRHR1...
November 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125588/glucocorticoids-cause-gender-dependent-reversal-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-the-mdr2-knockout-mouse-model
#9
Anca D Petrescu, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Jessica Kain, Karam Hadidi, Elaina Williams, Matthew McMillin, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic cholestasis is associated with a significant suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of the HPA axis by corticosterone treatment can reverse liver inflammation and fibrosis in a multidrug resistance protein 2 knockout (MDR2KO) transgenic mouse model of hepatic cholestasis. Friend Virus B NIH-Jackson (FVBN) control and MDR2KO male and female mice were treated with vehicle or corticosterone for two weeks, then serum and liver analyses of hepatic cholestasis markers were performed...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121520/effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-gene-targeted-ablation-on-ghrelin-induced-feeding
#10
Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Chiara Di Nisio, Michele Vacca, Giustino Orlando, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals...
November 6, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082267/intermittent-access-to-ethanol-induces-escalated-alcohol-consumption-in-primates
#11
S G Lindell, M L Schwandt, S J Suomi, K C Rice, M Heilig, C S Barr
BACKGROUND: Escalation of voluntary alcohol drinking is characteristic of alcohol addiction and can be induced in rodents using intermittent access to alcohol. This model has been used to evaluate candidate therapeutics, but key systems involved in the transition into alcohol addiction, such as CRF, differ in their organization between rodents and primates. We examined the ability of an intermittent access schedule to induce escalation of voluntary alcohol drinking in non-human primates and used this model to assess the role of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF) signaling in this process...
April 2017: Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080551/the-dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-test-in-healthy-and-depressed-women-with-and-without-childhood-adversity
#12
Carsten Spitzer, Christian Otte, Linn K Kuehl, Anita May, Katharina Schultebraucks, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Katja Wingenfeld
BACKGROUND: Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are a prominent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Inconsistencies regarding a hyper- or hypoactive HPA axis may be explained by the moderating effect of childhood adverse experiences (ACE) which are associated with both HPA axis dysfunction and MDD in adulthood. We aimed to systematically disentangle the effects of ACE and MDD on HPA axis by comparing healthy women with and without childhood adversity and women with MDD with and without ACE...
October 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080355/tumour-lateralization-in-cushing-s-disease-by-inferior-petrosal-sinus-sampling-with-desmopressin
#13
Ming Feng, Ziyuan Liu, Xiaohai Liu, Xiaobo Zhang, Xinjie Bao, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Bing Xing, Wei Lian, Huijuan Zhu, Lin Lu, Renzhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is currently the gold standard in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease (CD) and has also been used in tumour lateralization. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic value and lateralization accuracy of IPSS with desmopressin. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients with Cushing's syndrome who had either negative findings on pituitary dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or non-suppressed high dose dexamethasone suppression tests (HDDST)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074327/thyrotropic-activity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-an-altricial-bird-species-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#14
Yugo Watanabe, Sylvia V H Grommen, Bert De Groef
In chicken, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts as a thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing factor, mediated by the type 2 CRH receptor (CRHR2) on the thyrotropes of the pituitary gland. It is not known whether CRH also controls TSH release in non-precocial avian species that have a different pattern of thyroidal activity during their life cycle. Therefore, we investigated the TSH-releasing capacity of CRH in an altricial species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Cellular localisation of type 1 CRH receptor (CRHR1) and CRHR2 mRNA in the pituitary was determined by in situ hybridisation, combined with immunohistochemical staining of pituitary thyrotropes...
October 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069807/chronic-high-dose-of-captopril-induces-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mice-possible-mechanism-of-regulatory-t-cell-in-depression
#15
Hyun-Sun Park, Arum Han, Hye-Lim Yeo, Min-Jung Park, Min-Jung You, Hyun Jin Choi, Chang-Won Hong, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Borah Kim, Min-Soo Kwon
Major depression has various types of symptoms and disease courses with inconsistent response to monoamine-related antidepressants. Thus, monoamine theory may not be the only pathophysiologic pathway relevant to depression. Recently, it has been suggested that regulatory T cell (Treg) is associated with depression. Based on our previous study that showed decreased regulatory T cell (Treg) population following chronic high-dose captopril (CHC, 40 mg/kg/day * 21 days) administration, we examined whether CHC alone can induce depressive-like behaviors in mice even without stressful stimuli...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069596/suppressed-calbindin-levels-in-hippocampal-excitatory-neurons-mediate-stress-induced-memory-loss
#16
Ji-Tao Li, Xiao-Meng Xie, Jing-Ying Yu, Ya-Xin Sun, Xue-Mei Liao, Xing-Xing Wang, Yun-Ai Su, Yi-Jun Liu, Mathias V Schmidt, Xiao-Dong Wang, Tian-Mei Si
Calbindin modulates intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and synaptic plasticity. Reduction of hippocampal calbindin levels has been implicated in early-life stress-related cognitive disorders, but it remains unclear how calbindin in distinct populations of hippocampal neurons contributes to stress-induced memory loss. Here we report that early-life stress suppressed calbindin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons, and calbindin knockdown in adult CA1 or DG excitatory neurons mimicked early-life stress-induced memory loss...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069304/estradiol-dependent-stimulation-and-suppression-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-firing-activity-by-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-in-female-mice
#17
Chayarndorn Phumsatitpong, Suzanne M Moenter
GnRH neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. CRH released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further (OVX) to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH...
October 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069262/an-activating-mutation-in-the-crhr1-gene-is-rarely-associated-with-pituitary-dependent-hyperadrenocorticism-in-poodles
#18
Viviani De-Marco, Luciani R Carvalho, Mariana F Guzzo, Paulo S L Oliveira, Larissa G Gomes, Berenice B Mendonca
OBJECTIVES: Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism is the most common cause of naturally occurring hypercortisolism in dogs. CRHR1 expression in human and dog corticotrophinomas suggested that this gene affects pituitary tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate mutations in the CRHR1 coding region in poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. METHODS: Fifty poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and 50 healthy poodles were studied...
October 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066956/cell-type-specific-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-in-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Kyle D Ketchesin, Nicholas S Huang, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with very high affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. CRH-BP is widely expressed throughout the brain, with particularly high expression in regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recent studies suggest a role for CRH-BP in stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, with the PFC being a potential site of interest. However, the molecular phenotype of CRH-BP-expressing cells in this region has not been well-characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056294/enhanced-ampa-receptor-trafficking-mediates-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-endogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-paraventricular-hypothalamus
#20
Ji Liu, Kristie Conde, Peng Zhang, Varoth Lilascharoen, Zihui Xu, Byung Kook Lim, Randy J Seeley, J Julius Zhu, Michael M Scott, Zhiping P Pang
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
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