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Corticotropin releasing factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101317/corticotropin-releasing-factor-overexpression-in-mice-abrogates-sex-differences-in-body-weight-visceral-fat-and-food-intake-response-to-a-fast-and-alters-levels-of-feeding-regulatory-hormones
#1
Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. METHODS: Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096430/testing-hypotheses-about-individual-variation-in-plasma-corticosterone-in-free-living-salamanders
#2
Jessica R Thomas, Andrew J Magyan, Peter E Freeman, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, many responses to stress as well as homeostatic maintenance of basal metabolism are regulated by plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Despite having crucial functions, levels of GCs are typically variable among individuals. We examined the contribution of several physiological factors to individual variation in plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the magnocellular preoptic area of the brain in free-living Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#3
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094283/adolescent-chronic-stress-and-adult-anxiety-adolescent-chronic-unpredictable-stress-exposure-is-a-sensitive-window-for-long-term-changes-in-adult-behavior-in-mice
#4
Nicole L Yohn, Julie A Blendy
Adolescence is a time period in development when the brain undergoes substantial remodeling in response to the environment. To determine if a stressful experience during adolescence affects adult behavior, we exposed adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 12 days starting at post-natal day 28 (PND28). We also exposed adult male and female mice to CUS for 12 days beginning at PND70 to determine if adolescence is a sensitive time period when stress can have long-lasting effects on behavior...
January 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090002/easy-detection-of-hormone-secretion-from-l%C3%AE-t2-cells-by-using-gaussia-luciferase
#5
Kazuhiro Satou, Yuta Mochimaru, Takashi Nakakura, Tomoyuki Kusada, Jun Negishi, Shiori Musha, Nanaka Yoshimura, Yukio Kato, Hideaki Tomura
Reproduction is regulated by gonadotropins secreted from gonadotrophs. The production and secretion of gonadotropins are mainly regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Agonists or antagonists that influence GnRH action on gonadotrophs are important to regulate reproduction; however, these factors have not been fully characterized due to the lack of simple and easy-to-use techniques to detect gonadotropin secretion from gonadotropin-producing cells. In the present study, we found that Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), which was expressed in LβT2 cells, can be secreted like a luteinizing-hormone (LH) upon stimulation with GnRH...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089628/crf1-but-not-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-reduce-separation-induced-distress-vocalizations-in-guinea-pig-pups-and-crf-overexpressing-mouse-pups-a-combination-study-with-paroxetine
#6
P Monika Verdouw, Joantine C J van Esterik, Bernard W M M Peeters, Mark J Millan, Lucianne Groenink
RATIONALE: Given the large number of patients that does not respond sufficiently to currently available treatment for anxiety disorders, there is a need for improved treatment. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the anxiolytic effects of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)1 receptor antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pigs and transgenic mice with central CRF overexpression. Furthermore, we explored effects of these drugs when given in combination with a suboptimal dose of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI)...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#7
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028605/neuropeptide-systems-and-new-treatments-for-nicotine-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
RATIONALE: The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017597/repeated-restraint-stress-lowers-the-threshold-for-response-to-third-ventricle-crf-administration
#9
Ruth B S Harris
Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017470/a-central-amygdala-crf-circuit-facilitates-learning-about-weak-threats
#10
Christina A Sanford, Marta E Soden, Madison A Baird, Samara M Miller, Jay Schulkin, Richard D Palmiter, Michael Clark, Larry S Zweifel
Fear is a graded central motive state ranging from mild to intense. As threat intensity increases, fear transitions from discriminative to generalized. The circuit mechanisms that process threats of different intensity are not well resolved. Here, we isolate a unique population of locally projecting neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF-producing neurons and CRF in the CeA are required for discriminative fear, but both are dispensable for generalized fear at high US intensities...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011950/involvement-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-2-receptors-in-pathogenesis-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-enteritis-in-rats
#11
K Takeuchi, A Kumano, N Abe, T Kotani
We herein investigated, using a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist and antagonists, whether CRF plays a role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced small intestinal lesions in rats. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery was clamped (ischemia) for 75 min, followed by reperfusion with removal of the clamp. After a 24-h reperfusion, the area of hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine was measured. Urocortin I (CRF receptor 1/2 agonist), astressin (CRF receptor 1/2 antagonist), NBI27914 (CRF receptor 1 antagonist), or astressin 2B (CRF receptor 2 antagonist) was administered i...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002791/chinese-herb-cinobufagin-reduced-cancer-pain-is-associated-with-increased-peripheral-opioids-by-invaded-cd3-4-8-lymphocytes
#12
Tao Chen, Shenjun Yuan, Xin-Nian Wan, Ling Zhan, Xue-Qin Yu, Jian-Hong Zeng, Hong Li, Wen Zhang, Xiang-Yang Hu, Yi-Fei Ye, Wei Hu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanism of cinobufagin-reduced cancer pain in mouse cancer pain model and in vitro cell co-culture system. METHODS: Female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. One group of animals was set as normal control without any treatment. Other three groups of animals received H22 hepatoma cell inoculation in right hind paw. At day 9 after inoculation, mice in other three groups were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 8 days with the solvent, morphine or cinobufagin, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999963/identification-of-an-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-rat-pars-tuberalis-a-possible-interface-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system
#13
Arsalan Jafarpour, Faramarz Dehghani, Horst-Werner Korf
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are ubiquitous endogenous lipid derivatives and play an important role in intercellular communication either in an autocrine/paracrine or in an endocrine fashion. Recently, an intrinsic EC system has been discovered in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) of hamsters and humans. In hamsters, this EC system is under photoperiodic control and appears to influence the secretion of hormones such as prolactin from the adenohypophysis. We investigate the EC system in the PT of the rat, a frequently used species in endocrine research...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#14
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982684/nesfatin-1-influences-the-excitability-of-gastric-distension-responsive-neurons-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-of-rats
#15
Hongzhen Feng, Qiaoling Wang, Feifei Guo, Xiaohua Han, Mingjie Pang, Xiangrong Sun, Yanling Gong, Luo Xu
The present study investigated the effects of nesfatin-1 on gastric distension (GD)- responsive neurons via an interaction with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and the potential regulation of these effects by hippocampal projections to VMH. Extracellular single-unit discharges were recorded in VHM following administration of nesfatin-1. The projection of nerve fibers and expression of nesfatin-1 were assessed by retrograde tracing and fluoro-immunohistochemical staining, respectively...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973694/corticotropin-releasing-factor-dose-dependently-modulates-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-noradrenergic-nucleus-locus-coeruleus
#16
Eric W Prouty, Barry D Waterhouse, Daniel J Chandler
The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is critically involved in the stress response and receives afferent input from a number of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) containing structures. Several in vivo and in vitro studies in rat have shown that CRF robustly increases the firing rate of LC neurons in a dose-dependent manner. While it is known that these increases are dependent on CRF receptor subtype 1 and mediated by effects of cAMP intracellular signaling cascades on potassium conductance, the impact of CRF on synaptic transmission within LC has not been clarified...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964740/lw-afc-a-new-formula-derived-from-liuwei-dihuang-decoction-ameliorates-behavioral-and-pathological-deterioration-via-modulating-the-neuroendocrine-immune-system-in-prp-ha%C3%AE-ppswe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mice
#17
Jian-Hui Wang, Xi Lei, Xiao-Rui Cheng, Xiao-Rui Zhang, Gang Liu, Jun-Ping Cheng, Yi-Ran Xu, Ju Zeng, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates the neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network in the physiopathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, we previously revealed that the NIM network is dysregulated in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1(ΔE9) (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD. METHODS: After treatment with a novel Liuwei Dihuang formula (LW-AFC), mice were cognitively evaluated in behavioral experiments. Neuron loss, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, and Aβ level were analyzed using Nissl staining, immunofluorescence, and an AlphaLISA assay, respectively...
December 13, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#18
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888772/adrenocortical-sensitivity-moderated-by-ongoing-stress-predicts-drinking-intensity-in-alcohol-dependent-men
#20
Bryon Adinoff, David Leonard, Julianne Price, Martin A Javors, Robrina Walker, E Sherwood Brown, Hong Xiao, Uma Rao
Allostatic load from both environmental stressors and persistent glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with disease severity in alcohol dependence. Heightened relapse risk and/or drinking severity, in particular, may be a reaction to alcohol- and withdrawal-induced changes in physiological stress response systems coupled with ongoing life stress, although their shared contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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