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Corticotropin releasing factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#1
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888772/adrenocortical-sensitivity-moderated-by-ongoing-stress-predicts-drinking-intensity-in-alcohol-dependent-men
#3
Bryon Adinoff, David Leonard, Julianne Price, Martin A Javors, Robrina Walker, E Sherwood Brown, Hong Xiao, Uma Rao
Allostatic load from both environmental stressors and persistent glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with disease severity in alcohol dependence. Heightened relapse risk and/or drinking severity, in particular, may be a reaction to alcohol- and withdrawal-induced changes in physiological stress response systems coupled with ongoing life stress, although their shared contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887910/assessment-of-serum-level-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#4
Ayat A Motawie, Amany M Abd Al-Aziz, Hanan M Hamed, Amany A A Fatouh, Mona A M Awad, Amany Abd El-Ghany
INTRODUCTION: Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the sleep related phenomena characterized by disruption in the relationship between arousal and urination. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the median eminence to elicit release of adrenocorticotrophin from the anterior pituitary. It may act to modulate autonomic function and behavior in concert with the endocrine effects. Conflicting animal studies about the role of CRF in micturition, either facilitating or inhibiting, have been raised...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849648/amygdala-mediated-mechanisms-regulate-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-adult-females-following-early-life-stress-importance-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor
#6
Dawn K Prusator, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
Alterations in amygdala activity are apparent in women who report a history of early life stress (ELS) as well as those diagnosed with chronic pain disorders. Chronic stress in adulthood induces visceral hypersensitivity via alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression within the central amygdala (CeA). Here we hypothesized that unpredictable ELS, previously shown to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult female rats, alters GR and CRF expression in the CeA...
November 14, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845775/defining-the-role-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-binding-protein-in-alcohol-consumption
#7
C L Haass-Koffler, A T Henry, G Melkus, J A Simms, M Naemmuddin, C K Nielsen, A W Lasek, M Magill, M L Schwandt, R Momenan, C A Hodgkinson, S E Bartlett, R M Swift, A Bonci, L Leggio
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exerts its effects by acting on its receptors and on the binding protein (CRFBP), and has been implicated in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, identification of the exact contribution of each protein that mediates CRF effects is necessary to design effective therapeutic strategies for AUD. A series of in vitro/in vivo experiments across different species were performed to define the biological discrete role of CRFBP in AUD. First, to establish the CRFBP role in receptor signaling, we developed a novel chimeric cell-based assay and showed that CFRBP full length can stably be expressed on the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844053/involvement-of-crfr1-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-the-immediate-fear-extinction-deficit
#8
Fiona Hollis, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Several animal and clinical studies have highlighted the ineffectiveness of fear extinction sessions delivered shortly after trauma exposure. This phenomenon, termed the immediate extinction deficit, refers to situations in which extinction programs applied shortly after fear conditioning may result in the reduction of fear behaviors (in rodents, frequently measured as freezing responses to the conditioned cue) during extinction training, but failure to consolidate this reduction in the long term. The molecular mechanisms driving this immediate extinction resistance remain unclear...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837404/the-biology-of-addiction
#9
Brent MacNicol
In this narrative review, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance abuse and addiction are discussed with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that promote ongoing use and relapse. Addiction is estimated to affect 10-15% or more of the adult population, including physicians. Genetic predisposition, psychological and environmental risk factors, the timing of exposure to the substance, the type of substance used, and the frequency of use influence the individual's susceptibility to addiction. Abused substances act on the brain's reward system, a neural circuit that produces pleasurable feelings in response to stimuli that promote survival, thereby modifying future behavior to seek out similar stimuli...
November 11, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837170/differential-contributions-of-vasopressin-v1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-amygdala-to-pain-related-behaviors-in-rats
#10
Bryce Cragg, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826021/effects-of-exposure-to-microcystin-lr-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-on-the-metabolism-of-thyroid-hormones-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Zidong Liu, Dapeng Li, Qing Hu, Rong Tang, Li Li
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. However, the effects of MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations on the thyroid system in adult fish are still unclear. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L MC-LR for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Whole-body thyroid hormones (THs) levels and thyroid follicle histology were used to assess thyroid function. The transcription of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), transthyretin (ttr), thyroid hormone receptors (trs) genes, and the activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) were investigated to study the process of TH metabolism disruption...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818644/an-update-on-crf-mechanisms-underlying-alcohol-use-disorders-and-dependence
#12
REVIEW
Isabel Marian Hartmann Quadros, Giovana Camila Macedo, Liz Paola Domingues, Cristiane Aparecida Favoretto
Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810704/selective-corticotropin-releasing-factor-1-receptor-antagonist-e2508-reduces-restraint-stress-induced-defecation-and-visceral-pain-in-rat-models
#13
Ryota Taguchi, Kodo Shikata, Yoshiaki Furuya, Tetsuya Hirakawa, Mitsuhiro Ino, Kogyoku Shin, Hisashi Shibata
N-Cyclopropylmethyl-7-(2,6-dimethoxy-4-methoxymethylphenyl)-2-ethyl-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylmethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-amine tosylate (E2508) is a newly discovered selective corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonist. Here, we investigated the effects of E2508 on wrap restraint stress-induced defecation and visceral pain in rats. Oral pretreatment with E2508 dose-dependently decreased stool weights after 20min wrap restraint stress and significant effects were observed at doses of 30 and 100mg/kg...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809751/structure-and-function-of-small-non-peptide-crf-antagonists-and-their-potential-clinical-use
#14
Hesham Fahmy, Bahimanna Kuppast, Mohamed Teleb Ismail
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) can be considered a very important hormone or a chemical mediator. It works closely with other systems to regulate the manner through which the body may respond to stress. Thus it affect many biological processes associated with stress. Dysfunction of this system has also been correlated with various diseases such as major depression, anxiety, drug addiction and eating disorders. Rationally, this means that interfering with binding of CRF to its intended receptors can be an attractive target for drug design aiming at developing new medications for many ailments that are associated with stress such as depression, anxiety and stress-induced relapse in drug addiction...
November 1, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805752/targeting-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-projections-from-the-oval-nucleus-of-the-bnst-using-cell-type-specific-neuronal-tracing-studies-in-mouse-and-rat-brain
#15
Joanna Dabrowska, Daisy Martinon, Mahsa Moaddab, Donald G Rainnie
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to play a critical role in mediating the behavioral and autonomic responses to stressors. The oval nucleus of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesize the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Although afferent fibers originating from the BNSTov have been shown to innervate several key structures of the neuroendocrine and central autonomic system, the question remains as to whether, some of these fibers are CRF-positive. To directly address this question, we injected a "floxed" anterograde tracer (rAAV5/EF1a-DIO-mCherry) into the BNSTov of CRFp3...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802140/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-stress-on-telencephalic-neurochemistry-and-gene-expression-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Maria Moltesen, Danielle Caroline Laursen, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Madelene Åberg Andersson, Svante Winberg, Erik Höglund
By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive. This work examines forebrain mechanisms involved in allostatic processes in teleost fishes. Plasma cortisol, forebrain serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurochemistry and mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF binding protein (CRFBP), CRF receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptors (GR1 and GR2), and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1Aα and 5-HT1Aβ) were investigated at 1 h before and 0, 1 and 4 h after acute stress, in two groups of rainbow trout held in densities of 25 and 140 kg m(-3) for 28 days...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801962/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-type-1-receptor-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-pituitary
#17
Asuka Mano-Otagiri, Takahiro Nemoto, Naoko Yamauchi, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Tamotsu Shibasaki
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress through its type 1 receptor (CRF1 ) in the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary. Although CRF1 mRNA expression has been confirmed in the rat pituitary, the distribution pattern of CRF1 protein in the pituitary has not been reported. Therefore, we generated an antiserum against the amino acid fragment corresponding to the 177-188 sequence of the first extracellular loop of the rat CRF1 . By using the antiserum, CRF1 -like immunoreactivity (CRF1 -LI) was detected in the anterior lobe cells of the rat pituitary where some of them expressed intense signals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798128/a-functional-switch-in-tonic-gaba-currents-alters-the-output-of-central-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-neurons-following-chronic-ethanol-exposure
#18
Melissa A Herman, Candice Contet, Marisa Roberto
: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in the central amygdala (CeA) has been implicated in the effects of acute ethanol and the development of alcohol dependence. We previously demonstrated that CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) neurons comprise a specific component of the CeA microcircuitry that is selectively engaged by acute ethanol. To investigate the impact of chronic ethanol exposure on inhibitory signaling in CRF1+ CeA neurons, we used CRF1:GFP mice subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation and examined changes in local inhibitory control, the effects of acute ethanol, and the output of these neurons from the CeA...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793433/kinetic-profile-of-neuropeptide-receptor-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Indira Nederpelt, Julia Bunnik, Adriaan P IJzerman, Laura H Heitman
Currently, drug discovery focusses only on quantifying pharmacological parameters, sometimes including binding kinetics, of drug candidates. For a complete understanding of a drug's desired binding kinetics, the kinetics of both the target and its endogenous ligands should be considered. This is because the release and binding kinetics of endogenous ligands in addition to receptor internalization rates are significant contributors to drug-target interactions. Here, we discuss the kinetic profile of three neuropeptides and their receptors; gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y receptors, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R)...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779480/involvement-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptors-type-2-located-in-periaquaductal-gray-matter-in-central-and-peripheral-crf-induced-analgesic-effect-on-somatic-pain-sensitivity-in-rats
#20
N I Yarushkina, T R Bagaeva, L P Filaretova
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the regulation of pain sensitivity and can induce an analgesic effect in animals and humans. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAGM) of the midbrain is one of the key structures of the antinociceptive system. The aim of the study was to investigate the involvement of CRF receptor type 2 (CRF-R2 receptors), localized in the PAGM, in the analgesic effect caused by central or systemic CRF on somatic pain sensitivity in conscious rats. Somatic pain sensitivity was tested by a tail flick test (measuring tail flick latency induced by tail's thermal stimulation)...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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