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Corticotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#1
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889892/effects-of-mental-stress-induction-on-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#3
Katja Petrowski, Susann Wichmann, Timo Siepmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Martin Siepmann
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) constitutes a widely used marker of cardiac autonomic inflexibility which has been linked to disorders such as panic disorder (PD). To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby panic leads to attenuated HRV are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PD patients show pathological reactivity both in response to interoceptive and psychosocial stress in comparison to healthy individuals. We performed a controlled study on 38 patients diagnosed with PD [20 males and 18 females aged 35...
November 26, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873537/brain-region-specific-effects-of-immobilization-stress-on-cholinesterases-in-mice
#4
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked to increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871026/copeptin-a-potential-endocrine-surrogate-marker-of-cck-4-induced-panic-symptoms
#5
Cüneyt Demiralay, Agorastos Agorastos, Alexander Yassouridis, Holger Jahn, Klaus Wiedemann, Michael Kellner
Intravenous cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) administration reliably and dose-dependently provokes panic anxiety in man, accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release. Preclinical findings suggest that behavioral and endocrine effects of CCK-4 are mediated via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release. Anxiogenic stimulation of the central CCK-receptors in man was shown to increase as well vasopressin (AVP), which acts synergistically with CRH as pituitary-adrenocortical axis stimulator during stress...
November 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#7
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826021/effects-of-exposure-to-microcystin-lr-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-on-the-metabolism-of-thyroid-hormones-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Zidong Liu, Dapeng Li, Qing Hu, Rong Tang, Li Li
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. However, the effects of MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations on the thyroid system in adult fish are still unclear. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L MC-LR for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Whole-body thyroid hormones (THs) levels and thyroid follicle histology were used to assess thyroid function. The transcription of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), transthyretin (ttr), thyroid hormone receptors (trs) genes, and the activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) were investigated to study the process of TH metabolism disruption...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809751/structure-and-function-of-small-non-peptide-crf-antagonists-and-their-potential-clinical-use
#9
Hesham Fahmy, Bahimanna Kuppast, Mohamed Teleb Ismail
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) can be considered a very important hormone or a chemical mediator. It works closely with other systems to regulate the manner through which the body may respond to stress. Thus it affect many biological processes associated with stress. Dysfunction of this system has also been correlated with various diseases such as major depression, anxiety, drug addiction and eating disorders. Rationally, this means that interfering with binding of CRF to its intended receptors can be an attractive target for drug design aiming at developing new medications for many ailments that are associated with stress such as depression, anxiety and stress-induced relapse in drug addiction...
November 1, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807170/converging-synergistic-actions-of-multiple-stress-hormones-mediate-enduring-memory-impairments-after-acute-simultaneous-stresses
#10
Yuncai Chen, Jenny Molet, Julie C Lauterborn, Brian H Trieu, Jessica L Bolton, Katelin P Patterson, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch, Tallie Z Baram
: Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805752/targeting-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-projections-from-the-oval-nucleus-of-the-bnst-using-cell-type-specific-neuronal-tracing-studies-in-mouse-and-rat-brain
#11
Joanna Dabrowska, Daisy Martinon, Mahsa Moaddab, Donald G Rainnie
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to play a critical role in mediating the behavioral and autonomic responses to stressors. The oval nucleus of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesize the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Although afferent fibers originating from the BNSTov have been shown to innervate several key structures of the neuroendocrine and central autonomic system, the question remains as to whether, some of these fibers are CRF-positive. To directly address this question, we injected a "floxed" anterograde tracer (rAAV5/EF1a-DIO-mCherry) into the BNSTov of CRFp3...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793433/kinetic-profile-of-neuropeptide-receptor-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Indira Nederpelt, Julia Bunnik, Adriaan P IJzerman, Laura H Heitman
Currently, drug discovery focusses only on quantifying pharmacological parameters, sometimes including binding kinetics, of drug candidates. For a complete understanding of a drug's desired binding kinetics, the kinetics of both the target and its endogenous ligands should be considered. This is because the release and binding kinetics of endogenous ligands in addition to receptor internalization rates are significant contributors to drug-target interactions. Here, we discuss the kinetic profile of three neuropeptides and their receptors; gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y receptors, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R)...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788503/seasonal-variation-in-group-size-is-related-to-seasonal-variation-in-neuropeptide-receptor-density
#13
Leah C Wilson, James L Goodson, Marcy A Kingsbury
In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus)...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784851/postpartum-hypothalamic-adrenal-insufficiency-with-remission-a-rare-case
#14
Yuko Akehi, Yoko Hashimoto, Junko Meren, Makito Tanabe, Takashi Nomiyama, Toshihiko Yanase
A 37-year-old female patient was hospitalized because of general fatigue and loss of axillary and pubic hair after massive bleeding at delivery of her third child. The basal levels of both plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol were very low, 5.2 pg/mL and 1.9 μg/dL, respectively. Based on the fact that ACTH showed a low response to insulin tolerance test and a normal response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), she was diagnosed with hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. No organic lesions were found in the hypothalamic-pituitary region by pituitary MRI and hydrocortisone therapy was instituted...
October 25, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777046/crh-peptide-evolution-occurred-in-three-phases-evidence-from-characterizing-sea-lamprey-crh-system-members
#15
Matthew J Endsin, Ola Michalec, Lori A Manzon, David A Lovejoy, Richard G Manzon
The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system, which includes the CRH family of peptides, their receptors (CRHRs) and a binding protein (CRHBP), has been strongly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. The identification of invertebrate homologues suggests this system evolved over 500 million years ago. However, the early vertebrate evolution of the CRH system is not understood. Current theory indicates that agnathans (hagfishes and lampreys) are monophyletic with a conservative evolution over the past 500million years and occupy a position at the root of vertebrate phylogeny...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766882/salt-disproportionation-in-the-solid-state-role-of-solubility-and-counter-ion-volatility
#16
Naveen Kumar Thakral, Robert J Behme, Aktham Aburub, Jeffrey A Peterson, Timothy A Woods, Benjamin A Diseroad, Raj Suryanarayanan, Gregory A Stephenson
Disproportionation propensity of salts (HCl, HBr, hemi-napadisylate) and adipic acid co-crystal of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor-1 antagonist, was studied using model free kinetics. Using thermogravimetic weight loss profile or heat flow curves from differential scanning calorimetry, an activation energy plot for salts and co-crystal was generated based on model free kinetics. This activation energy of disproportionation provided qualitative information about the solid state salt stability. To ensure the stability throughout the shelf life, "prototype" formulations of salts and co-crystal in tablet form, were stored at 40 °C and several water vapor pressures...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756810/mir-375-mediates-crh-signaling-pathway-in-inhibiting-e2-synthesis-in-porcine-ovary
#17
Chulin Yu, Meiling Li, Yue Wang, Ying Liu, Chengzhi Yan, Jirong Pan, Jiali Liu, Sheng Cui
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling system is involved in numbers of stress-related physiological and pathological responses,including its inhibiting effects on estradiol (E2) synthesis and follicular development in the ovary. In addition, there are reports that microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the function of animal reproductive system. The aim of present study was to investigate the functions of miR-375 and the relationship between miR-375 and CRH signaling molecules in the porcine ovary. First, our common PCR results show that miR-375 and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) are expressed in porcine ovary, whereas CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) is not detected...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746640/acute-stress-induced-changes-in-follicular-dermal-papilla-cells-and-mobilization-of-mast-cells-implications-for-hair-growth
#18
Hyoseung Shin, Soon-Jin Choi, A-Ri Cho, Dong Young Kim, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. METHODS: Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733201/activation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-contributes-to-the-immunosuppression-of-mice-infected-with-angiostrongylus-cantonensis
#19
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717050/transient-and-persistent-behavioral-and-molecular-changes-in-primiparous-female-wistar-rats
#20
Roshan R Naik, Trynke R de Jong
Motherhood brings about a multitude of behavioral and physiological changes in dams and some of these persist until after weaning. We studied behavioral changes associated with reproductive experience at lactating day (LD)8, at weaning (LD21), and 28 days post-weaning (PW28) compared to nulliparous (NP) females. Furthermore, in another cohort of animals, we quantified mRNA expression of five target genes known to be associated with maternal experience: arginin-vasopressin(Avp) and its 1A receptor(Avpr1a), oxytocin(Oxt) and its receptor(Oxtr), and corticotropin-releasing hormone(Crh) in three key maternal region: the medial preoptic area (MPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus(PVN)...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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