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Mahabubur Rahman, Hiroshi Watabe
Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management...
April 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Juho Heimonen, Riitta Danielsson-Ojala, Tapio Salakoski, Heljä Lundgrén-Laine, Sanna Salanterä
Written patient education materials are essential to motivate and help patients to participate in their own care, but the production and management of a large collection of high-quality and easily accessible patient education documents can be challenging. Ontologies can aid in these tasks, but the existing resources are not directly applicable to patient education. An ontology that models patient education documents and their readers was constructed. The Delphi method was used to identify a compact but sufficient set of entities with which the topics of documents may be described...
April 12, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Judith E C Lieu
Purpose of Review: The aim of this study is to summarize the consequences of permanent unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on the development of children as documented in the recent literature. Recent Findings: Congenital and early-identified UHL places young children at risk for delays in speech-language development. School-aged children with UHL score lower on standardized tests of language and cognition and need increased assistance in school for educational and behavioral issues than siblings with normal hearing, and report lower hearing-related quality of life, similar to children with bilateral hearing loss (HL)...
2018: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
Tiago Alves, Rúben Rodrigues, Hugo Costa, Miguel Rocha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The volume of biomedical literature has been increasing in the last years. Patent documents have also followed this trend, being important sources of biomedical knowledge, technical details and curated data, which are put together along the granting process. The field of Biomedical text mining (BioTM) has been creating solutions for the problems posed by the unstructured nature of natural language, which makes the search of information a challenging task. Several BioTM techniques can be applied to patents...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Jing Zhai, Juhyun Kim, Kenneth S Knox, Homer L Twigg, Hua Zhou, Jin J Zhou
High-throughput sequencing technology has enabled population-based studies of the role of the human microbiome in disease etiology and exposure response. Microbiome data are summarized as counts or composition of the bacterial taxa at different taxonomic levels. An important problem is to identify the bacterial taxa that are associated with a response. One method is to test the association of specific taxon with phenotypes in a linear mixed effect model, which incorporates phylogenetic information among bacterial communities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mélanie Barbay, Hervé Taillia, Claudine Nédélec-Ciceri, Flavie Bompaire, Camille Bonnin, Jérôme Varvat, Françoise Grangette, Momar Diouf, Emmanuel Wiener, Jean-Louis Mas, Martine Roussel, Olivier Godefroy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of poststroke neurocognitive disorder (NCD) has yet to be accurately determined. The primary objective of the present study was to optimize operationalization of the criterion for NCD by using an external validity criterion. METHODS: The GRECOG-VASC cohort (Groupe de Réflexion pour l'Évaluation Cognitive Vasculaire) of 404 stroke patients with cerebral infarct (91.3%) or hemorrhage (18.7%) was assessed 6 months poststroke and 1003 healthy controls, with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network standardized battery...
April 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Wen-Ta Tseng, Tzi-Ying Su, John-Michael L Nix
This study applied the many-facet Rasch model to assess learners' translation ability in an English as a foreign language context. Few attempts have been made in extant research to detect and calibrate rater severity in the domain of translation testing. To fill the research gap, this study documented the process of validating a test of Chinese-to-English sentence translation and modeled raters' scoring propensity defined by harshness or leniency, expert/novice effects on severity, and concomitant effects on item difficulty...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Julia Krebs, Evie Malaia, Ronnie B Wilbur, Dietmar Roehm
Research on spoken languages has identified a "subject preference" processing strategy for tackling input that is syntactically ambiguous as to whether a sentence-initial NP is a subject or object. The present study documents that the "subject preference" strategy is also seen in the processing of a sign language, supporting the hypothesis that the "subject"-first is universal and not dependent on the language modality (spoken vs. signed). Deaf signers of Austrian Sign Language (ÖGS) were shown videos of locally ambiguous signed sentences in SOV and OSV word orders...
April 5, 2018: Brain Research
Celine De Looze, Finnian Kelly, Lisa Crosby, Aisling Vourdanou, Robert F Coen, Cathal Walsh, Brian A Lawlor, Richard B Reilly
BACKGROUND: Speech and language impairments, generally attributed to lexico-semantic deficits, have been documented in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates the temporal organisation of speech (reflective of speech production planning) in reading aloud in relation to cognitive impairment, particularly working memory and attention deficits in MCI and AD. The discriminative ability of temporal features extracted from a newly designed read speech task is also evaluated for the detection of MCI and AD...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Reem S W Alyahya, Ajay D Halai, Paul Conroy, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Typically, processing is more accurate and efficient for concrete than abstract concepts in both healthy adults and individuals with aphasia. While, concreteness effects have been thoroughly documented with respect to noun processing, other words classes have received little attention despite tending to be less concrete than nouns. The aim of the current study was to explore concrete-abstract differences in verbs and identify their neural correlates in post-stroke aphasia. Given the dearth of comprehension tests for verbs, a battery of neuropsychological tests was developed in this study to assess the comprehension of concrete and abstract verbs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Linda Weiss, Maya Scherer, Tongtan Chantarat, Theo Oshiro, Patrick Padgen, Jose Pagan, Peri Rosenfeld, H Shonna Yin
Approximately 25 million people in the United States are limited English proficient (LEP). Appropriate language services can improve care for LEP individuals, and health care facilities receiving federal funds are required to provide such services. Recognizing the risk of inadequate comprehension of prescription medication instructions, between 2008 and 2012, New York City and State passed a series of regulations that require chain pharmacies to provide translated prescription labels and other language services to LEP patients...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Harshad Hegde, Neel Shimpi, Ingrid Glurich, Amit Acharya
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional retrospective study utilized Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract tobacco-use associated variables from clinical notes documented in the Electronic Health Record (EHR). OBJECITVE: To develop a rule-based algorithm for determining the present status of the patient's tobacco-use. METHODS: Clinical notes (n= 5,371 documents) from 363 patients were mined and classified by NLP software into four classes namely: "Current Smoker", "Past Smoker", "Nonsmoker" and "Unknown"...
March 23, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Ricardo Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Adolfo Muñoz, Antonio L Castro, Oscar Moreno, Mario Pascual
This research shows a protocol to assess the computational complexity of querying relational and non-relational (NoSQL (not only Structured Query Language)) standardized electronic health record (EHR) medical information database systems (DBMS). It uses a set of three doubling-sized databases, i.e. databases storing 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 realistic standardized EHR extracts, in three different database management systems (DBMS): relational MySQL object-relational mapping (ORM), document-based NoSQL MongoDB, and native extensible markup language (XML) NoSQL eXist...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Robert Sidney Cox, Curtis Madsen, James Alastair McLaughlin, Tramy Nguyen, Nicholas Roehner, Bryan Bartley, Jacob Beal, Michael Bissell, Kiri Choi, Kevin Clancy, Raik Grünberg, Chris Macklin, Goksel Misirli, Ernst Oberortner, Matthew Pocock, Meher Samineni, Michael Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Zach Zundel, John H Gennari, Chris Myers, Herbert Sauro, Anil Wipat
Synthetic biology builds upon the techniques and successes of genetics, molecular biology, and metabolic engineering by applying engineering principles to the design of biological systems. The field still faces substantial challenges, including long development times, high rates of failure, and poor reproducibility. One method to ameliorate these problems would be to improve the exchange of information about designed systems between laboratories. The synthetic biology open language (SBOL) has been developed as a standard to support the specification and exchange of biological design information in synthetic biology, filling a need not satisfied by other pre-existing standards...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Alexandra J Stewart, Colin R Butler, Nagarajan Muthialu, Debbie Sell, Joseph Marchant, Richard J D Hewitt, Martin J Elliott
INTRODUCTION: Slide tracheoplasty is now considered gold standard treatment for long segment congenital tracheal stenosis. Outcomes are typically focused upon airway patency. Dysphagia is often reported in children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, but not specifically after slide tracheoplasty. This study was carried out to describe the nature and prevalence of dysphagia following slide tracheoplasty for long segment congenital tracheal stenosis. METHODS: Retrospective case note review was conducted on a series of patients who underwent swallow evaluation following slide tracheoplasty between 2006 and 2014...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
B Subramaniyan, Roopa Nagarajan, R Vaidyanathan, B Rajashekhar, B W C Sathiyasekaran
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comprehensive management for communication disorders in individuals with CLP was provided in a community based program in two rural districts in Tamilnadu, India. This program provides services at the community to empower the families about CLP and treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To document the caregiver perceptions' of communication status and needs in children with repaired CLP. METHOD: Six Focus Group Discussions were conducted in Thiruvannamalai and Cuddalore districts in Tamil Nadu, India...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Andrew D Boyd, Karen Dunn Lopez, Camillo Lugaresi, Tamara Macieira, Vanessa Sousa, Sabita Acharya, Abhinaya Balasubramanian, Khawllah Roussi, Gail M Keenan, Yves A Lussier, Jianrong 'John' Li, Michel Burton, Barbara Di Eugenio
BACKGROUND: Physician and nurses have worked together for generations; however, their language and training are vastly different; comparing and contrasting their work and their joint impact on patient outcomes is difficult in light of this difference. At the same time, the EHR only includes the physician perspective via the physician-authored discharge summary, but not nurse documentation. Prior research in this area has focused on collaboration and the usage of similar terminology. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to gain insight into interprofessional care by developing a computational metric to identify similarities, related concepts and differences in physician and nurse work...
May 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Luca Andriolo, Sante Alessandro Altamura, Davide Reale, Christian Candrian, Stefano Zaffagnini, Giuseppe Filardo
BACKGROUND: Patellar tendinopathy is a condition characterized by anterior knee activity-related pain. It has a high incidence among athletes engaged in jumping sports and may become a chronic condition. Nonoperative management is the first choice in these patients, and several nonsurgical treatment options have been proposed. Nonetheless, clear indications on the most effective approach to address patellar tendinopathy are still lacking. PURPOSE: To analyze the evidence on nonoperative options to treat chronic patellar tendinopathy through a systematic review of the literature and to perform a meta-analysis to identify the most effective nonsurgical option...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Emina Hadziabdic, Katarina Hjelm
Aim: The study aims to describe the establishment of a culturally specific nursing home for Finnish-speaking older persons in Sweden. Design: A descriptive qualitative study. Methods: A descriptive case study based on a review of 14 public documents and individual interviews with two experts in the area, analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results: This study found that shared language, preservation of customs and habits and collaboration between the representatives of the municipality, Finnish-speaking migrant associations and staff at the nursing home influenced the development of the culturally specific nursing home for older Finnish-speaking people intended to avoid loneliness, isolation and misunderstandings among older Finnish-speaking...
April 2018: Nursing Open
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Christoper A Alarcon-Ruiz, Guido Bendezu-Quispe, Daniel Comandé, Diego Rosselli
Background: Biosimilars could be a promising option to help decrease healthcare costs and expand access to treatment. There is no previous evidence of a global bibliometric analysis on biosimilars. Therefore, we aimed to assess the quantity and quality of worldwide biosimilars research. Methods: We performed a bibliometric analysis using documents about biosimilars published until December 2016 in journals indexed in Scopus. We extracted the annual research, languages, countries, journals, authors, institutions, citation frequency, and the metrics of journals...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
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