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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887918/hepatoprotective-and-hypoglycemic-effects-of-a-tannin-rich-extract-from-ximenia-americana-var-caffra-root
#2
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Liver diseases and diabetes are serious health disorders associated with oxidative stress and ageing. Some plant polyphenols can lower the risk of these diseases. PURPOSE: We investigated the phytochemical profiling of a root extract from Ximenia americana var. caffra using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activities in vitro were investigated. The hepatoprotective activities were studied in rat models with d-galactosamine (d-GaIN)-induced hepatotoxicity and the antidiabetic activities in STZ-diabetic rats were also investigated...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859991/1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-promotes-osteogenesis-by-promoting-wnt-signaling-pathway
#3
Yi Xiong, Yixin Zhang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remarkably affects bone metabolism and causes multiple skeletal disorders, which are associated with the increased oxidative stress that activates Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxOs). 1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D, plays a potential role in the prevention of glucose tolerance. However, its mechanism of action in high glucose-induced energy disorders remains unclear. In vitro study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes osteogenesis in high glucose-induced oxidative stress mainly results from increased osteoblasts proliferation and decreased apoptosis...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856601/chromium-supplementation-reduces-resting-heart-rate-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#4
Barbora Nussbaumerova, Hana Rosolova, Miroslav Krizek, Frantisek Sefrna, Jaroslav Racek, Ludek Müller, Christian Sindberg
Chromium (Cr) is considered as an important mineral, involved in biochemical reactions in human metabolic pathways. Organically bound Cr supplementation has been suggested to improve glycemia especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but there are conflicting reports on efficacy. Effect of Cr is not clear in prediabetes status. Seventy patients with metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), who are observed and treated in the Center of Preventive Cardiology of the University Hospital in Pilsen, were included in the prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study...
August 30, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846606/the-emerging-role-of-glp-1-receptors-in-dna-repair-implications-in-neurological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Jenq-Lin Yang, Wei-Yu Chen, Shang-Der Chen
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is originally found as a metabolic hormone (incretin) that is able to regulate blood-glucose levels via promoting synthesis and secretion of insulin. GLP-1 and many analogues are approved for treatment of type II diabetes. Accumulating results imply that GLP-1 performs multiple functions in various tissues and organs beyond regulation of blood-glucose. The neuroprotective function of GLP-1 has been extensively explored during the past two decades. Three of our previous studies have shown that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is the only protein of the base excision repair (BER) pathway able to be regulated by oxidative stress or exogenous stimulations in rat primary cortical neurons...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835935/protective-effect-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-teucrium-polium-on-diabetes-induced-testicular-damage-and-serum-testosterone-concentration
#6
Ramin Salimnejad, Ghasem Sazegar, Mohammad Javad Saeedi Borujeni, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Fatemeh Salehi, Fatemeh Ghorbani
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has an adverse effect on spermatogenesis by rising oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Teucrium Polium extract administration on spermatogenesis and testicular structure in diabetic rats induced with Streptozotocin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8/each): control group, diabetic group received distilled water, and two experimental groups included diabetic rats treated with 50 and 100 mg/body weigh of Teucrium Polium extract for 6 six weeks...
April 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#7
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 17, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815530/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Jennifer Rieusset
Although mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and disrupted lipid and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis are classically associated with both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the interplay between these metabolic stresses is less known. Both organelles interact through contact points known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange both lipids and Ca(2+) and regulate cellular homeostasis. Recent evidences suggest that MAM could be an important hub for hormonal and nutrient signaling in the liver and that ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of MAM in the control of glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810587/association-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-gestational-diabetes-aggravated-complication-of-pregnancy
#9
Kui Yao, Ce Bian, Xia Zhao
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of the reproductive age women globally. PCOS is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, and polycystic morphology of at least one ovary. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome play a significant role in the development of PCOS. The chances of developing MS in PCOS women was shown to increase by almost 14-fold in patients with increasing body mass index. Even in the absence of overt obesity, a preferential deposition of intra-abdominal fat is noted in PCOS women and this intra-abdominal fat leads to impaired insulin action and functional IR and hyperandrogenism...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794862/case-report-an-incidentaloma-that-catches-your-eye-adrenal-myelolipoma
#10
Rosanna D'Addosio, Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermúdez, Flor Ledesma, Kyle Hoedebecke
Background: Adrenal incidentaloma refers to the incidental finding of a tumor in the adrenal gland, where nonfunctional forms are the most common variant. Myelolipoma is a rare (0.08-0.4%) occurrence characterized by adipose and hematopoietic tissue. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and appropriate management of a myelolipoma in an asymptomatic patient, which was originally considered an incidental hepatic hemangioma prior to being identified as a giant adrenal adenoma. Case description: The patient was a 54 year old obese female with a recent diagnosis of diabetes type II and dyslipidemia with recent ultrasound imaging suggestive of a hepatic hemangioma...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754449/the-role-of-nadph-oxidases-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#11
REVIEW
Synne S Hansen, Ellen Aasum, Anne D Hafstad
Systemic changes during diabetes such as high glucose, dyslipidemia, hormonal changes and low grade inflammation, are believed to induce structural and functional changes in the cardiomyocyte associated with the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. One of the hallmarks of the diabetic heart is increased oxidative stress. NADPH-oxidases (NOXs) are important ROS-producing enzymes in the cardiomyocyte mediating both adaptive and maladaptive changes in the heart. NOXs have been suggested as a therapeutic target for several diabetic complications, but their role in diabetic cardiomyopathy is far from elucidated...
July 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#12
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708512/insulin-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-oocyte-maturation-has-an-impact-on-development-mitochondria-and-cytoskeleton-in-bovine-day-8-blastocysts
#13
Denise Laskowski, Renée Båge, Patrice Humblot, Göran Andersson, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson
Insulin is a key metabolic hormone that controls energy homeostasis in the body, including playing a specific role in regulating reproductive functions. Conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia can lower developmental rates in bovine in vitro embryo production and are linked to decreased fertility in humans, as in cases of obesity or type 2 diabetes. Embryo quality is important for fertility outcome and it can be assessed by choosing scoring standards for various characteristics, such as developmental stage, quality grade, cell number, mitochondrial pattern or actin cytoskeleton structure...
June 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691730/effects-of-colocynth-alkaloids-and-glycosides-on-wistar-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-a-biochemical-and-morphological-study
#14
Zahia Birem, Khadidja Tabani, Farid Lahfa, Rabah Djaziri, Fatima Hadjbekkouche, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir, Naima Omari
INTRODUCTION: . In traditional medicine, Citrullus colocynthis is used to treat diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which can appear when a diet rich in vegetable fats, such as palm oil, is continuously consumed. Such high-fat diets are chronic stressors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of our study was to analyze and evaluate the effects of colocynth total alkaloids and glycosides on metabolic, hormonal, and structural disorders of the adrenal medulla in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet...
July 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673573/exercise-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-management-general-considerations-and-new-directions
#15
Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Maurício Krause, Josianne Rodrigues-Krause, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by the loss of insulin secreting cells due to a directed autoimmune process, which is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Exercise training is known to induce several benefits by reducing inflammation and improving antioxidant defenses. In this context, exercise training may be considered as an efficient and relatively inexpensive non-pharmacological tool for diabetes treatment, added to the usual insulin administration. Unfortunately, most people with T1DM do not reach the recommended levels of physical activity due to concerns with hypoglycemic episodes...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669666/a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-resistant-dextrin-as-functional-food-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes-targeting-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-immune-system
#16
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ahmad Zare Javid, Bahareh Sarmadi, Poran Karimi, Parvin Dehghan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine the efficacy of a resistant dextrin on immune-mediated inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Females (n = 55) with T2DM were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 25), in which they received 10 g/d of Nutriose(®)06 (a resistant dextrin) or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure immune system related parameters like white blood cell count, CD4, CD8, interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL12, IL4, IL10), cortisol, tryptophan (TRP), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Kynurenine (KYN) and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning and end of trial...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624501/new-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Sidika E Karakas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Recent studies support that serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels correlate with the number of ovarian follicles and cysts...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600493/adiponectin-modulates-oxidative-stress-induced-mitophagy-and-protects-c2c12-myoblasts-against-apoptosis
#19
Yinghui Ren, Yan Li, Jun Yan, Mingkun Ma, Dongmei Zhou, Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Huipeng Yang, Long Jia, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Shuqin Mu, Rongxin Zhang, Yurong Da
Adiponectin (APN), also known as apM1, Acrp30, GBP28 and adipoQ, is a circulating hormone that is predominantly produced by adipose tissue. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated that this protein possesses potent anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the antioxidative activity of this protein, the regulatory mechanisms have not yet been defined in skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytoprotective effects of APN against damage induced by oxidative stress in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592636/interleukin-6-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-apoptosis-by-stimulation-of-autophagy
#20
Amelia K Linnemann, Joseph Blumer, Michelle R Marasco, Therese J Battiola, Heidi M Umhoefer, Jee Young Han, Dudley W Lamming, Dawn Belt Davis
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in inflammation and metabolic disease. The role of IL-6 as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine is still unclear. Within the pancreatic islet, IL-6 stimulates secretion of the prosurvival incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by α cells and acts directly on β cells to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro Uncovering physiologic mechanisms promoting β-cell survival under conditions of inflammation and stress can identify important pathways for diabetes prevention and treatment...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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