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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906387/hierarchically-porous-materials-synthesis-strategies-and-structure-design
#1
REVIEW
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906368/euv-scatterometer-with-a-high-harmonic-generation-euv-source
#2
Yi-Sha Ku, Chia-Liang Yeh, Yi-Chang Chen, Chun-Wei Lo, Wei-Ting Wang, Ming-Chang Chen
We have developed an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometer based on the analysis of coherent EUV light diffracted from a periodic array with nano-scale features. We discuss the choice of appropriate orders of the high harmonics generated coaxially along with the intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses for high resolution spatial performance. We describe an inverse-problem methodology for determining the structural parameters, and present preliminary measurement results confirming the functionality of the scatterometer...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906276/muscowert-multi-scale-consistence-of-weighted-edge-radon-transform-for-horizon-detection-in-maritime-images
#3
Dilip K Prasad, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek
This paper addresses the problem of horizon detection, a fundamental process in numerous object detection algorithms, in a maritime environment. The maritime environment is characterized by the absence of fixed features, the presence of numerous linear features in dynamically changing objects and background and constantly varying illumination, rendering the typically simple problem of detecting the horizon a challenging one. We present a novel method called multi-scale consistence of weighted edge Radon transform, abbreviated as MuSCoWERT...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906033/the-role-of-the-backbone-torsion-in-protein-folding
#4
EDITORIAL
Irina Sorokina, Arcady Mushegian
BACKGROUND: The set of forces and sequence of events that govern the transition from an unfolded polypeptide chain to a functional protein with correct spatial structure remain incompletely known, despite the importance of the problem and decades of theory development, computer simulations, and laboratory experiments. Information about the correctly folded state of most proteins is likely to be present in their sequences, and yet many proteins fail to attain native structure after overexpression in a non-native environment or upon experimental denaturation and refolding...
December 1, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905673/single-versus-multiple-visits-for-endodontic-treatment-of-permanent-teeth
#5
REVIEW
Maddalena Manfredi, Lara Figini, Massimo Gagliani, Giovanni Lodi
BACKGROUND: Root canal treatment (RoCT), or endodontic treatment, is a common procedure in dentistry. The main indications for RoCT are irreversible pulpitis and necrosis of the dental pulp caused by carious processes, tooth cracks or chips, or dental trauma. Successful RoCT is characterised by an absence of symptoms (i.e. pain) and clinical signs (i.e. swelling and sinus tract) in teeth without radiographic evidence of periodontal involvement (i.e. normal periodontal ligament). The success of RoCT depends on a number of variables related to the preoperative condition of the tooth, as well as the endodontic procedures...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904387/review-of-thawing-time-prediction-models-depending%C3%A2-on-process-conditions-and-product-characteristics
#6
REVIEW
Dariusz Góral, Franciszek Kluza, Walter E L Spiess, Katarzyna Kozłowicz
Determining thawing times of frozen foods is a challenging problem as the thermophysical properties of the product change during thawing. A number of calculation models and solutions have been developed. The proposed solutions range from relatively simple analytical equations based on a number of assumptions to a group of empirical approaches that sometimes require complex calculations. In this paper analytical, empirical and graphical models are presented and critically reviewed. The conditions of solution, limitations and possible applications of the models are discussed...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904014/male-infertility-related-molecules-involved-in-sperm-oocyte-fusion
#7
Lisha Mou, Ni Xie
Male infertility has become a very serious problem in the human reproduction system, but the molecular mechanism of infertility remains largely unknown. Fertilization is the phenomenon in which a sperm and oocyte find each other, interact, and fuse. Sperm-oocyte fusion-related factors on the sperm side play crucial roles in male infertility. For example, IZUMO1 is well-known as a sperm protein essential for fusion of a sperm and oocyte, but its dysfunction or mutation can result in male infertility. Recent studies showed a novel sperm protein named Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which takes part in the sperm-oocyte fusion process...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903993/effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-soluble-klotho-and-oxidative-stress-in-calcineurin-inhibitor-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#8
Sina Raeisi, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Hassan Argani, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Babollah Ghasemi, Teimour Ghazizadeh, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Mahboob Nemati, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Nasrin Bargahi, Ali Mota, Amir Mansour Vatankhah
INTRODUCTION: Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity is major problem after organ transplantation. It is multifactorial, but oxidative stress may have an important role in this process. It has been shown that angiotensin II receptor blockers have renoprotective effects but their molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Antioxidative effect is an important role of the recently known anti-aging protein, klotho. This study aimed to evaluate effect of valsartan in alleviation of cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity via a probable increase in serum klotho levels or decreasing oxidative stress...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903878/a-spiking-neural-model-of-adaptive-arm-control
#9
Travis DeWolf, Terrence C Stewart, Jean-Jacques Slotine, Chris Eliasmith
We present a spiking neuron model of the motor cortices and cerebellum of the motor control system. The model consists of anatomically organized spiking neurons encompassing premotor, primary motor, and cerebellar cortices. The model proposes novel neural computations within these areas to control a nonlinear three-link arm model that can adapt to unknown changes in arm dynamics and kinematic structure. We demonstrate the mathematical stability of both forms of adaptation, suggesting that this is a robust approach for common biological problems of changing body size (e...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903800/genetic-variability-of-myxoma-virus-genomes
#10
Christoph Braun, Andrea Thürmer, Rolf Daniel, Anne-Kathrin Schultz, Ingo Bulla, Horst Schirrmeier, Dietmar Mayer, Andreas Neubert, Claus-Peter Czerny
: Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 Myxoma virus strains (MYXV) were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, 3207, vaccine strain MAV, and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147.6 kb (strain MAV) to 161.8 kb (strain 3207) in size...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903769/education-for-the-next-frontier-in-patient-safety-a-longitudinal-resident-curriculum-on-diagnostic-error
#11
Emily Ruedinger, Maren Olson, Justin Yee, Emily Borman-Shoap, Andrew P J Olson
Diagnostic error is a common, serious problem that has received increased attention recently for its impact on both patients and providers. Presently, most graduate medical education programs do not formally address this topic. The authors developed and evaluated a longitudinal, multimodule resident curriculum about diagnostic error and medical decision making. Key components of the curriculum include demystifying the medical decision-making process, building skills in critical thinking, and providing strategies for diagnostic error mitigation...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903717/deciphering-decision-making-variation-in-animal-models-of-effort-and-uncertainty-based-choice-reveals-distinct-neural-circuitries-underlying-core-cognitive-processes
#12
Catharine A Winstanley, Stan B Floresco
Maladaptive decision-making is increasingly recognized to play a significant role in numerous psychiatric disorders, such that therapeutics capable of ameliorating core impairments in judgment may be beneficial in a range of patient populations. The field of "decision neuroscience" is therefore in its ascendancy, with researchers from diverse fields bringing their expertise to bear on this complex and fascinating problem. In addition to the advances in neuroimaging and computational neuroscience that contribute enormously to this area, an increase in the complexity and sophistication of behavioral paradigms designed for nonhuman laboratory animals has also had a significant impact on researchers' ability to test the causal nature of hypotheses pertaining to the neural circuitry underlying the choice process...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903302/preventing-the-ends-from-justifying-the-means-withholding-results-to-address-publication-bias-in-peer-review
#13
EDITORIAL
Katherine S Button, Liz Bal, Anna Clark, Tim Shipley
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902924/simple-mechanisms-of-early-life-simulation-model-on-the-origin-of-semi-cells
#14
Adrian Klein, Martin Bock, Wolfgang Alt
The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions...
November 27, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#15
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902711/eeg-to-primary-rewards-predictive-utility-and-malleability-by-brain-stimulation
#16
Nicole Prause, Greg J Siegle, Choi Deblieck, Allan Wu, Marco Iacoboni
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is thought to affect reward processing mechanisms, which may increase and decrease reward sensitivity. To test the ability of TBS to modulate response to strong primary rewards, participants hypersensitive to primary rewards were recruited. Twenty men and women with at least two opposite-sex, sexual partners in the last year received two forms of TBS. Stimulations were randomized to avoid order effects and separated by 2 hours to reduce carryover. The two TBS forms have been demonstrated to inhibit (continuous) or excite (intermittent) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using different pulse patterns, which links to brain areas associated with reward conditioning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901640/a-traceable-reference-for-direct-comparative-assessment-of-total-naphthenic-acid-concentrations-in-commercial-and-acid-extractable-organic-mixtures-derived-from-oil-sands-process-water
#17
Pamela Brunswick, L Mark Hewitt, Richard A Frank, Marcus Kim, Graham van Aggelen, Dayue Shang
The advantage of using naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures for the determination of total NA lies in their chemical characteristics and identification of retention times distinct from isobaric interferences. However, the differing homolog profiles and unknown chemical structures of NA mixtures do not allow them to be considered a traceable reference material. The current study provides a new tool for the comparative assessment of different NA mixtures by direct reference to a single, well-defined and traceable compound, decanoic-d19 acid...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901600/the-role-of-the-built-environment-how-decentralized-nurse-stations-shape-communication-patient-care-processes-and-patient-outcomes
#18
Kevin Real, Shoshana H Bardach, David R Bardach
Increasingly, health communication scholars are attending to how hospital built environments shape communication, patient care processes, and patient outcomes. This multimethod study was conducted on two floors of a newly designed urban hospital. Nine focus groups interviews were conducted with 35 health care professionals from 10 provider groups. Seven of the groups were homogeneous by profession or level: nursing (three groups), nurse managers (two groups), and one group each of nurse care technicians ("techs") and physicians...
November 30, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901347/who-is-caring-for-the-caregiver-the-role-of-cybercoping-for-dementia-caregivers
#19
Jae-Seon Jeong, Young Kim, Myoung-Gi Chon
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between dementia caregivers' communication behaviors (information seeking and forwarding) and their outcomes (coping outcomes: e.g., dealing better with negative feelings or improved medical outcomes). A survey data set of dementia patients' caregivers substantiates the effects of communication behaviors about dementia illness on coping outcomes, as well as the mediating role of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping processes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study found positive effects of communication behaviors on outcomes through coping processes...
November 30, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900794/fast-and-efficient-free-induction-decay-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-of-the-human-brain-at-9-4-tesla
#20
Grzegorz L Chadzynski, Jonas Bause, Gunamony Shajan, Rolf Pohmann, Klaus Scheffler, Philipp Ehses
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop a fast and efficient MRSI-FID acquisition scheme and test its performance in vivo. The aim was to find a trade-off between the minimal total acquisition time and signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired spectra. METHODS: Measurements were performed on a 9.4 Tesla system. Sequence optimization included redesign of water suppression, optimization of the sequence gradients, and improvement of the sampling efficiency by minimizing the read-out time...
November 29, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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