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Corticotropin releasing factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780165/a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-acumens-corticotropin-releasing-factor-circuitry-for-neuropathic-pain-increased-susceptibility-to-opioid-reward
#1
Yuanzhong Kai, Yanhua Li, Tingting Sun, Weiwei Yin, Yu Mao, Jie Li, Wen Xie, Shi Chen, Likui Wang, Juan Li, Zhi Zhang, Wenjuan Tao
Recent studies have shown that persistent pain facilitates the response to morphine reward. However, the circuit mechanism underlying this process remains ambiguous. In this study, using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we found that persistent neuropathic pain reduced the minimum number of morphine conditioning sessions required to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. This dose of morphine had no effect on the pain threshold. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in both pain and emotion processing, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expressing neuronal activity was increased in CCI mice...
May 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777689/forever-young-endocrinology-of-paedomorphosis-in-the-mexican-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum
#2
REVIEW
Bert De Groef, Sylvia V H Grommen, Veerle M Darras
The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a salamander species that does not undergo metamorphosis, resulting in the retention of juvenile characteristics in the mature breeding stage (paedomorphosis). Here we review the endocrinological studies investigating the proximate cause of axolotl paedomorphosis with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. It is well established that axolotl paedomorphosis is a consequence of low activity of the HPT axis. The pituitary hormone thyrotropin (TSH) is capable of inducing metamorphosis in the axolotl, which indicates that all processes and interactions in the HPT axis below the pituitary level are functional, but that TSH release is impaired...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776484/corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-brain-and-blocking-spinal-descending-signals-induce-hyperalgesia-in-the-latent-sensitization-model-of-chronic-pain
#3
Wenling Chen, Yvette Taché, Juan Carlos Marvizón
Latent sensitization is a model of chronic pain in which an injury triggers a period of hyperalgesia followed by an apparent recovery, but in which pain sensitization persists but is suppressed by opioid and adrenergic receptors. One important characteristic of latent sensitization is that hyperalgesia can be triggered by acute stress. To determine whether the effect of stress is mimicked by the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brain, rats with latent sensitization induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) in one hind paw were given an intracerebroventricular (i...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#4
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#5
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763783/sex-differences-in-the-acth-and-cortisol-response-to-pharmacological-probes-are-stressor-specific-and-occur-regardless-of-alcohol-dependence-history
#6
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753863/sex-differences-in-the-subcellular-distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-chronic-immobilization-stress
#7
Helena R McAlinn, Batsheva Reich, Natalina H Contoreggi, Renata Poulton Kamakura, Andreina G Dyer, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Corticotropin releasing factor receptors (CRFR1) contribute to stress-induced adaptations in hippocampal structure and function that can affect learning and memory processes. Our prior studies showed that female rats with elevated estrogens compared to males have more plasmalemmal CRFR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting a greater sensitivity to stress. Here, we examined the distribution of hippocampal CRFR1 following chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in female and male rats using immuno-electron microscopy...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704516/the-neuroanatomic-complexity-of-the-crf-and-da-systems-and-their-interface-what-we-still-don-t-know
#8
REVIEW
E A Kelly, J L Fudge
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide that mediates the stress response. Long known to contribute to regulation of the adrenal stress response initiated in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), a complex pattern of extrahypothalamic CRF expression is also described in rodents and primates. Cross-talk between the CRF and midbrain dopamine (DA) systems links the stress response to DA regulation. Classically CRF+ cells in the extended amygdala and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are considered the main source of this input, principally targeting the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701827/differential-responses-of-the-hpa-axis-to-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-male-and-female-mice
#9
Ashley L Russell, M Riley Richardson, Bradly M Bauman, Ian M Hernandez, Samantha Saperstein, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 10 million people world-wide, annually. TBI is linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders. TBI induced by explosive devices has a unique phenotype. Over 1/3 of people exposed to blast-induced (b)TBI have prolonged neuroendocrine deficits, shown by anterior pituitary dysfunction. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is linked to increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Not only is there limited information on how the HPA axis responds to mild (m)bTBI, sex differences are understudied...
April 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690521/the-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-2-subunit-activates-a-neuronal-tlr4-signal-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-that-regulates-alcohol-and-nicotine-abuse
#10
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Harry June, Laure Aurelian
Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation...
April 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#11
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645316/neuropeptide-and-steroid-hormone-mediators-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Ashley L Heck, Carlos C Crestani, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Darwin O Larco, Artur Mayerhofer, Charles E Roselli
In order to maintain the health and wellbeing of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurons and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted essential roles for some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction-, and behavior- related processes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618970/corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptors-modulate-oxytocin-release-in-the-dorsolateral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-bnst-in-male-rats
#13
Daisy Martinon, Joanna Dabrowska
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the regulation of social and anxiety-like behavior. Our previous studies have shown that OT neurons send projections from the hypothalamus to the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl ), a forebrain region critically involved in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, these OT terminals in the BNSTdl express presynaptic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). This suggests that CRFR2 might be involved in the modulation of OT release...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615881/age-dependent-hypothalamic-and-pituitary-responses-to-novel-environment-stress-or-lipopolysaccharide-in-rats
#14
Sandy Koenig, Janne Bredehöft, Alexander Perniss, Franziska Fuchs, Joachim Roth, Christoph Rummel
Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin (NF-IL)6 can be used as an activation marker for inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and psychological novel environment stress (NES) in the rat brain. Here, we aimed to investigate age dependent changes of hypothalamic and pituitary responses to NES (cage switch) or LPS (100 μg/kg) in 2 and 24 months old rats. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, blood and brains withdrawn and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and bioassays...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609111/regulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior-and-crhr1-expression-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-by-lmo3
#15
Antonia Savarese, Amy W Lasek
The LIM domain only protein LMO3 is a transcriptional regulator that has been shown to regulate several behavioral responses to alcohol. Specifically, Lmo3 null (Lmo3Z ) mice consume more ethanol in a binge-drinking test and show enhanced ethanol-induced sedation. Due to the high comorbidity of alcohol use and anxiety, we investigated anxiety-like behavior in Lmo3Z mice. Lmo3Z mice spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with their wild-type littermates, but the effect was confounded by reduced locomotor activity...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#16
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601583/chronic-restraint-stress-induces-excessive-activation-of-primordial-follicles-in-mice-ovaries
#17
Minhua Xu, Junyan Sun, Qian Wang, Qiuwan Zhang, Chunsheng Wei, Dongmei Lai
Chronic stress is an important factor influencing people's health. It usually causes endocrinal disorders and a decline in reproduction in females. Although studies of both human and animals suggest a detrimental effect of stress on reproduction, the influence of chronic stress on the ovarian reservation and follicular development is still not clear. In this study, a chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of stress on ovarian reservation and follicular development and explore the underlying mechanism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578315/genes-involved-in-stress-response-influence-lithium-efficacy-in-bipolar-patients
#18
Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Janusz K Rybakowski, Sebastian Kliwicki, Piotr Czerski, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Maria Skibińska, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna Pawlak
OBJECTIVES: In mood disorders, chronic stimulation with stress results in aberrant regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Lithium was shown to influence HPA axis function. The underlying genetic background as well as environmental context may influence the stress response, and therefore lithium efficacy. The aim of the present study was to analyze if genetic variants located in genes involved in HPA axis regulation affect the response to long-term lithium treatment in bipolar patients...
March 26, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574216/activity-based-anorexia-activates-crf-immunoreactive-neurons-in-female-rats
#19
Sophie Scharner, Tiemo Friedrich, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Peter Kobelt, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a well-established animal model mimicking the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Since the pathophysiology of AN is yet poorly understood and specific drug treatments are lacking so far, animal models might be useful to further understand this disease. ABA consists of time-restricted access to food for 1.5 h/day and the possibility to exercise in a running wheel for 24 h/day. This combination leads to robust body weight loss as observed in AN. Here, we investigated the activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, a transmitter involved in the response to stress, emotional processes and also food intake...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569009/paraventricular-hypothalamic-and-amygdalar-crf-neurons-synapse-in-the-external-globus-pallidus
#20
Albert J Hunt, Rajan Dasgupta, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Zhiying Jiang, Michael Beierlein, C Savio Chan, Nicholas J Justice
Stress evokes directed movement to escape or hide from potential danger. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons are highly activated by stress; however, it remains unclear how this activity participates in stress-evoked movement. The external globus pallidus (GPe) expresses high levels of the primary receptor for CRF, CRFR1, suggesting the GPe may serve as an entry point for stress-relevant information to reach basal ganglia circuits, which ultimately gate motor output. Indeed, projections from CRF neurons are present within the GPe, making direct contact with CRFR1-positive neurons...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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