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stress hormones; diabetes

Apostolos Davillas, Andrew M Jones
Recent advances in social science surveys include collection of biological samples. Although biomarkers offer a large potential for social science and economic research, they impose a number of statistical challenges, often being distributed asymmetrically with heavy tails. Using data from the UK Household Panel Survey, we illustrate the comparative performance of a set of flexible parametric distributions, which allow for a wide range of skewness and kurtosis: the four-parameter generalized beta of the second kind (GB2), the three-parameter generalized gamma, and their three-, two-, or one-parameter nested and limiting cases...
June 14, 2018: Health Economics
Mohsen Akbarian, Younes Ghasemi, Vladimir N Uversky, Reza Yousefi
Insulin, a key peptide hormone that conjointly with its receptor regulates blood glucose levels, is used as the major means to treat diabetes. This therapeutic hormone may undergo different chemical modifications during industrial processes, pharmaceutical formulation, and through its endogenous storage in the pancreatic β-cells. Insulin is highly sensitive to the environmental stresses and easily undergoes structural changes, being also able to unfold and aggregate. Even small changes altering the structural integrity of insulin may have important impact on the biological efficacy in relation to the physiological and pharmacological activities of this hormone...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Branka Djordjevic, Tatjana Cvetkovic, Tatjana Jevtovic Stoimenov, Milena Despotovic, Slavoljub Zivanovic, Jelena Basic, Andrej Veljkovic, Aleksandra Velickov, Gordana Kocic, Dusica Pavlovic, Dusan Sokolovic
Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and pro-angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are considered important for diabetic retinopathy onset and progression. Melatonin is a pineal hormone that regulates circadian and seasonal rhythms and most likely is involved in regulating glucose metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the potential benefit of melatonin supplementation to the pre-diabetic retina by assessing melatonin effects on lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), protein oxidation (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and concentrations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), VEGF and MMP9 in the retina of rats with pre-diabetes...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat
Obesity is a multifaceted, chronic, low-grade inflammation disease characterized by excess accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue. It is often associated with the development of cardiovascular disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes. Under pathological conditions like in obesity, adipose tissue secretes bioactive molecules called "adipokines", including cytokines, hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is evidence suggesting that oxidative stress, in particular the ROS imbalance in adipose tissue, may be the mechanistic link between obesity and its associated cardiovascular and metabolic complications...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Luz Andreone, María Laura Gimeno, Marcelo J Perone
It is well established that there is a fine-tuned bidirectional communication between the immune and neuroendocrine tissues in maintaining homeostasis. Several types of immune cells, hormones, and neurotransmitters of different chemical nature are involved as communicators between organs. Apart of being key players of the adaptive arm of the immune system, it has been recently described that T lymphocytes are involved in the modulation of metabolism of several tissues in health and disease. Diabetes may result mainly from lack of insulin production (type 1 diabetes) or insufficient insulin and insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes), both influenced by genetic and environmental components...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Wen-Chih Liu, Chia-Chao Wu, Paik-Seong Lim, Shiaw-Wen Chien, Yi-Chou Hou, Cai-Mei Zheng, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Yuh-Feng Lin, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) exhibit abnormalities in the circulating mineral levels, vitamin D metabolism, and parathyroid function that contribute to the formation of a bone lesion. The uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS), accumulates in the blood in cases of renal failure and leads to bone loss. The bone and renal responses to the action of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) are progressively decreased in CKD in spite of increasing PTH levels, a condition commonly called PTH resistance...
June 1, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Charikleia Stefanaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Dario Boschiero, George P Chrousos
Recent studies have suggested that body composition is key to health and disease. First, fat tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that responds to afferent signals from traditional hormone systems and the central nervous system but also expresses and secretes factors with important endocrine, metabolic, and immune functions. Second, skeletal muscle mass is an important predictor of health in adult life, while severe mass loss has been associated with the frailty of old age...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samantha J Snow, Andres R Henriquez, Daniel L Costa, Urmila P Kodavanti
Air pollutant exposures are linked to cardiopulmonary diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, neurobehavioral conditions, and reproductive abnormalities. Significant effort is invested in understanding how pollutants encountered by the lung might induce effects in distant organs. The role of circulating mediators has been predicted; however, their origin and identity have not been confirmed. New evidence has emerged which implicates the role of neuroendocrine sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axes in mediating a wide array of systemic and pulmonary effects...
May 28, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Prabin Gyawali, Sean A Martin, Leonie K Heilbronn, Andrew D Vincent, Anne W Taylor, Robert J T Adams, Peter D O'Loughlin, Gary A Wittert
AIMS: Contrasting findings exist regarding the association between circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in men. We examined prospective associations of SHBG and sex steroids with incident T2D in a cohort of community-dwelling men. METHODS: Participants were from a cohort study of community-dwelling (n = 2563), middle-aged to elderly men (35-80 years) from Adelaide, Australia (the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study)...
May 29, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Lucie Ruiz, Tatyana Gurlo, Magalie A Ravier, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Julia Mathieu, Matthew R Brown, Christophe Broca, Gyslaine Bertrand, Peter C Butler, Aleksey V Matveyenko, Stéphane Dalle, Safia Costes
In type 2 diabetes, amyloid oligomers, chronic hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The histone acetyl transferase p300, involved in remodeling of chromatin structure by epigenetic mechanisms, is a key ubiquitous activator of the transcriptional machinery. In this study, we report that loss of p300 acetyl transferase activity and expression leads to beta-cell apoptosis, and most importantly, that stress situations known to be associated with diabetes alter p300 levels and functional integrity...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Aliseydi Bozkurt, Mehmet Karabakan, Binhan Kagan Aktas, Murat Gunay, Ercüment Keskin, Erkan Hirik
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative stress is considered as an important factor in the etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED), and in many experimental models, positive results have been obtained with melatonin treatment. This study aimed to measure serum melatonin levels in ED patients and to investigate the possible relationship between ED and melatonin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients diagnosed with mild, moderate or severe ED according to the five-item International Erectile Function Index (IIEF-5) and 22 healthy individuals were included in the study...
April 30, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Kook Hwan Kim, Seong Hun Kim, Dai Hoon Han, Young Suk Jo, Yong-Ho Lee, Myung-Shik Lee
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an endocrine hormone belonging to the TGFβ superfamily member. GDF15 administration or GDF15 overexpression has been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is frequently associated with obesity and insulin resistance, the functional role of endogenous GDF15 and therapeutic effect of GDF15 overexpression in NASH and related metabolic deterioration have not been evaluated...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria-Ioanna Christodoulou, Job Tchoumtchoua, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Andreas Scorilas, Maria Halabalaki
BACKGROUND: Accumulating experimental data support the capacity of natural compounds to intervene in complicated molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of certain human morbidities. Among them, diabetes is now a world's epidemic associated with increased risk of death; thus, the detection of novel anti-diabetic agents and/or adjuvants is of vital importance. Alkaloids represent a diverse group of natural products with a range of therapeutic properties; during the last 20 years published research on their anti-diabetic capacity has been tremendously increased...
April 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Francesco Nicolini, Antonella Vezzani, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gherli, Filippo Benassi, Tullio Manca, Tiziano Gherli
Background Gender-related biases in outcomes after thoracic aortic surgery are an important factor to consider in the prevention of potential complications related to aortic diseases and in the analysis of surgical results. Methods The aim of this study is to provide an up-to-date review of gender-related differences in the epidemiology, specific risk factors, outcome, and screening and prevention programmes in aortic aneurysms. Results Female patients affected by aortic disease still have worse outcomes and higher early and late mortality than men...
June 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Han Weina, Niu Yuhu, Holscher Christian, Li Birong, Shen Feiyu, Wang Le
Recent studies indicate that metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity are a major risk factor of psychiatric diseases. This relationship opens the opportunity to develop new antidepressant drugs by repurposing antidiabetic drugs. Previous research has demonstrated that GLP-1 analogs are neuroprotective in several neurological disease models including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. In addition, the GLP-1 analog liraglutide has been shown to promote neurogenesis, which is seen to play important roles in memory formation and cognitive and emotional processing...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
Géraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Jérôme Bouligand, Brigitte Delemer, Marc Lombès
Glucocorticoids (GC), such as cortisol or dexamethasone, control various physiological functions, notably those involved in development, metabolism, inflammatory processes and stress, and exert most of their effects upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by NR3C1 gene). GC signaling follows several consecutive steps leading to target gene transactivation, including ligand binding, nuclear translocation of ligand-activated GR complexes, DNA binding, coactivator interaction and recruitment of functional transcriptional machinery...
June 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Hassan Tirandaz, Mohammad-Bagher Ebrahim-Habibi, Borhan Moradveisi, Saeid Raoofi, Amir Salehi-Najafabadi, Ebrahim Mohammadi
Inability to have a satisfactory sexual intercourse is a serious problem affecting many people. Despite enormous efforts for developing effective treatments for pathologic conditions associated with sexual malfunction, still a lot of patients do not respond well to such treatments. Microbiota has been shown to affect obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stress/anxiety and sex hormonal disturbances. Nevertheless, no research has concentrated on the link between microbiota and human sexuality or sexual dysfunction...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In contrast, the expression of the FGF21-obligatory coreceptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
June 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ying-Zhi Liang, Jing Dong, Jie Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yan He, Yu-Xiang Yan
Background: Chronic stress plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in mediating stress responses by regulating the expression of target genes. This study systematically screened and identified the neuroendocrine stress response-related circulating miRNAs which are associated with T2DM and IR. Methods: Based on the differential plasma expression profiles between individuals with and without T2DM, stress-related miRNAs were selected from those differently expressed miRNAs whose targets are involved in known neuroendocrine pathway of stress response...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
K Blaslov, I Kruljac, G Mirošević, Lora S Kirigin Biloš, M Vrkljan
Insulin resistance (IR) is a common denominator of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders simultaneously present in one person and responsible for elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular incidents. According to the latest research, IR is present in 25-45% of the general population. Therefore, the mechanism of its development is in the center of scientific and professional interest. Established or acquired factors, or combinations thereof, which disturb any step of the physiological insulin action mechanism: its binding to the cellular receptor, through the complex cascade of intracellular signaling pathways might cause IR...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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