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Yuri I Arshavsky
The main paradigm of cognitive neuroscience is the connectionist concept postulating that the higher nervous activity is performed through interactions of neurons forming complex networks, whereas the function of individual neurons is restricted to generating electrical potentials and transmitting signals to other cells. In this article, I describe the observations from three fields-neurolinguistics, physiology of memory, and sensory perception-that can hardly be explained within the constraints of a purely connectionist concept...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Guillaume Thierry
The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing...
September 2016: Language Learning
Jingling Chang, Hua Zhang, Zhongjian Tan, Juan Xiao, Shuren Li, Ying Gao
BACKGROUND: In this study we investigated the neurolinguistic and neuroimaging characteristics of post-stroke motor aphasia patients. The effects of acupuncture on cortex activation by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with motor aphasia were also studied. METHODS: In this study 43 patients with motor aphasia after stroke were assessed according to Clinical Rehabilitation Research Center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) for linguistic evaluation and MRI and computed tomography (CT) were used for the analyses of brain lesions...
September 2, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri
Implicit strategies are known to increase persuasion performances. Implicits of content (vagueness, implicatures) and implicits of responsibility (presuppositions, topics) will be compared semiotically to non-linguistic implicits such as images and sounds. The results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments will be used to propose that presuppositions and topics arose in language as means to spare addressees processing effort on already known contents, but they were subsequently "exapted" to spare effort on unknown marginal contents, and eventually to reduce the probability for doubtful contents to be processed thoroughly and rejected...
2016: SpringerPlus
Joanna Taylor
This article is an exploration of some of the causes of stress within the dental profession and a discussion on how some of the models and philosophies of NLPt could help improve the levels of psychological wellbeing within the profession. Some of the fundamental concepts of NLPt are explored, with particular reference to their application in regard to stress. It is concluded that NLPt could provide a robust methodology for reducing psychological distress within the profession, by helping dentists to understand the concept of unuseful constructs, to improve behavioural choice and to discover the possibility of a more resourceful way of being...
April 2016: Dental Update
Michael A Arbib
The approach to language evolution suggested here focuses on three questions: How did the human brain evolve so that humans can develop, use, and acquire languages? How can the evolutionary quest be informed by studying brain, behavior, and social interaction in monkeys, apes, and humans? How can computational modeling advance these studies? I hypothesize that the brain is language ready in that the earliest humans had protolanguages but not languages (i.e., communication systems endowed with rich and open-ended lexicons and grammars supporting a compositional semantics), and that it took cultural evolution to yield societies (a cultural constructed niche) in which language-ready brains could become language-using brains...
July 1, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jonathan R Brennan, Edward P Stabler, Sarah E Van Wagenen, Wen-Ming Luh, John T Hale
Neurolinguistic accounts of sentence comprehension identify a network of relevant brain regions, but do not detail the information flowing through them. We investigate syntactic information. Does brain activity implicate a computation over hierarchical grammars or does it simply reflect linear order, as in a Markov chain? To address this question, we quantify the cognitive states implied by alternative parsing models. We compare processing-complexity predictions from these states against fMRI timecourses from regions that have been implicated in sentence comprehension...
June 2016: Brain and Language
Stefanie Keulen, Jo Verhoeven, Louis De Page, Roel Jonkers, Roelien Bastiaanse, Peter Mariën
This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient's medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic, and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rik Vandenberghe
Highly influential recommendations published in 2011 for the classification of the primary progressive aphasias (PPA) distinguished three subtypes: the semantic variant, the nonfluent/agrammatic variant, and the logopenic variant. We review empirical evidence published after 2011 that bears relevance to the validity of the recommended classification scheme. The studies that we review principally rely on monocentric, memory clinic-based consecutive series of PPA patients. We review whether a data-driven analysis of neurolinguistic test scores confirms the subtyping that was based on expert consensus, whether the 2011 subtyping covers the diversity of PPA in a comprehensive manner, and whether the proposed subgroups differ along dimensions that are not explicitly part of the defining criteria, such as diffusion tractography...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Jesse Heckman, Brigit McGuinness, Tansu Celikel, Bernhard Englitz
Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Peggy Wackenier, Roel Jonkers, Roelien Bastiaanse, Jo Verhoeven
This paper presents the case of a 17-year-old right-handed Belgian boy with developmental FAS and comorbid developmental apraxia of speech (DAS). Extensive neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations demonstrated a normal IQ but impaired planning (visuo-constructional dyspraxia). A Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a significant hypoperfusion in the prefrontal and medial frontal regions, as well as in the lateral temporal regions. Hypoperfusion in the right cerebellum almost reached significance. It is hypothesized that these clinical findings support the view that FAS and DAS are related phenomena following impairment of the cerebro-cerebellar network...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stefanie Keulen, Jo Verhoeven, Roelien Bastiaanse, Peter Mariën, Roel Jonkers, Nicolas Mavroudakis, Philippe Paquier
A 40-year-old, non-aphasic, right-handed, and polyglot (L1: French, L2: Dutch, and L3: English) woman with a 12-year history of addiction to opiates and psychoactive substances, and clear psychiatric problems, presented with a foreign accent of sudden onset in L1. Speech evolved toward a mostly fluent output, despite a stutter-like behavior and a marked grammatical output disorder. The psychogenic etiology of the accent foreignness was construed based on the patient's complex medical history and psychodiagnostic, neuropsychological, and neurolinguistic assessments...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Maria M Piñango, Muye Zhang, Emily Foster-Hanson, Michiro Negishi, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
We examine metonymy at psycho- and neurolinguistic levels, seeking to adjudicate between two possible processing implementations (one- vs. two-mechanism). We compare highly conventionalized systematic metonymy (producer-for-product: "All freshmen read O'Connell") to lesser-conventionalized circumstantial metonymy ("[a waitress says to another:] 'Table 2 asked for more coffee."'). Whereas these two metonymy types differ in terms of contextual demands, they each reveal a similar dependency between the named and intended conceptual entities (e...
February 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
Becky Wong, Bin Yin, Beth O'Brien
Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kim van Dun, Elke De Witte, Wendy Van Daele, Wim Van Hecke, Mario Manto, Peter Mariën
BACKGROUND: In the majority of right-handed subjects, language processing is subserved by a close interplay between the left cerebral hemisphere and right cerebellum. Within this network, the dominant fronto-insular region and the contralateral posterior cerebellum are crucially implicated in oral language production. CASE PRESENTATION: We report atypical anatomoclinical findings in a right-handed patient with an extensive right cerebellar infarction and an older left fronto-insular stroke...
2015: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Petra Augurzky, Boris Kotchoubey
In spoken language, prosodic boundaries contribute to the way we understand sentences on-line. The present experiment used ERPs to investigate whether the informativity of prosodic boundaries depends on the availability of other linguistic cues. To this end, we examined the interplay between verb information, case and prosody in German verb-second structures. Unlike previous studies, unambiguous verb information signaled transitivity (a two-argument structure) before reaching potential arguments. Participants listened to sentences containing a succession of two noun phrases (NPs) that were either temporarily ambiguous or unambiguous...
January 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kimberly Leiken, Brian McElree, Liina Pylkkänen
One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Dorien Vandenborre, Kim van Dun, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter Mariën
Apraxic agraphia (AA) is a so-called peripheral writing disorder following disruption of the skilled movement plans of writing while the central processes that subserve spelling are intact. It has been observed in a variety of etiologically heterogeneous neurological disorders typically associated with lesions located in the language dominant parietal and frontal region. The condition is characterized by a hesitant, incomplete, imprecise or even illegible graphomotor output. Letter formation cannot be attributed to sensorimotor, extrapyramidal or cerebellar dysfunction affecting the writing limb...
November 2015: Brain and Language
Jinsong Wu, Junfeng Lu, Han Zhang, Jie Zhang, Chengjun Yao, Dongxiao Zhuang, Tianming Qiu, Qihao Guo, Xiaobing Hu, Ying Mao, Liangfu Zhou
Chinese processing has been suggested involving distinct brain areas from English. However, current functional localization studies on Chinese speech processing use mostly "indirect" techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography, lacking direct evidence by means of electrocortical recording. In this study, awake craniotomies in 66 Chinese-speaking glioma patients provide a unique opportunity to directly map eloquent language areas. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation was conducted and the positive sites for speech arrest, anomia, and alexia were identified separately...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Anthony Ritaccio, Riki Matsumoto, Martha Morrell, Kyousuke Kamada, Mohamad Koubeissi, David Poeppel, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Yakufumi Yanagisawa, Masayuki Hirata, Christoph Guger, Gerwin Schalk
The Seventh International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in Washington, DC, on November 13-14, 2014. Electrocorticography-based research continues to proliferate widely across basic science and clinical disciplines. The 2014 workshop highlighted advances in neurolinguistics, brain-computer interface, functional mapping, and seizure termination facilitated by advances in the recording and analysis of the ECoG signal. The following proceedings document summarizes the content of this successful multidisciplinary gathering...
October 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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