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diabetes stress hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070531/are-serum-levels-of-f2-isoprostane-and-oxidized-ldl-related-to-vitamin-d-status-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-case-control-study
#1
Javanbakht Mohammad Hassan, Mohammady Hamed, Fooladsaz Koorosh, Razzaghi Maryam, Zarei Mahnaz, Djalali Mahmoud
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D), an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status (< 30 ng/mL) and 48 T2DM patients with normal vitamin D status (> 30 ng/mL) were enrolled...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062795/silac-based-proteomics-of-primary-human-kidney-cells-reveals-a-novel-link-between-male-sex-hormones-and-impaired-energy-metabolism-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#2
Sergi Clotet, Maria Jose Soler, Marta Riera, Julio Pascual, Fei Fang, Joyce Zhou, Ihor Batruch, Stella K Vasiliou, Apostolos Dimitromanolakis, Clara Barrios, Eleftherios Diamandis, James Scholey, Ana Konvalinka
Male sex predisposes to many kidney diseases. Considering that androgens exert deleterious effects in a variety of cell types within kidney, we hypothesized that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) would alter the biology of the renal tubular cell by inducing changes in the proteome. We employed stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC) in an indirect spike-in fashion to accurately quantify the proteome in DHT- and 17β-estradiol (EST)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Of the 5043 quantified proteins, 76 were differentially regulated...
January 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#3
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049245/major-disease-prevalence-and-menstrual-characteristics-in-infertile-female-korean-smokers
#4
Jae Jun Shin, Byung Chul Jee, Hoon Kim, Seok Hyun Kim
We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040864/glp-1-receptor-independent-pathways-emerging-beneficial-effects-of-glp-1-breakdown-products
#5
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) axis has emerged as a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and, recently, of obesity. The insulinotropic activity of the native incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36)amide, which is mainly exerted through a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GLP-1R), is terminated via enzymatic cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV that generates a C-terminal GLP-1 metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major circulating form in plasma. GLP-1(28-36)amide and GLP-1(32-36)amide are further cleavage products derived from GLP-1(7-36)amide and GLP-1(9-36)amide by the action of a neutral endopeptidase known as neprilysin...
December 31, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#6
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012130/accumulation-of-the-advanced-glycation-end-product-carboxymethyl-lysine-in-breast-cancer-is-positively-associated-with-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-unfavorable-prognosis-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-cases
#7
Norbert Nass, Atanas Ignatov, Ludwig Andreas, Christine Weißenborn, Thomas Kalinski, Saadettin Sel
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate as a result of high concentrations of reactive aldehydes, oxidative stress, and insufficient degradation of glycated proteins. AGEs are therefore accepted biomarkers for aging, diabetes, and several degenerative diseases. Due to the Warburg effect and increased oxidative stress, cancer cells frequently accumulate significant amounts of AGEs. As the accumulation of AGEs may reflect the metabolic state and receptor signaling, we evaluated the potential prognostic and predictive value of this biomarker...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003373/chronic-inflammation-accelerator-of-biological-aging
#8
REVIEW
Bertrand Fougère, Eric Boulanger, Fati Nourhashémi, Sophie Guyonnet, Matteo Cesari
Biological aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation level. This chronic phenomenon has been named "inflamm-aging" and is a highly significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the older persons. The most common theories of inflamm-aging include redox stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glycation, deregulation of the immune system, hormonal changes, epigenetic modifications, and dysfunction telomere attrition. Inflamm-aging plays a role in the initiation and progression of age-related diseases such as type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and cancer...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000544/the-complex-inter-relationship-between-diabetes-and-schizophrenia
#9
Jeffery Rado
Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating brain disorder. It is associated with increased mortality, primarily due to elevated cardio-metabolic risk. Affected patients have higher rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes [1]. Intrinsic factors contributing to this increased risk include a shared underlying pathophysiology between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus involving stress, inflammation and genetics. Extrinsic contributing factors include diet, lifestyle, health care access, low socioeconomic status and overburden of traditional diabetes risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989876/iridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-ameliorated-diabetes-mellitus-induced-testicular-damage-in-male-rats-involvement-of-suppression-of-the-ages-rage-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#10
Yuping Chen, Yunhao Wu, Xiaoyang Gan, Kai Liu, L V Xing, Hongsheng Shen, Guoying Dai, Huiqin Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (CO) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Iridoid glycoside from C. officinalis (IGCO) can resist apoptosis, hyperglycemia, oxidation and so on. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of IGCO on DM-induced testicular damage through inhibition of the AGEs/RAGE/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DM model of male Wistar rats was induced with streptozotocin injection (30mg/kg, i...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966681/bottom-up-proteomics-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-murine-islets-of-langerhans-in-elevated-glucose-levels
#11
Andrew Schmudlach, Jeremy Felton, Robert T Kennedy, Norman J Dovichi
Glucotoxicity is a causative agent of type-2 diabetes, where high glucose levels damage the islets of Langerhans resulting in oxidative damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We evaluated the secretomes of healthy CD-1 murine islets. Three experimental conditions were investigated in biological triplicate: a control incubated with 11 mM glucose, 1-day incubation with 25 mM glucose, and 2-day incubation with 25 mM glucose. An SDS-based, filter-aided sample preparation protocol was used to prepare secretomes for analysis...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923524/the-therapeutic-potential-of-metabolic-hormones-in-the-treatment-of-age-related-cognitive-decline-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
John Grizzanti, Hyoung-Gon Lee, Antoni Camins, Merce Pallas, Gemma Casadesus
Aging leads to a number of physiological alterations, specifically changes in circulating hormone levels, increases in fat deposition, decreases in metabolism, changes in inflammatory responses, and reductions in growth factors. These progressive changes in physiology and metabolism are exacerbated by modern culture and Western diet and give rise to diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (T2D). These age and lifestyle-related metabolic diseases are often accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance, as well as aberrant amylin production and signaling...
December 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#13
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899085/oestradiol-levels-and-superoxide-dismutase-activity-in-age-related-cataract-a-case-control-study
#15
Dragana Škiljić, Staffan Nilsson, Anne Petersen, Jan-Olof Karlsson, Anders Behndig, Lada Kalaboukhova, Madeleine Zetterberg
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the higher prevalence of cataract in women is caused by a withdrawal effect of oestrogen at menopause. In vitro studies have demonstrated protection of serum oestradiol (E2) against oxidative stress through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate E2 levels and SOD erythrocyte activity in patients with age-related cataract. METHODS: The studied subjects consisted of 103 patients with age-related cataract and 22 controls...
November 29, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875946/the-role-of-sexual-dysfunction-and-infertility-on-reproductive-health-in-diabetics-pathogenesis-evaluation-and-management
#16
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled or long-term diabetes mellitus is conducive to vascular and oxidative stress disturbances that impede several physiological systems, which may in turn elicit psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We assess the sexual and hormonal complications of diabetes mellitus that impair reproductive function in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and reproductive health...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874157/excision-of-oral-pyogenic-granuloma-in-a-diabetic-patient-with-940nm-diode-laser
#17
Maha A Al-Mohaya, Abdulaziz M Al-Malik
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common, acquired, benign vascular reactive proliferation that typically develops as a small erythematous papule on the skin or oral mucosal surface. Oral PG is often caused by constant low-grade infection, minor trauma, poor oral hygiene, and due to hormonal disturbances. It shows a striking predilection for the gingiva. Lesions can be excised surgically with removal of the underlying causes. However, this modality may be associated with unnecessary complications. Recently, different laser wavelengths have been used for removal of oral PG...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822713/dexamethasone-alters-the-appetite-regulation-via-induction-of-hypothalamic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-brain
#18
Ragitha Chruvattil, Shreya Banerjee, Sarmi Nath, Jatin Machhi, Gitika Kharkwal, Mange Ram Yadav, Sarita Gupta
Elevated levels of glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone released in response to stress, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, which is now known to extend its effect on brain functions. Hence, we aimed to investigate the status of brain insulin signaling in response to dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment in female Charles Foster rat. This model exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance with loss in appetite and body weight. Immunoblotting of insulin receptor (INSR)-PI3kinase-AKT demonstrated reduced insulin signaling in hypothalamus but no change in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum in dexamethasone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats, signifying the diversity of distribution and function of insulin in different brain regions...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812350/possible-integrative-actions-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-the-hypothalamus-targeting-energy-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Mina Thon, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Obesity has emerged as one of the most burdensome conditions in modern society. In this context, understanding the mechanisms controlling food intake is critical. At present, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the pancreatic β-cell-derived hormone insulin are considered the principal anorexigenic hormones. Although leptin and insulin signal transduction pathways are distinct, their regulation of body weight maintenance is concerted. Resistance to the central actions of leptin or insulin is linked to the emergence of obesity and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810172/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediators-of-cell-communication-in-metabolic-disease
#20
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Chen-Yu Zhang, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Metabolic homeostasis emerges from the complex, multidirectional crosstalk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. This crosstalk, traditionally mediated by hormones and metabolites, becomes dysregulated in human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; including exosomes) are circulating, cell-derived nanoparticles containing proteins and nucleic acids that interact with and modify local and distant cellular targets. Accumulating evidence, reviewed herein, supports a role for extracellular vesicles in obesity-associated metabolic disturbance, particularly the local and systemic inflammation characteristic of adipose and hepatic stress...
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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