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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813114/dimensions-of-youth-psychopathy-differentially-predict-concurrent-pro-and-antisocial-behavior
#1
Guilherme W Wendt, Alice J Bartoli, Adriane Arteche
Objective: To investigate the unique contribution of narcissism and impulsivity, in addition to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, in explaining concurrent prosocial and antisocial behavior. Method: Two hundred and forty-nine schoolchildren (53% female; age 9-12 years) completed the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Two statistical models were tested, predicting conduct problems (CP) and prosocial behavior (PB)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812905/correlation-of-the-solubility-with-the-metastable-limit-of-nucleation-using-gauge-cell-monte-carlo-simulations
#2
Michael David Clark, Kenneth R Morris, Maria Silvina Tomassone
We present a novel simulation-based investigation of the nucleation of nanodroplets from solution and from vapor. Nucleation is difficult to measure or model accurately, and predicting when nucleation should occur remains an open problem. Of specific interest is the "metastable limit", the observed concentration at which nucleation occurs spontaneously, which cannot currently be estimated a priori. To investigate the nucleation process, we employ Gauge Cell Monte Carlo simulations to target spontaneous nucleation and measure thermodynamic properties of the system at nucleation...
August 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812836/understanding-internal-accountability-in-nigeria-s-routine-immunization-system-perspectives-from-government-officials-at-the-national-state-and-local-levels
#3
Daniel J Erchick, Asha S George, Chukwunonso Umeh, Chizoba Wonodi
BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812091/influence-of-surface-tension-in-the-surfactant-driven-fracture-of-closely-packed-particulate-monolayers
#4
Christian Peco, Wei Chen, Yingjie Liu, M M Bandi, John E Dolbow, Eliot Fried
A phase-field model is used to capture the surfactant-driven formation of fracture patterns in particulate monolayers. The model is intended for the regime of closely-packed systems in which the mechanical response of the monolayer can be approximated as that of a linearly elastic solid. The model approximates the loss in tensile strength of the monolayer with increasing surfactant concentration through the evolution of a damage field. Initial-boundary value problems are constructed and spatially discretized with finite element approximations to the displacement and surfactant damage fields...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811645/inhibin-a-and-decorin-secreted-by-human-adult-renal-stem-progenitor-cells-through-the-tlr2-engagement-induce-renal-tubular-cell-regeneration
#5
Fabio Sallustio, Claudia Curci, Alessandra Aloisi, Chiara Cristina Toma, Elisabetta Marulli, Grazia Serino, Sharon Natasha Cox, Giuseppe De Palma, Alessandra Stasi, Chiara Divella, Rosaria Rinaldi, Francesco Paolo Schena
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health problem worldwide. Several therapeutic strategies have been made to accelerate recovery and improve renal survival. Recent studies have shown that human adult renal progenitor cells (ARPCs) participate in kidney repair processes, and may be used as a possible treatment to promote regeneration in acute kidney injury. Here, we show that human tubular ARPCs (tARPCs) protect physically injured or chemically damaged renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) by preventing cisplatin-induced apoptosis and enhancing proliferation of survived cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811565/iss-pc-identifying-splicing-sites-via-physical-chemical-properties-using-deep-sparse-auto-encoder
#6
Zhao-Chun Xu, Peng Wang, Wang-Ren Qiu, Xuan Xiao
Gene splicing is one of the most significant biological processes in eukaryotic gene expression, such as RNA splicing, which can cause a pre-mRNA to produce one or more mature messenger RNAs containing the coded information with multiple biological functions. Thus, identifying splicing sites in DNA/RNA sequences is significant for both the bio-medical research and the discovery of new drugs. However, it is expensive and time consuming based only on experimental technique, so new computational methods are needed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811533/plasma-metabolomics-profiling-of-maintenance-hemodialysis-based-on-capillary-electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#7
Shuxin Liu, Lichao Wang, Chunxiu Hu, Xin Huang, Hong Liu, Qiuhui Xuan, Xiaohui Lin, Xiaojun Peng, Xin Lu, Ming Chang, Guowang Xu
Uremia has been a rapidly increasing health problem in China. Hemodialysis (HD) is the main renal replacement therapy for uremia. The results of large-scale clinical trials have shown that the HD pattern is crucial for long-term prognosis of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in uremic patients. Plasma metabolism is very important for revealing the biological insights linked to the therapeutic effects of the HD pattern on uremia. Alteration of plasma metabolites in uremic patients in response to HD therapy has been reported...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811379/geography-of-intergenerational-mobility-and-child-development
#8
Louis Donnelly, Irwin Garfinkel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Brandon G Wagner, Sarah James, Sara McLanahan
Recent research by Chetty and colleagues finds that children's chances of upward mobility are affected by the communities in which they grow up [Chetty R, Hendren N (2016) Working paper 23002]. However, the developmental pathways through which communities of origin translate into future economic gain are not well understood. In this paper we examine the association between Chetty and Hendren's county-level measure of intergenerational mobility and children's cognitive and behavioral development. Focusing on children from low-income families, we find that growing up in a county with high upward mobility is associated with fewer externalizing behavioral problems by age 3 years and with substantial gains in cognitive test scores between ages 3 and 9 years...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810973/the-influence-of-combat-experience-on-psychologically-healthy-soldiers-attentiveness-to-environmental-threats
#9
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810969/a-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-combat-and-operational-stress-control-restoration-center-in-afghanistan
#10
Jason L Judkins, Devvon L Bradley
BACKGROUND: The management of Combat and Operational Stress Reactions (COSR) within an operational environment is a multidimensional process. The aim is to help prevent behavioral health problems, preserve combat power, and increase return to duty rates for combat stress related casualties. In some COSR cases, enhanced services are required and the Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) Clinic refers Service Members (SMs) to the Freedom Restoration Clinic (FRC). The purpose was to describe a deployed restoration center in Afghanistan and examine the long-term effectiveness of those services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810908/relative-risk-estimation-of-dengue-disease-at-small-spatial-scale
#11
Daniel Adyro Martínez-Bello, Antonio López-Quílez, Alexander Torres Prieto
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a high incidence arboviral disease in tropical countries around the world. Colombia is an endemic country due to the favourable environmental conditions for vector survival and spread. Dengue surveillance in Colombia is based in passive notification of cases, supporting monitoring, prediction, risk factor identification and intervention measures. Even though the surveillance network works adequately, disease mapping techniques currently developed and employed for many health problems are not widely applied...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810401/a-dual-process-view-on-medication-adherence-the-role-of-affect
#12
Mieke Kleppe, Joyca Lacroix, Jaap Ham, Cees Midden
Medication non-adherence has been recognised as one of the major problems in health care that leads to preventable costs and hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the role of affect in medication adherence. We propose a dual-process framework of medication adherence based on the reflective-impulsive model, which includes both cognitive and affective processes. We tested this framework in a cross-sectional study ( N = 525). The results supported this framework by illustrating the clear role of both cognitive and affective processes...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810399/identification-and-regulation-of-emotions-in-adults-of-varying-weight-statuses
#13
Andrea E Kass, Jennifer E Wildes, Emil F Coccaro
Comparing individuals of varying weight statuses on their identification and regulation of emotions may increase our understanding of mechanisms that drive excess weight gain and highlight more precise weight regulation targets. In Study I ( N = 1333), adults with obesity had reduced self-reported attention to and repair of emotions compared to adults with overweight or normal weight. In Study II ( N = 85), adults with obesity had deficits in assessor-administrated tasks of strategic emotional intelligence (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809975/discovery-of-synthetic-small-molecules-that-enhance-the-number-of-stomata-c-h-functionalization-chemistry-for-plant-biology
#14
Asraa Ziadi, Naoyuki Uchida, Hiroe Kato, Rina Hisamatsu, Ayato Sato, Shinya Hagihara, Kenichiro Itami, Keiko U Torii
The increasing climate changes and global warming are leading to colossal agricultural problems such as abatement of food production and quality. As stomatal development is considered to play a key role in crop plant productivity and water-use efficiency, studying stomatal development is useful for understanding the productivity of plant systems for both natural and agricultural systems. Herein, we report the first-in-class synthetic small molecules enhancing the number of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana that have been discovered by screening of the chemical library and further optimized by the Pd-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction...
August 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809857/grandmaternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-dna-methylation-of-the-third-generation-an-epigenome-wide-association-study
#15
F Serpeloni, K Radtke, S G de Assis, F Henning, D Nätt, T Elbert
Stress during pregnancy may impact subsequent generations, which is demonstrated by an increased susceptibility to childhood and adulthood health problems in the children and grandchildren. Although the importance of the prenatal environment is well reported with regards to future physical and emotional outcomes, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate the long-term consequences of early stress across generations. Recent studies have identified DNA methylation as a possible mediator of the impact of prenatal stress in the offspring...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809816/modeling-the-non-equilibrium-process-of-the-chemical-adsorption-of-ammonia-on-gan-0001-reconstructed-surfaces-based-on-steepest-entropy-ascent-quantum-thermodynamics
#16
Akira Kusaba, Guanchen Li, Michael R von Spakovsky, Yoshihiro Kangawa, Koichi Kakimoto
Clearly understanding elementary growth processes that depend on surface reconstruction is essential to controlling vapor-phase epitaxy more precisely. In this study, ammonia chemical adsorption on GaN(0001) reconstructed surfaces under metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) conditions (3Ga-H and Nad-H + Ga-H on a 2 × 2 unit cell) is investigated using steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT). SEAQT is a thermodynamic-ensemble based, first-principles framework that can predict the behavior of non-equilibrium processes, even those far from equilibrium where the state evolution is a combination of reversible and irreversible dynamics...
August 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809683/low-rank-latent-pattern-approximation-with-applications-to-robust-image-classification
#17
Shuo Chen, Jian Yang, Lei Luo, Yang Wei, Kaihua Zhang, Ying Tai
This paper develops a novel method to address the structural noise in samples for image classification. Recently, regression related classification methods have shown promising results when facing the pixel-wise noise. However, they become weak in coping with the structural noise due to ignoring of relationships between pixels of noise image. Meanwhile, most of them need to implement the iterative process for computing representation coefficients, which leads to the high time consumption. To overcome these problems, we exploit a latent pattern model called Low-Rank Latent Pattern Approximation (LLPA) to reconstruct the test image having structural noise...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809456/real-time-intracellular-measurements-of-ros-and-rns-in-living-cells-with-single-core-shell-nanowire-electrodes
#18
Xin-Wei Zhang, Quan-Fa Qiu, Hong Jiang, Fu-Li Zhang, Yan-Ling Liu, Christian Amatore, Wei-Hua Huang
Nanoelectrodes allow precise and quantitative measurements of important biological processes at the single living cell level in real time. Cylindrical nanowires electrodes (NWEs) required for intracellular measurements create a great challenge for keeping excellent electrochemical and mechanical performances. Herein, we disclose a facile and robust solution to this problem based on a SiC-core-shell unique design to produce cylindrical NWEs with superior mechanical toughness provided by the SiC nano-core and excellent electrochemical performances brought by the ultrathin carbon shell that can be used as such or platinized...
August 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809421/-reactive-nano-complex-coated-medical-cotton-a-facile-avenue-for-tailored-release-of-small-molecules
#19
Adil Majeed Rather, Sulendar Mahato, Kousik Maji, Neeha Gogoi, Uttam Manna
Controlled and sustained release of drug-like small molecules in an aqueous medium still remains a challenging problem due to rapid infiltration of liquid water in most reported drug release systems. However, internal-superhydrophobicity with an antifouling property extending beyond the surface of a material recently has been recognized as a potential avenue for sustained and extended release of drug-like small molecules. Sluggish removal of metastable trapped air in a superhyrophobic material provides a basis to achieve extended release of encapsulated small molecules...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809114/boolean-logic-tree-of-label-free-dual-signal-electrochemical-aptasensor-system-for-biosensing-three-state-logic-computation-and-keypad-lock-security-operation
#20
Jiao Yang Lu, Xin Xing Zhang, Wei Tao Huang, Qiu Yan Zhu, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing, consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation and keypad lock security operation...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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