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Di Shu, Ionel Simbotin, Robin Côté
We investigate the energy dependence of inelastic processes in systemswhich possess Efimov states. We consider the three-body recombinationrate $K_3$ where three free atoms interact to produce anatom--dimer pair, and the relaxation rate $K_{\rm rel}$where an atom quenches a weakly bound state of a dimernear an Efimov resonance to more deeply bound levels.Using a modelcapturing the key features of the Efimov problem, weidentify new energy regimes for $K_3$, namely the NTR (NearThreshold Resonance) regime behavior $E^{-2}$ for negativescattering lengths and the NTS (Near Threshold Suppression) regimebehavior $E^2$ for positive scattering lengths...
October 19, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Y Krylova, V Polyakova, I Kvetnoy, I Kogan, L Dzhemlikhanova, D Niauri, A Gzgzyan, E Ailamazyan
: Abstracts Background: Implantation failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles is recognized as one of key problems in contemporary reproductive medicine. Implantation itself is a multifactorial process and one can hardly expect to find a single criterion for the endometrium receptivity. Endometrium biopsy still remains the most applicable technique to diagnose abnormalities causing decrease or complete loss of endometrial receptivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied 95 endometrial biopsy samples from 45 patient with I/II stage endometriosis and 40 controls from October 2014 to December 2015...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Richard J E James, Claire O'Malley, Richard J Tunney
This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Pablo M Piaggi, Omar Valsson, Michele Parrinello
We study by computer simulation the nucleation of a supersaturated Lennard-Jones vapor into the liquid phase. The large free energy barriers to transition make the time scale of this process impossible to study by ordinary molecular dynamics simulations. Therefore we use a recently developed enhanced sampling method [Valsson and Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett.113, 090601 (2014)] based on the variational determination of a bias potential. We differ from previous applications of this method in that the bias is constructed on the basis of the physical model provided by the classical theory of nucleation...
October 18, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Amira Mustafa, Samar Mahgoub
Delays in the discharge of hospital patients cause a backlog for new admissions from the Emergency Departments (ED), outpatient clinics, and transfers from the Intensive Care Units (ICU). A variety of initiatives have been reported on previously which aim to tackle this problem with variable success. In this quality improvement project, we aimed to increase the proportion of discharged patients who leave the paediatric unit by 12:00 Noon from 7% to 30% by May 2015. A baseline discharge process map was studied to understand the possible causes of the delays...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Nouf Al Saleem, Khaled Al-Surimi
Frequent, preventable medical errors can have an adverse effect on patient safety and quality as well as leading to wasted resources. In the laboratory, errors can occur at any stage of sample processing; pre-analytical, analytical, and post analytical stages. However evidence shows most of the laboratory errors occur during the pre-analytical stage. The receipt and processing of specimens is one of the main steps in the pre-analytical stage. Errors in this stage could be due to mislabeling, incorrect test entry and entering the wrong location, among other reasons...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Camilla Lauritzen, Charlotte Reedtz
BACKGROUND: Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Alexander L Weldon, Kedar Joshi, Alexander F Routh, James F Gilchrist
Rapid convective deposition is used to assemble nanoparticle coatings from suspension, with controllable thickness. Varying film thickness generates stress-induced linear cracks with highly monodisperse spacing. Film thickness is controlled through mechanical means, suspension volume fraction, and the use of applied thermal gradients. These cracks extend in the deposition direction, and a uniform crack spacing from 2 to 160μm is observed. The nanoparticle film thickness is the relevant length scale for hydrodynamic flow, and films will crack with this spacing, in a characteristic manner to minimize the system energy and capillary stresses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Estrella Romero, Concepción Rodríguez, Paula Villar, X Antón Gómez-Fraguela
The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Duncan K Ralph, Frederick A Matsen
The human immune system depends on a highly diverse collection of antibody-making B cells. B cell receptor sequence diversity is generated by a random recombination process called "rearrangement" forming progenitor B cells, then a Darwinian process of lineage diversification and selection called "affinity maturation." The resulting receptors can be sequenced in high throughput for research and diagnostics. Such a collection of sequences contains a mixture of various lineages, each of which may be quite numerous, or may consist of only a single member...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Renée J Roberts, Ashley E Wilson, Zenaide Quezado
Six Sigma and Lean methodologies are effective quality improvement tools in many health care settings. We applied the DMAIC methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) to address deficiencies in our pediatric anesthesia supply chain. We defined supply chain problems by mapping existing processes and soliciting comments from those involved. We used daily distance walked by anesthesia technicians and number of callouts for missing supplies as measurements that we analyzed before and after implementing improvements (anesthesia cart redesign)...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Gongyu Li, Siming Yuan, Yang Pan, Yangzhong Liu, Guangming Huang
The identification of endogenous proteins as well as their binding to metal ions in living cells is determined by combining pulsed electrophoretic separations with nanoelectrospray ionization followed by mass spectrometric detection. This approach avoids problems resulting from the complicated cellular environment. In this manner we demonstrate the rapid identification (300 ms or less) of intact proteins from living E. coli cells including the complexation of calmodulin with calcium ion. The latter showed different binding states from those observed in in-vitro studies...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Youngho Kang, Ho-Hyun Nahm, Seungwu Han
The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in ZnO has been a critical problem in opto-electrical devices employing ZnO such as ultraviolet sensors and thin film transistors for the transparent display. While the metastable state of oxygen vacancy (VO) is widely accepted as the microscopic origin of PPC, recent experiments on the influence of temperature and oxygen environments are at variance with the VO model. In this study, using the density-functional theory calculations, we propose a novel mechanism of PPC that involves the hydrogen-zinc vacancy defect complex (2H-VZn)...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fengchao Yu, Ning Li, Weichuan Yu
In computational proteomics, identification of peptides with an unlimited number of post-translational modification (PTM) types is a challenging task. The computational cost associated with database search increases exponentially with respect to the number of modified amino acids and linearly with respect to the number of potential PTM types at each amino acid. The problem becomes intractable very quickly if we want to enumerate all possible PTM patterns. To address this issue, one group of methods named restricted tools (including Mascot, Comet, and MS-GF+) only allow a small number of PTM types in database search process...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Cao Xiao, Jesse Bledsoe, Shouyi Wang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Sonya Mehta, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Thomas Grabowski
Today, diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) still primarily relies on a series of subjective evaluations that highly rely on a doctor's experiences and intuitions from diagnostic interviews and observed behavior measures. An accurate and objective diagnosis of ADHD is still a challenge and leaves much to be desired. Many children and adults are inappropriately labeled with ADHD conditions, whereas many are left undiagnosed and untreated. Recent advances in neuroimaging studies have enabled us to search for both structural (e...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
Bokai Cao, Xiangnan Kong, Jingyuan Zhang, Philip S Yu, Ann B Ragin
Investigating brain connectivity networks for neurological disorder identification has attracted great interest in recent years, most of which focus on the graph representation alone. However, in addition to brain networks derived from the neuroimaging data, hundreds of clinical, immunologic, serologic, and cognitive measures may also be documented for each subject. These measures compose multiple side views encoding a tremendous amount of supplemental information for diagnostic purposes, yet are often ignored...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Dakai Bian, Jason C Tsui, Mikhail Repin, Guy Garty, Helen Turner, Y Lawrence Yao, David J Brenner
Due to the need of high-speed and efficient biodosimetric assays for triage and therapy in the event of radiological or nuclear attack, a robotically based automated biodosimetry tool (RABiT) has been developed over the past few years. Adapting the micronucleus assay from filter plates to V-shaped plates presented challenges in the liquid handling, namely, cell splashing out of the V-shaped well plate during the cell harvesting, poor cell distribution on the bottom of the image plate during the dispensing, and cell loss from the image plate during the aspiration in the liquid handling process...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Daowen Zhang, Jie Lena Sun, Karen Pieper
Linear mixed effects models are widely used to analyze a clustered response variable. Motivated by a recent study to examine and compare the hospital length of stay (LOS) between patients undertaking percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) from several international clinical trials, we proposed a bivariate linear mixed effects model for the joint modeling of clustered PCI and CABG LOS's where each clinical trial is considered a cluster. Due to the large number of patients in some trials, commonly used commercial statistical software for fitting (bivariate) linear mixed models failed to run since it could not allocate enough memory to invert large dimensional matrices during the optimization process...
October 2016: Statistics in Biosciences
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