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diabetes stress hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624501/new-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Sidika E Karakas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Recent studies support that serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels correlate with the number of ovarian follicles and cysts...
June 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600493/adiponectin-modulates-oxidative-stress-induced-mitophagy-and-protects-c2c12-myoblasts-against-apoptosis
#3
Yinghui Ren, Yan Li, Jun Yan, Mingkun Ma, Dongmei Zhou, Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Huipeng Yang, Long Jia, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Shuqin Mu, Rongxin Zhang, Yurong Da
Adiponectin (APN), also known as apM1, Acrp30, GBP28 and adipoQ, is a circulating hormone that is predominantly produced by adipose tissue. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated that this protein possesses potent anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the antioxidative activity of this protein, the regulatory mechanisms have not yet been defined in skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytoprotective effects of APN against damage induced by oxidative stress in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592636/interleukin-6-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-apoptosis-by-stimulation-of-autophagy
#4
Amelia K Linnemann, Joseph Blumer, Michelle R Marasco, Therese J Battiola, Heidi M Umhoefer, Jee Young Han, Dudley W Lamming, Dawn Belt Davis
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in inflammation and metabolic disease. The role of IL-6 as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine is still unclear. Within the pancreatic islet, IL-6 stimulates secretion of the prosurvival incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by α cells and acts directly on β cells to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro Uncovering physiologic mechanisms promoting β-cell survival under conditions of inflammation and stress can identify important pathways for diabetes prevention and treatment...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581834/updates-on-smart-polymeric-carrier-systems-for-protein-delivery
#5
Ibrahim El-Sherbiny, Islam Khalil, Isra Ali, Magdi Yacoub
Smart materials are those materials that are responsive to chemical (organic molecules, chemical agents or specific agents), biochemical (protein, enzymes, growth factors, substrates or ligands), physical (electric field, magnetic field, temperature, pH, ionic strength or radiation) or mechanical (pressure or mechanical stress) signals. These responsive materials interact with the stimuli by changing their properties or conformational structures in a predictable manner. Recently, smart polymers have been utilized in various biomedical applications...
June 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576871/steap4-its-emerging-role-in-metabolism-and-homeostasis-of-cellular-iron-and-copper
#6
Rachel T Scarl, C Martin Lawrence, Hannah M Gordon, Craig S Nunemaker
Preserving energy homeostasis in the presence of stressors such as proinflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload is crucial to maintaining normal cellular function. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4 (STEAP4), a metalloreductase involved in iron and copper homeostasis, is thought to play a potentially important role in the cellular response to inflammatory stress. Genome-wide association studies have linked various mutations in STEAP4 with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574832/impact-of-chronic-unpredicted-mild-stress-induced-depression-on-repaglinide-fate-via-glucocorticoid-signaling-pathway
#7
Hongyan Wei, Ting Zhou, Boyu Tan, Lei Zhang, Mingming Li, Zhijun Xiao, Feng Xu
Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression could alter the pharmacokinetics of many drugs in rats, however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this work we studied the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide, and explored the role of glucocorticoid and adrenergic signaling pathway in regulating drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in GK rats and BRL 3A cells. The plasma cortisol and epinephrine levels were increased, meanwhile the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide were altered significantly in depression model rats...
May 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559973/research-on-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-treating-gastrointestinal-motility-in-diabetic-rats-by-improving-biomechanical-remodeling-and-neuroendocrine-regulation
#8
Jiaxing Tian, Min Li, Jingbo Zhao, Junling Li, Guifang Liu, Zhong Zhen, Yang Cao, Hans Gregersen, Xiaolin Tong
Previous studies have demonstrated that TWA, a Chinese herbal medicine, could significantly improve the symptoms of patients with diabetic gastrointestinal dysfunction. However, the specific mechanism of regulating intestinal peristalsis has not been found. This study aimed to discover TWA's therapeutic mechanism for regulating intestinal motility. The intestinal propulsion rate of diabetic rats was significantly increased after treatment with TWA for 8 weeks. Aiming at the mechanical structure, biomechanical testing indicated that TWA can significantly decrease the no-load intestinal wall thickness, cross-sectional area, and angular spread in a zero-stress state...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#9
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
May 25, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550272/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-chronic-disease-of-the-21-st-century
#10
Metrakos Peter, Nilsson Tommy
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of metabolic states ranging from simple steatosis to inflammation with associated fibrosis to cirrhosis. Though accumulation of hepatic fat is not associated with a significant increase in mortality rates, hepatic inflammation is, as this augments the risk of terminal liver disease, i.e., cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation (liver failure) and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease progression is usually slow, over a decade or more and, for the most part, remains asymptomatic...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513622/human-milk-insulin-is-related-to-maternal-plasma-insulin-and-bmi-but-other-components-of-human-milk-do-not-differ-by-bmi
#11
B E Young, Z Patinkin, C Palmer, B de la Houssaye, L A Barbour, T Hernandez, J E Friedman, N F Krebs
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498421/molecular-analysis-of-the-mouse-brain-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress-the-influence-of-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4%C3%AE-on-physiological-homeostasis
#12
Kaoru Ikubo, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Nobutaka Doe, Takuya Hashimoto, Miho Sumida, Yuko Watanabe, Yosif El-Darawish, Wen Li, Haruki Okamura, Hiromichi Yamanishi, Hisato Matsunaga
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent disorder that causes considerable disability in social functioning and is a risk factor for physical diseases. Recent clinical reports have demonstrated a marked association between MDD and physiological dyshomeostasis induced by metabolic disorders, including diabetes, hormone abnormalities and autoimmune diseases. The authors of the present study have previously analyzed comparative gene expression profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of a chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of MDD...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481181/a-diabetic-pregnancy-alters-the-expression-of-stress-related-receptors-in-gastrulating-rabbit-blastocyst-and-in-the-reproductive-tract
#13
Tom Seeling, Štefan Čikoš, Katarzyna J Grybel, Žofia Janštová, S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Alexandra Špirková, Anne Navarrete Santos
The incidence of diabetes mellitus for young people rises since years. A preconceptional diabetes mellitus leads to subfertility. Most of the causes for a diabetic subfertility are still unknown. Stress can significantly deteriorate glycemic control in diabetes. Several mechanisms by which "stress hormones", like adrenaline and cortisol or corticosterone, can contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis have been identified. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we examined the expression of adrenergic receptors and the glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in the female rabbit reproductive tract and in gastrulating blastocysts developed in normoinsulinemic mothers and in mothers with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus type 1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455430/endocrine-targets-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#14
REVIEW
Hsiu-Chi Lee, Shaw-Jenq Tsai
Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436760/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-pespective
#15
Aziz Homayouni-Rad, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Leila Khalili, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Zahra Kasaie, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed
Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Probiotics are defi ned as live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefi ts to the host...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400824/melatonin-and-human-mitochondrial-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Amin Soltani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388573/%C3%AE-msh-prevents-ros-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-foxo1-mtorc2-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#17
Weina Cao, Meihang Li, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Tongying Feng, Yang Xu, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) is an important adenohypophysis polypeptide hormone that regulates body metabolic status. To date, it is well known that the disorder of hypothalamic αMSH secretion is related to many metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we focused on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced adipocyte apoptosis and tried to unveil the role of αMSH in this process and the signal pathway which αMSH acts through...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365864/long-term-blood-glucose-monitoring-with-implanted-telemetry-device-in-conscious-and-stress-free-cynomolgus-monkeys
#18
B Wang, G Sun, W Qiao, Y Liu, J Qiao, W Ye, H Wang, X Wang, R Lindquist, Y Wang, Y-F Xiao
AIMS: Continuous blood glucose monitoring, especially long-term and remote, in diabetic patients or research is very challenging. Nonhuman primate (NHP) is an excellent model for metabolic research, because NHPs can naturally develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) similarly to humans. This study was to investigate blood glucose changes in conscious, moving-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during circadian, meal, stress and drug exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activities were continuously and simultaneously recorded by implanted HD-XG telemetry device for up to 10 weeks...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348018/synergistic-interaction-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-in-promoting-kidney-injury-and-the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#19
Zhen Wang, Jussara M do Carmo, Nicola Aberdein, Xinchun Zhou, Jan M Williams, Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are major risk factors for chronic kidney injury, together accounting for >70% of end-stage renal disease. In this study, we assessed interactions of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in causing kidney dysfunction and injury and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hypertension was induced by aorta constriction (AC) between the renal arteries in 6-month-old male Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic and control Wistar rats. Fasting plasma glucose averaged 162±11 and 87±2 mg/dL in GK and Wistar rats, respectively...
May 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287098/the-redox-environment-triggers-conformational-changes-and-aggregation-of-hiapp-in-type-ii-diabetes
#20
Diana C Rodriguez Camargo, Konstantinos Tripsianes, Katalin Buday, Andras Franko, Christoph Göbl, Christoph Hartlmüller, Riddhiman Sarkar, Michaela Aichler, Gabriele Mettenleiter, Michael Schulz, Annett Böddrich, Christian Erck, Henrik Martens, Axel Karl Walch, Tobias Madl, Erich E Wanker, Marcus Conrad, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Bernd Reif
Type II diabetes (T2D) is characterized by diminished insulin production and resistance of cells to insulin. Among others, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a principal factor contributing to T2D and induces a shift towards a more reducing cellular environment. At the same time, peripheral insulin resistance triggers the over-production of regulatory hormones such as insulin and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). We show that the differential aggregation of reduced and oxidized hIAPP assists to maintain the redox equilibrium by restoring redox equivalents...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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