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diabetes stress hormones

E Candeias, A I Duarte, I Sebastião, M A Fernandes, A I Plácido, C Carvalho, S Correia, R X Santos, R Seiça, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly concerning public health problem of the twenty-first century. Currently, it is estimated that T2D affects 422 million people worldwide with a rapidly increasing prevalence. During the past two decades, T2D has been widely shown to have a major impact in the brain. This, together with the cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia upon T2D, may arise from the complex interaction between normal brain aging and central insulin signaling dysfunction. Among the several features shared between T2D and some neurodegenerative disorders (e...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Otto K-W Cheung, Alfred S-L Cheng
Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Giuseppe Maltese, Paraskevi-Maria Psefteli, Benedetta Rizzo, Salil Srivastava, Luigi Gnudi, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C M Siow
Vascular ageing in conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, is associated with the activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and diminished expression of antioxidant defences mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The anti-ageing hormone klotho promotes longevity and protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases. Klotho has been shown to activate Nrf2 and attenuate oxidative damage in neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms by which it protects against vascular smooth muscle cell VSMC dysfunction elicited by Angiotensin II (AngII) remain to be elucidated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Lina Zhang, Giacomo Lanzoni, Matteo Battarra, Luca Inverardi, Qibin Zhang
: The etiology of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) remains elusive. Enzymatically isolated and cultured (EIC) islets cannot fully reflect the natural protein composition and disease process of in vivo islets, because of the stress from isolation procedures. In order to study islet protein composition in conditions close to the natural environment, we performed proteomic analysis of EIC islets, and laser capture microdissected (LCM) human islets and acinar tissue from fresh-frozen pancreas sections of three cadaveric donors...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Ermina Bach, Andreas B Møller, Jens O L Jørgensen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Niels Jessen, Steen B Pedersen, Thomas S Nielsen, Niels Møller
OBJECTIVE: Acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses are generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release of hormones are not clearly identified. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HPs) (in the absence of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary hormone responses)...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Gurdeep Marwarha, Kate Claycombe, Jared Schommer, David Collins, Othman Ghribi
The peptide hormones Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and leptin mediate a myriad of biological effects - both in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The transcription of these two hormones is regulated by the transcription factor C/EBPα, which in turn is negatively regulated by the transcription factor C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP), a specific marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the peripheral system, disturbances in leptin and IGF-1 levels are implicated in a variety of metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases...
November 2016: Cellular Signalling
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is decreased in type 2 diabetes, and this impairment appears to be important in cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ghrelin gene products (acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) and obestatin (OB)) promote neurogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ghrelin gene products may reduce the harmful effects of high glucose (HG) on hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these peptides on the survival of cultured hippocampal NSCs exposed to HG insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Ides M Colin, Henri Colin, Ines Dufour, Charles-Edouard Gielen, Marie-Christine Many, Jean Saey, Bernard Knoops, Anne-Catherine Gérard
Incretin-based therapies are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Although hypoglycemic actions of incretins are mostly due to their insulinotropic/glucagonostatic effects, they may also influence extrapancreatic metabolism. We administered exendin-4 (Ex-4), a long-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist, at low dose (0.1 nmol/kg/day) for a short period (10 days), in obese nondiabetic fa/fa Zucker rats (ZFRs). Ex-4-treated ZFRs were compared to vehicle (saline)-treated ZFRs and vehicle- and Ex-4-treated lean rats (LRs)...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Ramesh Aggarwal, Tauseef Akhthar, Sachin Kumar Jain
Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become the latest scourge of humankind and referred to in this article as CAD, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of coronary arteries that supply the myocardium, a process also known as atherosclerosis and manifests mostly in the form of chronic stable angina or acute coronary syndrome. Vitamin D has attracted considerable interest recently due to its role in a number of extraskeletal disease processes including multiple sclerosis, malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and CAD...
April 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
Mina Thon, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Due to its anti-obesity effects, an adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has become important for the treatment of obesity. However, most obese subjects are in a state of leptin resistance, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of leptin resistance. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), an oxidized form of vitamin C, was found to be increased in diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of DHAA on the activation of ER stress and leptin resistance...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Latha Ramalingam, Kalhara Menikdiwela, Monique LeMieux, Jannette M Dufour, Gurvinder Kaur, Nishan Kalupahana, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is a complex disease characterized by excessive expansion of adipose tissue and is an important risk factor for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, obesity is a major contributor to inflammation and oxidative stress, all of which are key underlying causes for diabetes and insulin resistance. Specifically, adipose tissue secretes bioactives molecules such as inflammatory hormone angiotensin II, generated in the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) from its precursor angiotensinogen...
August 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Roberto Negro, Giacomo Greco
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease associated with increased oxidative stress, increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, CV events and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a well-known marker of CV risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to ascertain whether hypothyroidism is associated with lower EPC counts and if treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) or selenium (Se) improves EPC counts compared to placebo. METHODS: Hypothyrod patients (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups to receive placebo (group A), LT4 (group B) or Se at doses of 83 µg (group C), 166 µg (group D) or 249 µg (group E) for 3 months...
July 2016: European Thyroid Journal
Rachel M Saroka, Michael P Kane, Lawrence Robinson, Robert S Busch
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier's gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Mohammad Zarei, Emma Barroso, Rosana Leiva, Marta Barniol-Xicota, Eugènia Pujol, Carmen Escolano, Santiago Vázquez, Xavier Palomer, Virginia Pardo, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela M Valverde, Tania Quesada-López, Francesc Villarroya, Walter Wahli, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone with pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is considered a target for the treatment of diabetes. We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ deficiency in hepatic FGF21 regulation. Increased Fgf21 expression was observed in the livers of PPARβ/δ-null mice and in mouse primary hepatocytes when this receptor was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Increased Fgf21 was associated with enhanced protein levels in the heme-regulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (HRI)...
October 2016: Diabetes
Abu Saleh Md Moin, Sangeeta Dhawan, Megan Cory, Peter C Butler, Robert A Rizza, Alexandra E Butler
CONTEXT: It has been suggested that beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be due to beta cell degranulation and/or altered cell identity. While shown to have a minor role in obese T2D, this has not been evaluated in lean T2D. OBJECTIVE: To establish the contribution of altered beta cell identity in lean T2D and, using a rodent model of lean T2D, whether changes in beta cell identity precede hyperglycemia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We investigated the frequency of chromogranin A positive hormone negative (CPHN) and polyhormonal endocrine cells in pancreas from 10 lean nondiabetic and 10 lean T2D subjects and in pancreas from wild-type and human IAPP transgenic rats at the prediabetic and diabetic stages...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mohamed M Elseweidy, Nabila Zein, Samih E Aldhamy, Marwa M Elsawy, Saeid A Saeid
This work mainly aimed to investigate the probable changes of aortic calcification by policosanol, omega-3 fatty acids in comparison with atorvastatin and subsequent progression of atherosclerosis in diabetic hyperlipemic rat model. Adult male albino rats of wistar strain (30) were divided into five groups (n = 6/group); one was fed normal diet and was used as a normal group, the other groups received alloxan, atherogenic diet (CCT - rat chow diet supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0...
November 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marija Jovanovski-Srceva, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Maja Mojsova, Andrijan Kartalov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Marina Temelkovska-Stevanoska, Aleksandra Gavrilovska, Sotir Stavridis, Zoran Spirovski, Borislav Kondov, Anita Kokareva, Risto Todorov, Tatjana Spirovska
INTRODUCTION: Surgical stress response, results in elevated levels of anti-insulin hormones and reduced insulin secretion. This hormonal state may be detrimental for surgical patients due to the presence of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Additionally, pre-operative fasting favors this conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of pre-operative caloric load, with 440kJ from amino acid infusions on the levels of glucose, cortisol and insulin resistance in surgical patients...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Wei Li, Zhi-Qun Wu, Shun Zhang, Rui Cao, Jie Zhao, Zhi-Jian Sun, Wei Zou
An increasingly pro-oxidant environment has been widely implicated in causing dysfunction of testicular steroidogenesis, but little progress has been made in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we report that gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 (GGT5), a key metabolism component responsible for the catalysis of important anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH), is predominantly expressed in mammalian Leydig cells (LCs). Deregulated GGT5 expression negatively correlates with testosterone deficiency in the testes of type 2 diabetic mice...
July 11, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, drug development for the treatment of obesity is needed. Leptin is an anti-obesity hormone that inhibits food intake and increases energy metabolism, and, as such, treatments involving leptin were expected to be beneficial for obesity; however, since most obese patients are in a state of leptin resistance, these treatments may not be useful. Therefore, the amelioration of leptin resistance has recently been attracting interest as a treatment for obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Desinia B Miller, Samantha J Snow, Andres Henriquez, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Judy E Richards, Debora L Andrews, Urmila P Kodavanti
Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0...
September 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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