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diabetes stress hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208663/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-endocrine-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Daisuke Ariyasu, Hiderou Yoshida, Yukihiro Hasegawa
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194444/adipocyte-jak2-mediates-growth-hormone-induced-hepatic-insulin-resistance
#2
Kevin C Corbit, João Paulo G Camporez, Jennifer L Tran, Camella G Wilson, Dylan A Lowe, Sarah M Nordstrom, Kirthana Ganeshan, Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman, Michael J Jurczak, Ethan J Weiss
For nearly 100 years, growth hormone (GH) has been known to affect insulin sensitivity and risk of diabetes. However, the tissue governing the effects of GH signaling on insulin and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Excess GH reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, GH insensitivity (GHI) is associated with increased adiposity, augmented insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Here, we induce adipocyte-specific GHI through conditional deletion of Jak2 (JAK2A), an obligate transducer of GH signaling...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190951/allostatic-load-as-a-complex-clinical-construct-a-case-based-computational-modeling-approach
#3
J Galen Buckwalter, Brian Castellani, Bruce McEwen, Arun S Karlamangla, Albert A Rizzo, Bruce John, Kyle O'Donnell, Teresa Seeman
Allostatic load (AL) is a complex clinical construct, providing a unique window into the cumulative impact of stress. However, due to its inherent complexity, AL presents two major measurement challenges to conventional statistical modeling (the field's dominant methodology): it is comprised of a complex causal network of bioallostatic systems, represented by an even larger set of dynamic biomarkers; and, it is situated within a web of antecedent socioecological systems, linking AL to differences in health outcomes and disparities...
September 2016: Complexity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161619/combination-of-metformin-with-chemotherapeutic-drugs-via-different-molecular-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Mei Peng, Kwame Oteng Darko, Ting Tao, Yanjun Huang, Qiongli Su, Caimei He, Tao Yin, Zhaoqian Liu, Xiaoping Yang
Metformin, a widely prescribed drug for treating type II diabetes, is one of the most extensively recognized metabolic modulators which has shown an important anti-cancer property. However, fairly amount of clinical trials on its single administration have not demonstrated a convincing efficiency yet. Thus, recent studies tend to combine metformin with clinical commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to decrease their toxicity and attenuate their tumor resistance. These strategies have displayed promising clinical benefits...
January 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141700/endothelial-and-perivascular-adipose-tissue-abnormalities-in-obesity-related-vascular-dysfunction-novel-targets-for-treatment
#5
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Carmine Cardillo
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111084/prepregnancy-maternal-diabetes-combined-with-obesity-impairs-placental-mitochondrial-function-involving-nrf2-are-pathway-and-detrimentally-alters-metabolism-of-offspring
#6
Yang Duan, Fuqiang Sun, Shengshun Que, Yueqin Li, Suyan Yang, Geli Liu
Metabolic disorders usually increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage mitochondrial function. The placenta supplies nutrients and hormonal signals to the fetus for regulating fetal metabolism, and is also prone to injury by oxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-existing maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) combined with obesity on placental mitochondrial function and metabolism disorders of offspring. The study included 96 pregnant women. The women were put into the following groups: healthy women (control, n=24), women with DM (DM, n=24), women with obesity (OB, n=24) and women with both DM and obesity (DM+OB, n=24)...
January 19, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070531/are-serum-levels-of-f2-isoprostane-and-oxidized-ldl-related-to-vitamin-d-status-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-case-control-study
#7
Javanbakht Mohammad Hassan, Mohammady Hamed, Fooladsaz Koorosh, Razzaghi Maryam, Zarei Mahnaz, Djalali Mahmoud
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D), an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status (< 30 ng/mL) and 48 T2DM patients with normal vitamin D status (> 30 ng/mL) were enrolled...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062795/silac-based-proteomics-of-primary-human-kidney-cells-reveals-a-novel-link-between-male-sex-hormones-and-impaired-energy-metabolism-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
Sergi Clotet, Maria Jose Soler, Marta Riera, Julio Pascual, Fei Fang, Joyce Zhou, Ihor Batruch, Stella K Vasiliou, Apostolos Dimitromanolakis, Clara Barrios, Eleftherios Diamandis, James Scholey, Ana Konvalinka
Male sex predisposes to many kidney diseases. Considering that androgens exert deleterious effects in a variety of cell types within kidney, we hypothesized that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) would alter the biology of the renal tubular cell by inducing changes in the proteome. We employed stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC) in an indirect spike-in fashion to accurately quantify the proteome in DHT- and 17β-estradiol (EST)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Of the 5043 quantified proteins, 76 were differentially regulated...
January 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#9
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049245/major-disease-prevalence-and-menstrual-characteristics-in-infertile-female-korean-smokers
#10
Jae Jun Shin, Byung Chul Jee, Hoon Kim, Seok Hyun Kim
We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040864/glp-1-receptor-independent-pathways-emerging-beneficial-effects-of-glp-1-breakdown-products
#11
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) axis has emerged as a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and, recently, of obesity. The insulinotropic activity of the native incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36)amide, which is mainly exerted through a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GLP-1R), is terminated via enzymatic cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV that generates a C-terminal GLP-1 metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major circulating form in plasma. GLP-1(28-36)amide and GLP-1(32-36)amide are further cleavage products derived from GLP-1(7-36)amide and GLP-1(9-36)amide by the action of a neutral endopeptidase known as neprilysin...
December 31, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#12
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012130/accumulation-of-the-advanced-glycation-end-product-carboxymethyl-lysine-in-breast-cancer-is-positively-associated-with-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-unfavorable-prognosis-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-cases
#13
Norbert Nass, Atanas Ignatov, Ludwig Andreas, Christine Weißenborn, Thomas Kalinski, Saadettin Sel
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate as a result of high concentrations of reactive aldehydes, oxidative stress, and insufficient degradation of glycated proteins. AGEs are therefore accepted biomarkers for aging, diabetes, and several degenerative diseases. Due to the Warburg effect and increased oxidative stress, cancer cells frequently accumulate significant amounts of AGEs. As the accumulation of AGEs may reflect the metabolic state and receptor signaling, we evaluated the potential prognostic and predictive value of this biomarker...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003373/chronic-inflammation-accelerator-of-biological-aging
#14
REVIEW
Bertrand Fougère, Eric Boulanger, Fati Nourhashémi, Sophie Guyonnet, Matteo Cesari
Biological aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation level. This chronic phenomenon has been named "inflamm-aging" and is a highly significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the older persons. The most common theories of inflamm-aging include redox stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glycation, deregulation of the immune system, hormonal changes, epigenetic modifications, and dysfunction telomere attrition. Inflamm-aging plays a role in the initiation and progression of age-related diseases such as type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and cancer...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#15
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989876/iridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-ameliorated-diabetes-mellitus-induced-testicular-damage-in-male-rats-involvement-of-suppression-of-the-ages-rage-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Yuping Chen, Yunhao Wu, Xiaoyang Gan, Kai Liu, L V Xing, Hongsheng Shen, Guoying Dai, Huiqin Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (CO) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Iridoid glycoside from C. officinalis (IGCO) can resist apoptosis, hyperglycemia, oxidation and so on. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of IGCO on DM-induced testicular damage through inhibition of the AGEs/RAGE/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DM model of male Wistar rats was induced with streptozotocin injection (30mg/kg, i...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966681/bottom-up-proteomics-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-murine-islets-of-langerhans-in-elevated-glucose-levels
#17
Andrew Schmudlach, Jeremy Felton, Robert T Kennedy, Norman J Dovichi
Glucotoxicity is a causative agent of type-2 diabetes, where high glucose levels damage the islets of Langerhans resulting in oxidative damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We evaluated the secretomes of healthy CD-1 murine islets. Three experimental conditions were investigated in biological triplicate: a control incubated with 11 mM glucose, 1-day incubation with 25 mM glucose, and 2-day incubation with 25 mM glucose. An SDS-based, filter-aided sample preparation protocol was used to prepare secretomes for analysis...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923524/the-therapeutic-potential-of-metabolic-hormones-in-the-treatment-of-age-related-cognitive-decline-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
John Grizzanti, Hyoung-Gon Lee, Antoni Camins, Merce Pallas, Gemma Casadesus
Aging leads to a number of physiological alterations, specifically changes in circulating hormone levels, increases in fat deposition, decreases in metabolism, changes in inflammatory responses, and reductions in growth factors. These progressive changes in physiology and metabolism are exacerbated by modern culture and Western diet and give rise to diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (T2D). These age and lifestyle-related metabolic diseases are often accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance, as well as aberrant amylin production and signaling...
December 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#19
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
February 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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