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Corticotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550160/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-exacerbates-chronic-cardiac-dysfunction
#1
Takuma Tsuda, Mikito Takefuji, Nina Wettschureck, Kazuhiko Kotani, Ryota Morimoto, Takahiro Okumura, Harmandeep Kaur, Shunsuke Eguchi, Teruhiro Sakaguchi, Sohta Ishihama, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Kazumasa Unno, Kunihiro Matsushita, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Stefan Offermanns, Toyoaki Murohara
Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to effectively pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. Despite numerous therapeutic advancements over previous decades, the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure remains poor, emphasizing the need to identify additional pathophysiological factors. Here, we show that corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (Crhr2) is a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and continuous infusion of the Crhr2 agonist, urocortin 2 (Ucn2), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542000/ketamine-and-etomidate-down-regulate-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-an-endotoxemic-mouse-model
#2
Emmanuel Besnier, Thomas Clavier, Marie-Christine Tonon, Jean Selim, Antoine Lefevre-Scelles, Fabrice Morin, Fabienne Tamion, Bertrand Dureuil, Hélène Castel, Vincent Compere
BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of etomidate and ketamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during sepsis. METHODS: Mice (n = 5/group) were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) and 6 h later randomized to receive ketamine (100 mg/kg), etomidate (30 mg/kg), or saline. At two time points (12 and 48 h), messenger RNA levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary proopiomelanocortin, and four adrenal enzymes (P450 side-chain cleavage, 3β-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase) were measured by in situ hybridization (results are presented as optical density), and plasma levels of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormones were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mean ± SD)...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#3
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515682/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-attenuates-the-effects-of-repeated-restraint-stress-on-synaptic-transmission-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-hypothalamus
#4
Magdalena Kusek, Anna Tokarska, Marcin Siwiec, Anna Gadek-Michalska, Bernadeta Szewczyk, Grzegorz Hess, Krzysztof Tokarski
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-synthesizing parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Several studies have demonstrated that synaptic inputs to these cells may undergo stress-related enhancement but, on the other hand, it has been reported that exposition to the same stressor for prolonged time periods may induce a progressive reduction in the response of the HPA axis to homotypic stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514446/identification-of-preoptic-sleep-neurons-using-retrograde-labelling-and-gene-profiling
#5
Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber, Peng Zhong, Chan Lek Tan, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Kevin T Beier, Nikolai Hörmann, Wei-Cheng Chang, Zhe Zhang, Johnny Phong Do, Shenqin Yao, Michael J Krashes, Bosiljka Tasic, Ali Cetin, Hongkui Zeng, Zachary A Knight, Liqun Luo, Yang Dan
In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512295/camp-dependent-cell-differentiation-triggered-by-activated-crhr1-in-hippocampal-neuronal-cells
#6
Carolina Inda, Juan José Bonfiglio, Paula A Dos Santos Claro, Sergio A Senin, Natalia G Armando, Jan M Deussing, Susana Silberstein
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Both cAMP sources were shown to be required for the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 triggered by activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) CRHR1 in neuronal and neuroendocrine contexts. Here, we show that activated CRHR1 promotes growth arrest and neurite elongation in neuronal hippocampal cells (HT22-CRHR1 cells). By characterising CRHR1 signalling mechanisms involved in the neuritogenic effect, we demonstrate that neurite outgrowth in HT22-CRHR1 cells takes place by a sAC-dependent, ERK1/2-independent signalling cascade...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511913/the-non-peptide-crh1-antagonist-cp-154-526-elicits-a-paradoxical-route-dependent-activation-of-the-hpa-axis
#7
Dmitry V Zaretsky, Maria V Zaretskaia, Sumit Sarkar, Daniel E Rusyniak, Joseph A DiMicco
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays an important role in mediating physiological response to stress and is thought to be involved in the development of various psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we compare the differences between the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraarterial (i.a.) administration of the non-peptide CRH1 antagonist CP-154,526 (CP) (10 and 20mg/kg) on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (ACTH), heart rate, MAP, and c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...
May 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500827/psychological-vulnerability-to-stress-in-carriers-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#8
Eleni-Magdalini Kyritsi, Georgia Koltsida, Ioanna Farakla, Aikaterini Papanikolaou, Elena Critselis, Emilia Mantzou, Emmanouil Zoumakis, Gerasimos Kolaitis, George P Chrousos, Evangelia Charmandari
OBJECTIVE: Carriers of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) demonstrate increased secretion of cortisol precursors following ACTH stimulation, suggestive of impaired cortisol production and compensatory increases in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion. Both cortisol and CRH have behavioral effects, and hypothalamic CRH hypersecretion has been associated with chronic states of anxiety and depression. We performed an endocrinologic and psychological evaluation in carriers of 21-OHD and matched control subjects...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500766/melatonin-inhibits-neuronal-dysfunction-associated-with-neuroinflammation-by-atopic-psychological-stress-in-nc-nga-atopic-like-mouse-models
#9
Gunhyuk Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Dal-Seok Oh, Yong-Ung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is chronic pruritic skin disease. AD can increase psychological stress as well, increasing glucocorticoid release and exacerbating the associated symptoms. Chronic glucocorticoid elevation disturbs neuroendocrine signaling, and can induce neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, and cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear if AD-related psychological stress elevates glucocorticoids enough to cause neuronal damage. Therefore, we assessed the effects of AD-induced stress in a mouse AD model...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499969/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-modulates-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neurons-of-sprague-dawley-rats-at-multiple-synaptic-sites-via-activation-of-its-type-1-receptors-implications-for-stress-associated-airway-vagal-excitation
#10
Yuhong Guo, Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Ding He, Ming Zeng, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Dongying Qiu, Jijiang Wang
Corticotropin-releasing hormone release is the final common pathway of stress-associated neuroendocrine responses. This study tested how corticotropin-releasing hormone modulates airway vagal preganglionic neurons. Airway vagal preganglionic neurons in neonatal rats were retrogradely labeled with fluorescent dye and identified in medullary slices, and their responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone (200nmolL(-1)) were examined using whole-cell patch clamp. The results show that under current clamp, corticotropin-releasing hormone (200nmolL(-1)) depolarized airway vagal preganglionic neurons and significantly increased the rate of their spontaneous firing...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498394/mir-34b-attenuates-trauma-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-by-targeting-crhr1
#11
Jing Zhu, Zhejun Chen, Jinxing Tian, Zehui Meng, Mingda Ju, Gencheng Wu, Zhanzhuang Tian
Exposure to trauma is a potential contributor to anxiety; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for trauma-induced anxiety require further clarification. In this study, in an aim to explore these mechanisms, we observed the changes in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis using a radioimmunoassay and the changes in anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and elevated plus maze test in a rat model following intervention with NBI‑27914, a specific corticotropin‑releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) antagonist...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#12
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490690/a-decline-in-female-baboon-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-anticipates-aging
#13
Shanshan Yang, Kenneth G Gerow, Hillary F Huber, McKenna M Considine, Cun Li, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Stephen P Ford, Peter W Nathanielsz
Stressors that disrupt homeostasis advance aging. Glucocorticoids regulate multiple processes that determine the aging trajectory. Debate exists regarding life-course circulating glucocorticoid concentrations. Rodent and nonhuman primate studies indicate circulating glucocorticoids fall from early life. We measured fasting morning cortisol in 24 female baboons (6-21 years, human equivalent ~18-70). We also quantified hypothalamic paraventricular nuclear (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone, steroid receptors, and pituitary proopiomelanocortin immunohistochemically in 14 of these females at 6-13 years...
May 9, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487882/identification-of-a-novel-rasd1-somatic-mutation-in-a-usp8-mutated-corticotroph-adenoma
#14
Andrew V Uzilov, Khadeen C Cheesman, Marc Y Fink, Leah C Newman, Chetanya Pandya, Yelena Lalazar, Marco Hefti, Mary Fowkes, Gintaras Deikus, Chun Yee Lau, Aye S Moe, Yayoi Kinoshita, Yumi Kasai, Micol Zweig, Arpeta Gupta, Daniela Starcevic, Milind Mahajan, Eric E Schadt, Kalmon D Post, Michael J Donovan, Robert Sebra, Rong Chen, Eliza B Geer
Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by pituitary corticotroph adenomas that secrete excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In these tumors, somatic mutations in the gene USP8 have been identified as recurrent and pathogenic and are the sole known molecular driver for CD. Although other somatic mutations were reported in these studies, their contribution to the pathogenesis of CD remains unexplored. No molecular drivers have been established for a large proportion of CD cases and tumor heterogeneity has not yet been investigated using genomics methods...
May 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487631/activation-of-brain-somatostatin-signaling-suppresses-crf-receptor-mediated-stress-response
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Stengel, Yvette F Taché
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472693/salivary-alpha-amylase-and-noradrenaline-responses-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-in-humans
#16
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Lisa Mittmann, Lars Möller, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme mainly responsible for the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen in the oral cavity. Since the secretion of sAA is largely under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, sAA activity is also considered to be a non-invasive marker of sympathetic activation. However, the direct association between sAA activity and other sympathetic parameters remains questionable. Therefore, we employed the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test to pharmacologically activate the sympathetic nervous system and to analyze plasma noradrenaline response together with sAA activity...
May 1, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461011/the-interaction-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-and-early-life-stress-on-emotional-empathy
#17
Simone Grimm, Katharina Wirth, Yan Fan, Anne Weigand, Matti Gärtner, Melanie Feeser, Isabel Dziobek, Malek Bajbouj, Sabine Aust
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for depression, changes to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system and structural and functional changes in hippocampus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene interact with ELS to predict depression, cognitive functions and hippocampal activity. Social cognition has been related to hippocampal function and might be crucial for maintaining mental health. However, the interaction of CRHR1 gene variation and ELS on social cognition has not been investigated yet...
April 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460009/the-endogenous-stress-hormone-crh-modulates-excitatory-transmission-and-network-physiology-in-hippocampus
#18
B G Gunn, C D Cox, Y Chen, M Frotscher, C M Gall, T Z Baram, G Lynch
Memory is strongly influenced by stress but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used electrophysiology, neuroanatomy, and network simulations to probe the role of the endogenous, stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in modulating hippocampal function. We focused on neuronal excitability and the incidence of sharp waves (SPWs), a form of intrinsic network activity associated with memory consolidation. Specifically, we blocked endogenous CRH using 2 chemically distinct antagonists of the principal hippocampal CRH receptor, CRHR1...
April 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456142/endogenous-glucocorticoids-role-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Rosaliana Libro, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Endogenous glucocorticoids (eGCs) are steroid hormones with a wide spectrum of physiological effects. However, enhanced basal eGCs levels have been observed in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and they have been correlated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, hippocampal degeneration and reduced cognitive/memory performance. Therefore, it has been proposed that elevated concentration of eGCs might have a role in AD pathogenesis. AD is the most common form of dementia, characterized by the pathological accumulation of two proteins: the Amyloid Beta (Aβ) and the microtubule-associated protein tau in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
February 15, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444400/effects-of-insufficient-sleep-on-pituitary-adrenocortical-response-to-crh-stimulation-in-healthy-men
#20
Aurore Guyon, Lisa L Morselli, Marcella L Balbo, Esra Tasali, Rachel Leproult, Mireille L'Hermite-Baleriaux, Eve Van Cauter, Karine Spiegel
Study Objectives: Severe sleep restriction results in elevated evening cortisol levels. We examined whether this relative hypercortisolism is associated with alterations in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to evening corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation. Methods: Eleven subjects participated in 2 sessions (2 nights of 10h versus 4h in bed) in randomized order. Sleep was polygraphically recorded. After the second night of each session, blood was sampled at 20-min intervals from 09:00 to 24:00 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements, and perceived stress was assessed hourly...
April 21, 2017: Sleep
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