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Corticotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935583/role-of-elasmobranchs-and-holocephalans-in-understanding-peptide-evolution-in-the-vertebrates-lessons-learned-from-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-phylogenies
#1
REVIEW
David A Lovejoy, Ola M Michalec, David W Hogg, David I Wosnick
The cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes) comprise two morphologically distinct subclasses; Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. Evidence indicates early divergence of these subclasses, suggesting monophyly of their lineage. However, such a phylogenetic understanding is not yet developed within two highly conserved peptide lineages, GnRH and CRF. Various GnRH forms exist across the Chondrichthyes. Although 4-7 immunoreactive forms have been described in Elasmobranchii, only one has been elucidated in Holocephali...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929494/crhr2-ucn2-signaling-is-a-novel-regulator-of-mir-7-yy1-fas-circuitry-contributing-to-reversal-of-colorectal-cancer-cell-resistance-to-fas-mediated-apoptosis
#2
Charalabos Pothoulakis, Monica Torre-Rojas, Marco A Duran-Padilla, Jonathan Gevorkian, Odysseas Zoras, Emmanuel Chrysos, George Chalkiadakis, Stavroula Baritaki
Colorectal cancer (CRC) responds poorly to immuno-mediated cytotoxicity. Underexpression of Corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2 (CRHR2) in CRC, promotes tumor survival, growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), in vitro and in vivo. We explored the role of CRHR2 downregulation in CRC cell resistance to Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. CRC cell sensitivity to CH11-induced apoptosis was compared between Urocortin-2 (Ucn2)-stimulated parental and CRHR2-overexpressing CRC cell lines and targets of CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling were identified through in vitro and ex vivo analyses...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912247/mir-212-mediates-counter-regulation-on-crh-expression-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-male-mice
#3
Yuxiao Tang, Xingjian Cai, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Shen, Wanyin Wang, Zhilei Shen, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Min Li
The mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been studied persistently but still are not elucidated. Considering the emerging roles of microRNA in stress response, we conducted a microRNA microarray in mice hypothalamus to identify the potential role of microRNAs in regulating the HPA axis. In total, 41 microRNAs changed during heat stress, in which we found that miR-212 contains binding sequence with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 3'UTR according to sequence analysis. We observed that miR-212 expression in the hypothalamus was escalated by repeated heat and restraint stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911267/the-behavioral-and-molecular-evaluation-of-effects-of-social-instability-stress-as-a-model-of-stress-related-disorders-in-adult-female-rats
#4
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz, Andrzej Małecki
The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8)...
September 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911133/kisspeptin-is-a-novel-regulator-of-human-fetal-adrenocortical-development-and-function-a-finding-with-important-implications-for-the-human-fetoplacental-unit
#5
Harshini Katugampola, Peter J King, Sumana Chatterjee, Muriel Meso, Andrew J Duncan, John C Achermann, Leo Guasti, Lea Ghataore, Norman F Taylor, Rebecca Allen, Shemoon Marlene, Joseph Aquilina, Ali Abbara, Channa N Jaysena, Waljit S Dhillo, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi, Helen L Storr
Context: The human fetal adrenal (HFA) is an integral component of the fetoplacental unit and important for the maintenance of pregnancy. Low kisspeptin levels during pregnancy are associated with miscarriage, and kisspeptin and its receptor are expressed in the HFA. However, the role of kisspeptin in fetal adrenal function remains unknown. Objective: To determine the role of kisspeptin in the developing HFA. Design: Experiments using H295R and primary HFA cells as in vitro models of the fetal adrenal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902910/pituitary-genomic-expression-profiles-of-steers-are-altered-by-grazing-of-high-vs-low-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-forages
#6
Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J Bridges, James C Matthews
Consumption of ergot alkaloid-containing tall fescue grass impairs several metabolic, vascular, growth, and reproductive processes in cattle, collectively producing a clinical condition known as "fescue toxicosis." Despite the apparent association between pituitary function and these physiological parameters, including depressed serum prolactin; no reports describe the effect of fescue toxicosis on pituitary genomic expression profiles. To identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, we compared the global and selected targeted mRNA expression patterns of pituitaries collected from beef steers that had been randomly assigned to undergo summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a high-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895465/paraneoplastic-cushing-syndrome-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Annelies Deldycke, Christel Haenebalcke, Youri Taes
OBJECTIVES: Paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome is a rare condition, representing a small fraction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent cases of Cushing syndrome Methods: Four case descriptions and literature review, highlighting the diagnostic challenges and treatment options are presented. RESULTS: Different tumor types can be associated with ectopic ACTH secretion. The most common types are bronchial carcinoids and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)...
September 12, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895001/regulation-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-responses-to-stressors-by-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-dorsal-vagal-complex
#8
REVIEW
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889197/changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-amygdala-circuitry-in-inhibitory-avoidance-ptsd-model
#9
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872712/regulation-of-hypothalamic-crh-neuron-excitability-by-oxytocin
#10
Bradley B Jamieson, Betina B Nair, Karl J Iremonger
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide that exerts multiple actions throughout the brain and periphery. Within the brain, OT regulates diverse neural populations, including neural networks controlling responses to stress. Local release of OT within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has been suggested to regulate stress responses by modulating the excitability of neighboring corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. However, the mechanisms by which OT regulates CRH neuron excitability are unclear...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871578/secondary-adrenal-insufficiency-following-nivolumab-therapy-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Toshiro Seki, Atsushi Yasuda, Masayuki Oki, Natsumi Kitajima, Atsushi Takagi, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Akira Miyajima, Masafumi Fukagawa
Currently, nivolumab (an anti-programmed cell death-1 receptor monoclonal antibody) is available for many types of advanced cancers in Japan. However, there have been few detailed case reports about endocrine-related adverse events of this therapy. Here, we report a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who presented with secondary adrenal insufficiency following nivolumab therapy. Endocrinological assessment by rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests revealed that the patient's disorder was a secondary adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary dysfunction...
September 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863347/deletion-of-dlk2-increases-the-vulnerability-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-impairs-the-anxiolytic-action-of-alprazolam
#12
Francisco Navarrete, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Laborda, Jorge Manzanares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the non-canonical DLK2 NOTCH ligand in the regulation of emotional behavior. To this aim, anxiety and depressive-like behaviors were examined in Dlk2 knock-out (Dlk2(-/-)) and its corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, relative gene expression analyses of corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in the hippocampus (HIPP), and the transcription factors Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 in the PVN, HIPP and amygdala (AMY) were carried out in Dlk2(-/-) and WT mice under basal conditions and after exposure to restraint stress...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859148/stellate-ganglion-block-attenuates-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#13
Weiwei Wang, Weidong Shi, Hua Qian, Xijin Deng, Tong Wang, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851616/regulation-of-gonadotropins-by-urocortin-2-in-gonadotropic-tumor-l%C3%AE-t2-cells
#14
Kazunori Kageyama, Shingo Murasawa, Kanako Niioka, Fumio Otsuka, Hiroko Yagi, Makoto Daimon
A close interaction has been shown between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) has a very high affinity for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 (CRF2) receptor. Pituitary Ucn2 regulates expression and secretion of gonadotropins in response to stress. The CRF2 receptor in the pituitary contributes to the modulation of gonadotropins. To explore the possible function of Ucn2 and the CRF2 receptor in pituitary gonadotropic tumor cells, we examined the direct regulation of gonadotropins by Ucn2 in a representative pituitary gonadotropic tumor, mouse LβT2 cells...
August 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844644/role-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-cerebellar-motor-control-and-ataxia
#15
Yi Wang, Zhang-Peng Chen, Qian-Xing Zhuang, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Hong-Zhao Li, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
Cerebellar ataxia, characterized by motor incoordination, postural instability, and gait abnormality [1-3], greatly affects daily activities and quality of life. Although accumulating genetic and non-genetic etiological factors have been revealed [4-7], effective therapies for cerebellar ataxia are still lacking. Intriguingly, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter [8, 9], is considered a putative neurotransmitter in the olivo-cerebellar system [10-14]. Notably, decreased levels of CRF in the inferior olive (IO), the sole origin of cerebellar climbing fibers, have been reported in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration or olivopontocerebellar atrophy [15, 16], yet little is known about the exact role of CRF in cerebellar motor coordination and ataxia...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842817/methamphetamine-induces-tet1-and-tet3-dependent-dna-hydroxymethylation-of-crh-and-avp-genes-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Subramaniam Jayanthi, Betina Gonzalez, Michael T McCoy, Bruce Ladenheim, Veronica Bisagno, Jean Lud Cadet
Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a biopsychosocial disorder that is accompanied by multiple relapses even after prolonged abstinence, suggesting the possibilities of long-lasting maladaptive epigenetic changes in the brain. Here, we show that METH administration produced time-dependent increases in the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh/Crf), arginine vasopressin (Avp), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript prepropeptide (Cartpt) mRNAs in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that METH increased the abundance of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) at the promoter of Cartpt but not at Avp or Crh DNA sequences...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808144/particulate-matter-exposure-and-stress-hormone-levels-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-of-air-purification
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Renjie Chen, Zhuohui Zhao, Zhekang Ying, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Ke Hao, Patrick L Kinney, Honglei Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but potential mechanisms are largely unknown. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach to study global metabolic changes in response to environmental exposures. We therefore conducted this study to investigate changes in serum metabolites in response to the reduction of PM exposure among healthy college students. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind crossover trial in 55 healthy college students in Shanghai, China...
August 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804807/plasma-cortisol-response-cannot-be-classically-conditioned-in-a-taste-endocrine-paradigm-in-humans
#18
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Marisa Kügler, Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Lars Möller, Manfred Schedlowski
RATIONALE: Peripheral immune responses can be modified by associative learning procedures. Less is known, however, whether and to what extent neuroendocrine parameters can be classically conditioned. OBJECTIVES: In this randomized double-blind study, we modified an established paradigm to behaviorally condition endocrine responses in humans. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy male participants received a distinctively flavored green drink as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (CRH group, N = 17) or NaCl (placebo group, N = 14) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during two subsequent acquisition trials...
August 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797603/chronic-traumatic-stress-impairs-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-acetylcholine-neuroinflammation-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Ami Bhakta, Kartheek Gavini, Euitaek Yang, Lani Lyman-Henley, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790896/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-crh-neurons-in-whole-mouse-brain
#20
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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