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stress hormones; diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212347/oxidative-stress-a-unifying-mechanism-for-cell-damage-induced-by-noise-water-pipe-smoking-and-emotional-stress-therapeutic-strategies-targeting-redox-imbalance
#1
Saeid Golbidi, Huige Li, Ismail Laher
SIGNIFICANCE: Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards which affect our well-being and health care budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation following noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203121/using-a-memory-systems-lens-to-view-the-effects-of-estrogens-on-cognition-implications-for-human-health
#2
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171778/effect-of-matrix-composition-sphere-size-and-hormone-concentration-on-diffusion-coefficient-of-insulin-for-controlled-gastrointestinal-delivery-for-diabetes-treatment
#3
Fernando Villaverde Cendon, Regina Maria Matos Jorge, Regina Weinschutz, Alvaro Luiz Mathias
Oral insulin administration is limited due to its degradation by proteases. The hormone was encapsulated in spheres made of either pure calcium alginate (ALG) or its association with whey protein isolate (WPI-ALG) in order to minimize loss in the stomach region while allowing liberation in the maximum absorption area, located in the intestine. Diffusion coefficients for both matrix compositions were determined in vitro for gastric pH (5.88 and 10.26 10(-12) m(2) s(-1)) and intestinal pH (21.11 and 79.29 10(-12) m(2) s(-1))...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163365/functional-mitochondria-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Patries M Herst, Matthew R Rowe, Georgia M Carson, Michael V Berridge
The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162628/etiopathogenesis-and-pharmacological-prevention-of-a-type-2-diabetes-model-in-male-mice
#5
Alberto Loizzo, Santi M Spampinato, Gabriele Campana, Stefano Loizzo
We describe a stress-derived type-2 diabetes model in male mice, and formulate new hypotheses on how the model was induced, how diabetes-like alterations were prevented through specific pharmacological treatments, and how its possible neuroendocrine pathogenesis could be hypothesized. Pregnant females arrived in our laboratory on their 14th day of conceptional age. After birth, control mice never showed any apparent behavioral-metabolic-endocrine alterations. However, application of postnatal stress (brief mother deprivation, plus sham injection, daily from birth to weaning), was followed in adult male mice by two series of diabetes-like alterations...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145569/immune-system-an-emerging-player-in-mediating-effects-of-endocrine-disruptors-on-metabolic-health
#6
Amita Bansal, Jorge Henao Mejia, Rebecca A Simmons
The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continue to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides new evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (food, drink and skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action...
November 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137280/ppar%C3%AE-sumoylation-mediated-lipid-accumulation-in-lung-cancer
#7
Ai N H Phan, Vu T A Vo, Tuyen N M Hua, Min-Kyu Kim, Se-Young Jo, Jong-Whan Choi, Hyun-Won Kim, Jaekyoung Son, Young-Ah Suh, Yangsik Jeong
Metabolic reprogramming as a crucial emerging hallmark of cancer is critical for tumor cells to maintain cellular bioenergetics, biosynthesis and reduction/oxidation (REDOX) balance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor regulating transcription of diverse gene sets involved in inflammation, metabolism, and suppressing tumor growth. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), as selective PPARγ ligands, are insulin-sensitizing drugs widely prescribed for type 2 diabetic patients in the clinic...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120013/primary-polydipsia-in-the-medical-and-psychiatric-patient-characteristics-complications-and-therapy
#8
Clara Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Primary polydipsia (PP) has been defined as excessive intake of fluids. However, the pathogenesis of PP remains unexplored. Different theories include a dysfunction in the thirst mechanism, involvement of the hippocampus, stress-reducing behaviour and lesion occurrences in specific areas of the brain. Most studies have been performed in the psychiatric setting, indicating that PP coincides with schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and depression. However, an increasing number of case reports emphasise the incidence of PP in non-psychiatric patients...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089371/fxr-tgr5-dual-agonist-prevents-progression-of-nephropathy-in-diabetes-and-obesity
#9
Xiaoxin X Wang, Dong Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Komuraiah Myakala, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Avi Z Rosenberg, Jonathan Levi, Jeffrey B Kopp, Amanda Field, Ashley Hill, Scott Lucia, Liru Qiu, Tao Jiang, Yingqiong Peng, David Orlicky, Gabriel Garcia, Michal Herman-Edelstein, Vivette D'Agati, Kammi Henriksen, Luciano Adorini, Mark Pruzanski, Cen Xie, Kristopher W Krausz, Frank J Gonzalez, Suman Ranjit, Alexander Dvornikov, Enrico Gratton, Moshe Levi
Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5. We have shown that FXR and TGR5 have renoprotective roles in diabetes- and obesity-related kidney disease. Here, we determined whether these effects are mediated through differential or synergistic signaling pathways. We administered the FXR/TGR5 dual agonist INT-767 to DBA/2J mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, db/db mice with type 2 diabetes, and C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080463/ameliorative-effects-of-bee-pollen-and-date-palm-pollen-on-the-glycemic-state-and-male-sexual-dysfunctions-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#10
Nema A Mohamed, Osama M Ahmed, Walaa G Hozayen, Marium A Ahmed
This study aimed to assess the effects of bee pollen (BP) and/or date palm pollen (DPP) suspensions on the glycemic state, testicular dysfunctions, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ to overnight-fasted rats at dose of 40mg/kg body weight. After 1 week of STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated with BP and/or DPP suspensions at dose levels of 100mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064542/elevated-leukocyte-count-as-a-harbinger-of-systemic-inflammation-disease-progression-and-poor-prognosis-a-review
#11
Piotr Paweł Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec
Total leukocyte count increases significantly in response to infection, trauma, inflammation, and certain diseases. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults include sex, hormonal milieu, genetic inheritance, stress level, diet, nutrition, and lifestyle (e.g. tobacco-induced inflammatory changes, chronic psychological stress, etc.). To date, numerous studies have reported that high but normal leukocyte counts at baseline predict increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in older adults...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063418/health-benefits-of-fasting-and-caloric-restriction
#12
REVIEW
Saeid Golbidi, Andreas Daiber, Bato Korac, Huige Li, M Faadiel Essop, Ismail Laher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061124/dapagliflozin-acutely-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-reduces-aortic-stiffness-and-renal-resistive-index-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-pilot-study
#13
Anna Solini, Livia Giannini, Marta Seghieri, Edoardo Vitolo, Stefano Taddei, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Rosa Maria Bruno
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce blood pressure (BP) and renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes through not fully elucidated mechanisms. Aim of this study was to investigate whether dapagliflozin is able to acutely modify systemic and renal vascular function, as well as putative mechanisms. METHODS: Neuro-hormonal and vascular variables, together with 24 h diuresis, urinary sodium, glucose, isoprostanes and free-water clearance were assessed before and after a 2-day treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg QD in sixteen type 2 diabetic patients; data were compared with those obtained in ten patients treated with hydrochlorothiazide 12...
October 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056676/serum-fructosamine-concentration-in-uncontrolled-hyperthyroid-diabetic-cats-is-within-the-population-reference-interval
#14
Arnon Gal, Brie Trusiano, Adrienne F French, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Amy L MacNeill
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050859/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-triple-glp-1-gip-glucagon-receptor-agonist-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jingjing Tai, Weizhen Liu, Yanwei Li, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that have anti-diabetic properties show very promising effects in animal models of AD. Glucagon (Gcg) is a hormone and growth-factor, and the Gcg receptor is expressed in the brain. Here we test the effects of a triple receptor agonist (TA), which activates GIP-1, GIP and glucagon receptors at the same time...
October 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023410/long-term-osmotic-mini-pump-treatment-with-alpha-msh-improves-myocardial-function-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#16
Miklos Szokol, Daniel Priksz, Mariann Bombicz, Balazs Varga, Arpad Kovacs, Gabor Aron Fulop, Tamas Csipo, Aniko Posa, Attila Toth, Zoltan Papp, Zoltan Szilvassy, Bela Juhasz
The present investigation evaluates the cardiovascular effects of the anorexigenic mediator alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Osmotic mini pumps delivering MSH or vehicle, for 6 weeks, were surgically implanted in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. Serum parameters, blood pressure, and weight gain were monitored along with oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). Echocardiography was conducted and, following sacrifice, the effects of treatment on ischemia/reperfusion cardiac injury were assessed using the isolated working heart method...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021708/effects-of-ginseng-on-stress-related-depression-anxiety-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#17
REVIEW
Seungyeop Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967725/testicular-and-thyroid-function-as-survival-predictors-in-the-elderly-patient-candidate-to-surgery
#18
Antonio Aversa, Andrea Fabbri
The relationship between testosterone deficiency (TD) syndrome and surgical resilience has a great impact in the modern approach to male elderly patients. There is good evidence that low levels of T are a strong marker for cardiovascular risk; also, TD is frequently associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality especially in cardiac older frail men. Screening for low T should be mandatory in high risk groups candidate to surgery including those with diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, even though benefits from T-treatment on survival rates are unclear...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#19
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887918/hepatoprotective-and-hypoglycemic-effects-of-a-tannin-rich-extract-from-ximenia-americana-var-caffra-root
#20
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Liver diseases and diabetes are serious health disorders associated with oxidative stress and ageing. Some plant polyphenols can lower the risk of these diseases. PURPOSE: We investigated the phytochemical profiling of a root extract from Ximenia americana var. caffra using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activities in vitro were investigated. The hepatoprotective activities were studied in rat models with d-galactosamine (d-GaIN)-induced hepatotoxicity and the antidiabetic activities in STZ-diabetic rats were also investigated...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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