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Corticotropin releasing factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944448/early-adolescent-stress-induced-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-mirna-135a-and-hippocampal-mirna-16-in-male-rats
#1
Yuan Liu, Dexiang Liu, Jingjing Xu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Early-life stress increases susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), in which the dysfunction of 5-hydroxytryptamine plays an important role. miRNA-135a in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and miRNA-16 in the hippocampus (HIP) are closely related to the 5-HT neurotransmitter system. Here, we investigated behavior, miRNA-135a in the PFC, miRNA-16 in the HIP, and 5-HT1AR expression in both brain regions in adolescent and adult rats that were exposed to inescapable stress during their adolescence. Paroxetine hydrochloride and corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (CP-154,526) were used as intervening measures...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940382/the-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-in-alcohol-use-disorder-still-a-valid-drug-target
#2
Matthew B Pomrenze, Tracy L Fetterly, Danny G Winder, Robert O Messing
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide that plays a key role in behavioral and physiological responses to stress. A large body of animal literature implicates CRF acting at type 1 CRF receptors (CRFR1) in consumption by alcohol dependent subjects, stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and possibly binge alcohol consumption. These studies have encouraged recent pilot studies of CRFR1 antagonists in humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD). It was a great disappointment to many in the field that these studies failed to show an effect of these compounds on stress-induced alcohol craving...
September 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935583/role-of-elasmobranchs-and-holocephalans-in-understanding-peptide-evolution-in-the-vertebrates-lessons-learned-from-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-phylogenies
#3
REVIEW
David A Lovejoy, Ola M Michalec, David W Hogg, David I Wosnick
The cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes) comprise two morphologically distinct subclasses; Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. Evidence indicates early divergence of these subclasses, suggesting monophyly of their lineage. However, such a phylogenetic understanding is not yet developed within two highly conserved peptide lineages, GnRH and CRF. Various GnRH forms exist across the Chondrichthyes. Although 4-7 immunoreactive forms have been described in Elasmobranchii, only one has been elucidated in Holocephali...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#4
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898648/motor-control-crf-regulates-coordination-and-gait
#5
Mario Manto
The function of the olivo-cerebellar tract is not restricted to the supervision of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. There is growing evidence that the climbing fibers also tune motor commands. A novel study unravels a role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in motor coordination and gait control.
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887029/urocortins-actions-in-health-and-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Miriam T Rademaker, A Mark Richards
The urocortins (Ucns), endogenous peptides belonging to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, are increasingly recognized as having diverse and important multi-system functions, especially within the cardiovascular system. The biological actions of the three Ucns (Ucn1, Ucn2, Ucn3) are mediated via G-protein-coupled CRF receptors, with both peptides and receptors widely distributed throughout tissues and organs contributing to pressure/volume homeostasis including the heart, vasculature, kidneys and adrenals...
September 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882466/a-low-degree-of-high-ambient-temperature-decreased-food-intake-and-activated-median-preoptic-and-arcuate-nuclei
#7
Pornsiri Suwanapaporn, Narongsak Chaiyabutr, Sumpun Thammacharoen
High ambient temperature (HTa) activates both behavioral and autonomic responses. Decreased food intake (FI) is a well-known behavioral response under HTa. In general, this behavioral response seems to be mediated under the activation of the stress axis. The present study, however, revealed that decreased FI after a low degree of HTa appeared to be activated earlier than stress axis activation. By comparing low and high levels of HTa exposure in rats, the present experiment demonstrated that the HTa-induced decrease in FI was clear in both conditions...
September 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880949/maternal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-to-foraging-uncertainty-a-model-of-individual-vs-social-allostasis-and-the-superorganism-hypothesis
#8
Jeremy D Coplan, Nishant K Gupta, Asif Karim, Anna Rozenboym, Eric L P Smith, John G Kral, Leonard A Rosenblum
INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity is a major global contributor to developmental origins of adult disease. The allostatic load of maternal food uncertainty from variable foraging demand (VFD) activates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) without eliciting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation measured on a group level. Individual homeostatic adaptations of the HPA axis may subserve second-order homeostasis, a process we provisionally term "social allostasis." We postulate that maternal food insecurity induces a "superorganism" state through coordination of individual HPA axis response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863347/deletion-of-dlk2-increases-the-vulnerability-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-impairs-the-anxiolytic-action-of-alprazolam
#9
Francisco Navarrete, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Laborda, Jorge Manzanares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the non-canonical DLK2 NOTCH ligand in the regulation of emotional behavior. To this aim, anxiety and depressive-like behaviors were examined in Dlk2 knock-out (Dlk2(-/-)) and its corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, relative gene expression analyses of corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in the hippocampus (HIPP), and the transcription factors Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 in the PVN, HIPP and amygdala (AMY) were carried out in Dlk2(-/-) and WT mice under basal conditions and after exposure to restraint stress...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859972/increased-oxytocin-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-1-fluorescent-intensity-with-urocortin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system-of-aged-transgenic-rats
#10
Shigeo Ohno, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Hiroaki Fujihara, Nobuhiro Fujiki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Motoko Ohno, Yuichi Umezu, Akinori Hamamura, Satoru Saeki, Yoichi Ueta
To visualize oxytocin in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, we generated a transgenic rat that expresses the oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene. In the present study, we examined the age-related changes of oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescent intensity in the posterior pituitary (PP), the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of transgenic rats. The mRFP1 fluorescent intensities were significantly increased in the PP, the SON and the PVN of 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859148/stellate-ganglion-block-attenuates-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#11
Weiwei Wang, Weidong Shi, Hua Qian, Xijin Deng, Tong Wang, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851616/regulation-of-gonadotropins-by-urocortin-2-in-gonadotropic-tumor-l%C3%AE-t2-cells
#12
Kazunori Kageyama, Shingo Murasawa, Kanako Niioka, Fumio Otsuka, Hiroko Yagi, Makoto Daimon
A close interaction has been shown between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) has a very high affinity for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 (CRF2) receptor. Pituitary Ucn2 regulates expression and secretion of gonadotropins in response to stress. The CRF2 receptor in the pituitary contributes to the modulation of gonadotropins. To explore the possible function of Ucn2 and the CRF2 receptor in pituitary gonadotropic tumor cells, we examined the direct regulation of gonadotropins by Ucn2 in a representative pituitary gonadotropic tumor, mouse LβT2 cells...
August 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844644/role-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-cerebellar-motor-control-and-ataxia
#13
Yi Wang, Zhang-Peng Chen, Qian-Xing Zhuang, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Hong-Zhao Li, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
Cerebellar ataxia, characterized by motor incoordination, postural instability, and gait abnormality [1-3], greatly affects daily activities and quality of life. Although accumulating genetic and non-genetic etiological factors have been revealed [4-7], effective therapies for cerebellar ataxia are still lacking. Intriguingly, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter [8, 9], is considered a putative neurotransmitter in the olivo-cerebellar system [10-14]. Notably, decreased levels of CRF in the inferior olive (IO), the sole origin of cerebellar climbing fibers, have been reported in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration or olivopontocerebellar atrophy [15, 16], yet little is known about the exact role of CRF in cerebellar motor coordination and ataxia...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842924/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-receptor-binding-in-the-mouse-brain-using-a-new-high-affinity-radioligand-125-i-pd-sauvagine
#14
Laura A Tan, Joan M Vaughan, Marilyn H Perrin, Jean E Rivier, Paul E Sawchenko
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides includes CRF and three urocortins, which signal through two distinct G-protein coupled receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 . Although the cellular distribution of CRF receptor expression has been well characterized at the mRNA level, the localization of receptor protein, and, by inference, of functional receptors, has been limited by a lack of reliable immunohistochemical evidence. Recently, a CRF-related peptide, termed PD-sauvagine, was isolated from the skin of the frog, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, and validated as a high-affinity ligand for CRF receptor studies...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835420/evaluating-the-voiding-spot-assay-in-mice-a-simple-method-with-complex-environmental-interactions
#15
Huan Chen, Lanlan Zhang, Warren G Hill, Weiqun Yu
The voiding spot assay (VSA) on filter paper is an increasingly popular method for studying lower urinary tract physiology in mice. However, the ways VSA are performed differ significantly between laboratories, and many variables are introduced compared to the mouse's normal housing situation. Rodents are intelligent social animals, and it is increasingly understood that social and environmental stresses have significant effects on their physiology. Surprisingly, little is known about whether change of environment during VSA affects mouse voiding, and what the best methodologies are for retaining 'natural' micturition patterns...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833238/crf1-receptor-dependent-increases-in-irritability-like-behavior-during-abstinence-from-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-vapor-exposure
#16
Adam Kimbrough, Giordano de Guglielmo, Jenni Kononoff, Marsida Kallupi, Eric P Zorrilla, Olivier George
BACKGROUND: In humans, emotional and physical signs of withdrawal from ethanol are commonly seen. Many of these symptoms, including anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, have been characterized in animal models of ethanol dependence. One issue with several current behavioral tests that measure withdrawal in animal models is they are often not repeatable within subjects over time. Additionally, irritability, one of the most common symptoms of ethanol withdrawal in humans, has not been well characterized in animal models...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830762/contribution-of-amygdala-crf-neurons-to-chronic-pain
#17
Matthew Andreoli, Tanvi Marketkar, Eugene Dimitrov
We investigated the role of amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the perturbations of descending pain inhibition caused by neuropathic pain. Forced swim increased the tail-flick response latency in uninjured mice, a phenomenon known as stress-induced analgesia (SIA) but did not change the tail-flick response latency in mice with neuropathic pain caused by sciatic nerve constriction. Neuropathic pain also increased the expression of CRF in the central amygdala (CeAmy) and ΔFosB in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
August 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827743/mir-125a-mir-139-and-mir-324-contribute-to-urocortin-protection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Ignacio Díaz, Eva Calderón-Sánchez, Raquel Del Toro, Javier Ávila-Médina, Eva Sánchez de Rojas-de Pedro, Alejandro Domínguez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio Rosado, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Antonio Ordóñez, Tarik Smani
Urocortin 1 and 2 (Ucn-1 and Ucn-2) have established protective actions against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries. However, little is known about their role in posttranscriptional regulation in the process of cardioprotection. Herein, we investigated whether microRNAs play a role in urocortin-induced cardioprotection. Administration of Ucn-1 and Ucn-2 at the beginning of reperfusion significantly restored cardiac function, as evidenced ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and in vivo in rat subjected to I/R...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825666/npffr2-activates-the-hpa-axis-and-induces-anxiogenic-effects-in-rodents
#19
Ya-Tin Lin, Yu-Lian Yu, Wei-Chen Hong, Ting-Shiuan Yeh, Ting-Chun Chen, Jin-Chung Chen
Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to the RFamide family and is known as a morphine-modulating peptide. NPFF regulates various hypothalamic functions through two receptors, NPFFR1 and NPFFR2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis participates in physiological stress response by increasing circulating glucocorticoid levels and modulating emotional responses. Other RFamide peptides, including neuropeptide AF, neuropeptide SF and RFamide related peptide also target NPFFR1 or NPFFR2, and have been reported to activate the HPA axis and induce anxiety- or depression-like behaviors...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819949/addison-s-disease-concomitant-with-corticotropin-deficiency-and-pituitary-crh-resistance-a-case-report
#20
Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Katarzyna Malicka, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Andrzej Lewiński
A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. About seven months later she was euthyroid on L-thyroxine (TSH 1.51 mIU/mL) but was admitted with hypotension, hyponatraemia (sodium 109 mmol/L), and low morning cortisol (119 nmol/L)...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
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