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diabetes stress hormones

Alex Tsui, Diana Kuh, Linda Cardozo, Daniel Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) at age 68 years and the contribution of vascular risk factors to male and female UUI pathogenesis in addition to the associations with raised body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In all, 1 762 participants from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey for Health and Development birth cohort who answered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire short form (ICIQ-SF), at age 68 years, were included...
March 7, 2018: BJU International
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
Simone Pisano, Giangennaro Coppola, Gennaro Catone, Marco Carotenuto, Raffaella Iuliano, Vittoria D'Esposito, Serena Cabaro, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Carmela Bravaccio, Pietro Formisano
BACKGROUND: Youth exposed to antipsychotics may experience several metabolic consequences that often limit the effectiveness of this class of drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare several metabolic markers between subjects who experienced antipsychotic-induced weight gain and untreated obese patients. METHODS: Nineteen non-diabetic youth (mean age 159 months, mean body mass index z-score 1.81) experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched group of non-diabetic obese patients with no record of treatment (n = 19, mean age 147 months, mean body mass index z-score 2) were compared for a wide range of metabolic factors using a Bioplex Multiplex system...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Arushana Ali, Ze Zheng, Kezhong Zhang
Circadian rhythms play crucial roles in orchestrating diverse physiological processes that are critical for health and disease. Dysregulated circadian rhythms are closely associated with various human metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Modern lifestyles are frequently associated with an irregular circadian rhythm, which poses a significant risk to public health. While the central clock has a set periodicity, circadian oscillators in peripheral organs, particularly in the liver, can be entrained by metabolic alterations or stress cues...
September 2017: Liver Research
Elena Cichero, Chiara Fresia, Lucrezia Guida, Valeria Booz, Enrico Millo, Claudia Scotti, Luisa Iamele, Hugo de Jonge, Denise Galante, Antonio De Flora, Laura Sturla, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Elena Zocchi, Paola Fossa
Lanthionine synthetase component C-like protein 2 (LANCL2) has been identified as the mammalian receptor mediating the functional effects of the universal stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in mammals. ABA stimulates insulin independent glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes via LANCL2 binding in vitro, improves glucose tolerance in vivo and induces brown fat activity in vitro and in vivo. The emerging role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in glucose and lipid metabolism makes it an attractive target for pharmacological interventions in diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hassan Askari, Sulail Fatima Rajani, Mansour Poorebrahim, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Ehsan Raeis-Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Irisin is a hormone-like molecule mainly released by skeletal muscles in response to exercise. Irisin induces browning of the white adipose tissue and has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. Keeping its energy expenditure and metabolic properties in view, numerous studies have focused on its therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of irisin have received a great deal of attention of the scientific society...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Victor A Gault, Christian Hölscher
Enzyme-resistant receptor agonists of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have shown positive therapeutic effects in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has detrimental effects on brain function and impairment of cognition and memory formation has been described. One of the underlying mechanisms is most likely insulin de-sensitization in the brain, as insulin improves cognitive impairments and enhances learning. Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists improves memory formation and impairment of synaptic plasticity observed in animal models of diabetes-obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
Siwei Cai, Qianhui Yang, Mengzhu Hou, Qian Han, Hanyu Zhang, Jiantao Wang, Chen Qi, Qiyu Bo, Yusha Ru, Wei Yang, Zhongxiu Gu, Ruihua Wei, Yunshan Cao, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A)...
January 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Errol M Thomson, Shinjini Pilon, Josée Guénette, Andrew Williams, Alison C Holloway
Air pollution is associated with increased incidence of metabolic disease (e.g. metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Air pollutants increase the release of stress hormones (human cortisol, rodent corticosterone), which could contribute to metabolic dysregulation. We assessed acute effects of ozone, and stress axis involvement, on glucose tolerance and on the metabolic (triglyceride), endocrine/energy regulation (insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, leptin, ghrelin, corticosterone), and inflammatory/endothelial (TNF, IL-6, VEGF, PAI-1) response to exogenous glucose...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Yu Yuan, Yuan-Bo Li, Zheng-Fu Tai, Yi-Peng Xie, Xu-Feng Pu, Jian Gao
Pramlintide acetate (Symlin®), a synthetic analogue of the human hormone amylin. It was approved in March 2005 as a subcutaneous injection for the adjunctive treatment of patients who have type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of current investigation was to study the degradation behavior of pramlintide acetate under different ICH recommended stress conditions by HPLC and LC-MS. Pramlintide acetate was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis (acidic or alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal decomposition...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Aditya Arya, Hamed Karimian, Narendiran Krishnasamy, Ameya Ashok Hasamnis, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain
Diabetes is associated with obesity, generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress and redox imbalances which are implicated in the progression of micro- and macro-complications like heart disease, stroke, dementia, cancer, kidney failure and blindness. All these complications rise primarily due to consistent high blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon help to maintain the homeostasis of glucose and lipids through signaling cascades. Pancreatic hormones stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the cell surface and facilitate the rapid insulin-dependent storage of glucose in muscle and fat cells...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eric Chung
Nocturia is a common urinary condition experienced by both men and women. While desmopressin has historically been utilized to treat conditions such as central diabetes insipidus and primary nocturnal enuresis, there is an increased interest in the use of desmopressin in the management of adult nocturia. Areas covered: This article provides a review on the pathophysiology of nocturia and the clinical outcomes and safety profile of desmopressin in the management of adult nocturnal voiding dysfunction. Expert opinion: To date, desmopressin is the only anti-diuretic hormone that is approved for nocturia...
January 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Shu-Ying Liu, Chih-Hao Huang, Jia-Ching Shieh, Tai-Lin Lee
Diabetes patients associated with liver disease carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Cinnamon has been reported to reduce fructose-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver. However, the mechanism by which cinnamon protects the liver in a high-saccharide environment remains to be investigated. HepG2 cells were cultured with 30 mM D-ribose to mimic the high-oxidative-stress environment, typical of a liver in a diabetic patient. Three different chemical types of C. osmophloeum ethanol extracts (CEEs) were added in HepG2 culture media and the administration of all three CEEs protected HepG2 cells from D-ribose damage and increased cell survival by approximately 20 percent...
September 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Diego Caicedo, Oscar Díaz, Pablo Devesa, Jesús Devesa
This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Zambon, Chiara Mandò, Alessandra Lissoni, Gaia Maria Anelli, Chiara Novielli, Manuela Cardellicchio, Roberto Leone, Marta Noemi Monari, Maddalena Massari, Irene Cetin, Silvio Abati
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is related to immunologic and inflammatory systemic modifications that may worsen the pregnancy inflammatory status. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can adversely affect oral biofilms and oral health initiating or worsening periodontal diseases, with enhanced local and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between local salivary and systemic parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to obesity and periodontal diseases...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
K Kochet, I Lytus, I Svistunov, O Sulaieva
Skin pathology is registered in vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the abundance of publications on dermatological problems in DM, there is still a number of gaps to be discussed in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms. The goal of this review was to assess the mechanisms of development of different skin pathologies under DM. One of the key pathogenic mechanisms of skin lesions in diabetes is hyperglycemia and the effects of the advanced glycation end products, inducing oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation; that in its turn can accelerate the mechanisms of skin aging, the development of diabetic dermopathy and scleredema diabeticorum...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
Valeria Tosti, Beatrice Bertozzi, Luigi Fontana
Consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in minimally processed plant foods has been associated with a reduced risk of developing multiple chronic diseases and increased life expectancy. Data from several randomized clinic trials have demonstrated a beneficial effect in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation and breast cancer. The exact mechanism by which an increased adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet exerts its favorable effects is not known...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Saeid Golbidi, Huige Li, Ismail Laher
SIGNIFICANCE: Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards that affect our well-being and healthcare budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent Advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation after noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking...
March 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, to cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Fernando Villaverde Cendon, Regina Maria Matos Jorge, Regina Weinschutz, Alvaro Luiz Mathias
Oral insulin administration is limited due to its degradation by proteases. The hormone was encapsulated in spheres made of either pure calcium alginate (ALG) or its association with whey protein isolate (WPI-ALG) in order to minimise loss in the stomach region while allowing liberation in the maximum absorption area, located in the intestine. Diffusion coefficients for both matrix compositions were determined in vitro for gastric pH (5.88 and 10.26 × 10-12  m2  s-1 ) and intestinal pH (21.11 and 79...
January 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
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