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Corticotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071586/milestones-in-crh-research
#1
George P Chrousos, Emmanouil Zoumakis
The Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) mammalian family members include CRH, urocortin I, Stresscopin (SCP) and Stresscopin-related peptide (SRP), along with the CRH receptors type 1 (CRHR1) and type 2 (CRHR2), and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). These family members differ in their tissue distribution and pharmacology. Several studies have provided evidence supporting an important role of this family in the regulation of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. Regulation of the relative contribution of CRH and its homologs and the two CRH receptors in brain CRH pathways may be essential in coordinating physiologic responses to stress...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057867/molecular-diversity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-mrna-containing-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus
#2
Roman A Romanov, Alan Alpar, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
Hormonal responses to acute stress rely on the rapid induction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production in the mammalian hypothalamus, with subsequent instructive steps culminating in corticosterone release at the periphery. Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are therefore considered "stress neurons". However, significant morphological and funtional diversity amongst neurons that can transiently produce CRH in other hypothalamic nuclei has been proposed, particularly since histochemical evidence associates CRH to both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057851/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-improves-survival-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia-by-reducing-pulmonary-inflammation
#3
Brittney Burnley, Harlan P Jones
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052282/changes-in-intestinal-motility-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-rat-stress-model
#4
Takaaki Murakami, Kazuhiro Kamada, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuki Higashimura, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes chronic abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. The etiology involves complicated interactions among visceral hypersensitivity, disorders related to bowel movements, and stress. Changes in the microbiota affect the IBS pathophysiology. We investigated changes in colorectal motility, structure, and microbiota in response to stress due to maternal separation (MS) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration in rats. SUMMARY: Neonatal rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018291/adrenal-gland-microenvironment-and-its-involvement-in-the-regulation-of-stress-induced-hormone-secretion-during-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999963/identification-of-an-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-rat-pars-tuberalis-a-possible-interface-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system
#6
Arsalan Jafarpour, Faramarz Dehghani, Horst-Werner Korf
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are ubiquitous endogenous lipid derivatives and play an important role in intercellular communication either in an autocrine/paracrine or in an endocrine fashion. Recently, an intrinsic EC system has been discovered in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) of hamsters and humans. In hamsters, this EC system is under photoperiodic control and appears to influence the secretion of hormones such as prolactin from the adenohypophysis. We investigate the EC system in the PT of the rat, a frequently used species in endocrine research...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997125/secretagogin-is-a-redox-responsive-ca-2-sensor
#7
Radhika Khandelwal, Anand Kumar Sharma, Swathi Chadalawada, Yogendra Sharma
Secretagogin (SCGN), a multifunctional, Ca(2+) binding, regulatory protein, known to regulate insulin release, has recently been implicated in the control of stress-related corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion. Localization of SCGN to multiple intracellular (such as cytosol, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum) and extracellular sites appears to provide multifunctional capabilities; however, the structural elements conferring such a widespread cellular distribution to SCGN remain unidentified. We report that the spatial and functional attributes of SCGN plausibly originate from the interplay between Ca(2+) and its redox state...
January 5, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#8
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964740/lw-afc-a-new-formula-derived-from-liuwei-dihuang-decoction-ameliorates-behavioral-and-pathological-deterioration-via-modulating-the-neuroendocrine-immune-system-in-prp-ha%C3%AE-ppswe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mice
#9
Jian-Hui Wang, Xi Lei, Xiao-Rui Cheng, Xiao-Rui Zhang, Gang Liu, Jun-Ping Cheng, Yi-Ran Xu, Ju Zeng, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates the neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network in the physiopathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, we previously revealed that the NIM network is dysregulated in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1(ΔE9) (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD. METHODS: After treatment with a novel Liuwei Dihuang formula (LW-AFC), mice were cognitively evaluated in behavioral experiments. Neuron loss, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, and Aβ level were analyzed using Nissl staining, immunofluorescence, and an AlphaLISA assay, respectively...
December 13, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956119/long-term-effects-of-repeated-maternal-separation-and-ethanol-intake-on-hpa-axis-responsiveness-in-adult-rats
#10
María Mercedes Odeon, Laura Yamauchi, Mauricio Grosman, Gabriela Beatriz Acosta
It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers...
December 9, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951520/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-dopamine-release-in-healthy-individuals
#11
Doris Payer, Belinda Williams, Esmaeil Mansouri, Suzanna Stevanovski, Shinichiro Nakajima, Bernard Le Foll, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Susan R George, Tony P George, Isabelle Boileau
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key component of the neuroendocrine response to stress. In animal models, CRH has been shown to modulate dopamine release, and this interaction is believed to contribute to stress-induced relapse in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether CRH administration induces dopamine release in humans, using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers (5 female, 22-48 years old) completed two PET scans with the dopamine D2/3 receptor radioligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO: once after saline injection, and once after injection of corticorelin (synthetic human CRH)...
December 1, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933199/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-in-patients-with-persistently-active-sle-results-of-a-phase-4-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#12
Richard Furie, Margaret Mitrane, Enxu Zhao, Maya Das, Daner Li, Patrice M Becker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a prolonged-release formulation of a porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone analogue (repository corticotropin injection (RCI)) added to standard of care in patients requiring moderate-dose corticosteroids for symptomatic SLE. METHODS: This prospective, randomised, double-blind, phase 4, pilot study (NCT01753401) enrolled 38 patients with persistently active SLE involving skin and/or joints. Enrolled patients received RCI, 40 U daily or 80 U every other day, or volume-matched placebo gel, for 8 weeks, with dose tapering to twice weekly during weeks 5-8...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930715/apparent-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-suppression-via-reduction-of-interleukin-6-by-glucocorticoid-therapy-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#13
Natsuki Fujio, Shotaro Masuoka, Kotaro Shikano, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
CONTEXT: Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a serious complication of systemic glucocorticoid therapy. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the HPA axis after onset of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight glucocorticoid-naïve patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (28 women) who were starting prednisolone therapy according to our standard regimens were prospectively observed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#14
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#15
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889892/effects-of-mental-stress-induction-on-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#17
Katja Petrowski, Susann Wichmann, Timo Siepmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Martin Siepmann
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) constitutes a widely used marker of cardiac autonomic inflexibility which has been linked to disorders such as panic disorder (PD). To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby panic leads to attenuated HRV are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PD patients show pathological reactivity both in response to interoceptive and psychosocial stress in comparison to healthy individuals. We performed a controlled study on 38 patients diagnosed with PD [20 males and 18 females aged 35...
November 26, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873537/brain-region-specific-effects-of-immobilization-stress-on-cholinesterases-in-mice
#18
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked to increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871026/copeptin-a-potential-endocrine-surrogate-marker-of-cck-4-induced-panic-symptoms
#19
Cüneyt Demiralay, Agorastos Agorastos, Alexander Yassouridis, Holger Jahn, Klaus Wiedemann, Michael Kellner
Intravenous cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) administration reliably and dose-dependently provokes panic anxiety in man, accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release. Preclinical findings suggest that behavioral and endocrine effects of CCK-4 are mediated via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release. Anxiogenic stimulation of the central CCK-receptors in man was shown to increase as well vasopressin (AVP), which acts synergistically with CRH as pituitary-adrenocortical axis stimulator during stress...
November 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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