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Muscle tone

JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Katsuhito Matsuki, Daiki Kato, Masashi Takemoto, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Hisao Yamamura, Susumu Ohya, Hiroshi Takeshima, Yuji Imaizumi
Physiological functions of type 3 ryanodine receptors (RyR3) in smooth muscle (SM) tissues are not well understood, in spite of their wide expression. However, the short isoform of RyR3 is known to be a dominant negative variant (DN-RyR3), which may negatively regulate functions of both RyR2 and full length (FL)-RyR3 by forming hetero-tetramers. Here, functional roles of RyR3 in the regulation of Ca2+ signaling in mesenteric artery SM cells (MASMCs) were examined using RyR3 homozygous knockout mice (RyR3-/- )...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Arnhild Bakken, Stephen Targett, Tone Bere, Cristiano Eirale, Abdulaziz Farooq, Andrea B Mosler, Johannes L Tol, Rod Whiteley, Karim M Khan, Roald Bahr
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity muscle strength tests are commonly used to screen for injury risk in professional soccer. However, there is limited evidence on the ability of such tests in predicting future injuries. PURPOSE: To examine the association between hip and thigh muscle strength and the risk of lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Professional male soccer players from 14 teams in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment at the beginning of the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Semra Aktürk, Raikan Büyükavcı, Yüksel Ersoy
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the effect on spasticity and walking of US-guided botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections administered to improve equinovarus walking pattern commonly observed in patients after stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty-three patients with post-stroke spastic equinovarus deformity were recruited. The US-guided BoNT-A injections were administered into the spastic muscles (including gastrocnemius; GK, soleus; S and tibialis posterior; TP) using a specific approach, and all of the patients were enrolled in rehabilitation programmes after the injections...
March 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Alexander Neergaard Olesen, Matteo Cesari, Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen, Emmanuel Mignot, Poul Jennum
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rapid eye movement (REM) muscular activity in narcolepsy by applying five algorithms to electromyogram (EMG) recordings, and to investigate its value for narcolepsy diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: A modified version of phasic EMG metric (mPEM), muscle activity index (MAI), REM atonia index (RAI), supra-threshold REM EMG activity metric (STREAM), and Frandsen method (FR) were calculated from polysomnography recordings of 20 healthy controls, 18 clinic controls (subjects suspected with narcolepsy but finally diagnosed without any sleep abnormality), 16 narcolepsy type one without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), nine narcolepsy type one with RBD, and 18 narcolepsy type two...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Justine Benoit-Piau, Sophie Bergeron, Audrey Brassard, Chantale Dumoulin, Samir Khalifé, Guy Waddell, Mélanie Morin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fear-avoidance variables, pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function and pain intensity in women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) as well as the moderator effect of partner support. METHODS: A total of 173 women diagnosed with PVD participated in the study. Fear-avoidance variables were evaluated with validated self-administered questionnaires: pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), pain-related fear (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale), and partner support (Partner Support Questionnaire)...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Jagatkumar A Patel, Bryan J Ray, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Christopher Gouveia, Soroush Zaghi, Macario Camacho
OBJECTIVE: A collapsible upper airway is a common cause of obstructive sleep apnea. The exact pathophysiology leading to a more collapsible airway is not well understood. A progressive neuropathy of the soft palate and pharyngeal dilators may be associated with the progression of snoring to OSA. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the international literature investigating the neurophysiologic changes in the soft palate and uvula that contribute to progression from snoring to OSA...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Adam Peter Shortland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hyun-Mi Oh, Geun-Young Park, Young Min Choi, Hyung Jung Koo, Yongjun Jang, Sun Im
BACKGROUND: There are no guidelines on the ideal time to inject botulinum toxin (BT-A) for lower leg spasticity in stroke patients. An early injection may produce unwanted weakness, interfering with gait recovery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the outcomes after BT-A injection for plantarflexion spasticity can be different according to stroke chronicity. DESIGN: A secondary analysis study from a double- blinded, randomized trial with group reclassification according to stroke chronicity SETTING: Two rehabilitation centres...
March 3, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
A Notarnicola, I Covelli, G Maccagnano, R Marvulli, L Mastromauro, G Ianieri, S Boodhoo, A Turitto, L Petruzzella, G Farì, F P Bianchi, S Tafuri, B Moretti
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on muscle rheological and functional properties in a population of young athletes. Thirty-two football and basketball players were recruited and randomized into two groups. The athletes underwent three sessions of therapy administered every five days to the thigh muscles. The treatment consisted of ESWT (electromagnetic generator, Energy Flux Density=0.03 mJ/mm2) or a placebo treatment bilaterally on the quadricep and femoral bicep muscles...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Stéphanie Thibault-Gagnon, Corrie Goldfinger, Caroline Pukall, Susan Chamberlain, Linda McLean
BACKGROUND: Digital intravaginal palpation remains the favored method for clinical assessment of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women; however, there is growing interest in using transperineal ultrasound imaging (TPUSI). TPUSI does not involve vaginal penetration, making it particularly relevant for PFM assessment in women with genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorders. AIMS: To study the relations between measures of PFM morphology and function assessed using 3-dimensional (3D) TPUSI and PFM assessment through intravaginal palpation...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Nils J G Rorsman, Chau M Ta, Hannah Garnett, Pawel Swietach, Paolo Tammaro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optogenetic control of electromechanical coupling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is emerging as a powerful research tool with potential applications in drug discovery and therapeutics. However, the precise ionic mechanisms involved in this control remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell imaging, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and muscle tension recordings were used to define these mechanisms over a wide range of light stimulations...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Elena V Bouzinova, Lise Hangaard, Christian Staehr, Aleksandra Mazur, Avelino Ferreira, Alexander Chibalin, Shaun L Sandow, Zijian Xie, Christian Aalkjaer, Vladimir V Matchkov
AIMS: The Na,K-ATPase is involved in a large number of regulatory activities including cSrc-dependent signalling. Upon inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase with ouabain, cSrc activation is shown to occur in many cell types. This study tests the hypothesis that acute potentiation of agonist-induced contraction by ouabain is mediated through Na,K-ATPase-cSrc signalling-dependent sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells to Ca2+ . METHODS: Agonist-induced rat mesenteric small artery contraction was examined in vitro under isometric conditions and in vivo in anaesthetized rats...
February 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ernesto Solis, Anum Afzal, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid drug that is used to alleviate acute and chronic pain. However, oxycodone is often abused and, when taken at high doses, can induce powerful CNS depression that manifests in respiratory abnormalities, hypotension, coma, and death. Here, we employed several measurement techniques to examine the effects of intravenous oxycodone at a wide range of doses on various metabolism-related parameters in awake, freely-moving rats. High-speed amperometry was used to assess how oxycodone affects oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ahmed M Hashad, Maria Sancho, Suzanne E Brett, Donald G Welsh
Vascular T-type Ca2+ channels (CaV 3.1 and CaV 3.2) play a key role in arterial tone development. This study investigated whether this conductance is a regulatory target of angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasoactive peptide that circulates and which is locally produced within the arterial wall. Patch clamp electrophysiology performed on rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells reveals that Ang II (100 nM) inhibited T-type currents through AT1 receptor activation. Blocking protein kinase C failed to eliminate channel suppression, a finding consistent with unique signaling proteins enabling this response...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaetano Santulli, Daniel Lewis, Amedee des Georges, Andrew R Marks, Joachim Frank
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels required for the function of many organs including heart and skeletal muscle, synaptic transmission in the brain, pancreatic beta cell function, and vascular tone. In disease, defective function of RyRs due either to stress (hyperadrenergic and/or oxidative overload) or genetic mutations can render the channels leaky to Ca2+ and promote defective disease-causing signals as observed in heat failure, muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegerative disease...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Pareshkumar A Thakkar, H R Rohit, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Ukti P Thakkar, Amitabh Singh
Background In preterm infants, oral stimulation enhances muscle tone and movement which facilitates normal oral motor developmental patterns improving oral feeding performance. Aim To study the effects on feeding performance, transition to independent oral feeding, weight gain and length of hospital stay of an oral stimulation programme in preterm neonates. Study design This randomised controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 10 months. Altogether, 102 preterm neonates (30-34 weeks gestation) were randomised into the intervention group (oro-motor stimulation for 5 min twice a day, n = 51) or the control group (routine care only, n = 51)...
February 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Bhik Kotecha, Andrea De Vito
Sleep related breathing disorders cause obstruction of the upper airway which can be alleviated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, oral devices or surgical intervention. Non-surgical treatment modalities are not always accepted by patients and in order to attain successful surgical outcomes, evaluation of the upper airway is necessary to carefully select the patients who would benefit from surgery. There are numerous techniques available to assess the upper airway obstruction and these include imaging, acoustic analysis, pressure transducer recording and endoscopic evaluation...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
D Krueger, I E Demir, G O Ceyhan, F Zeller, M Schemann
BACKGROUND: Stimulant laxatives are widely used to treat constipation. We investigated in human small and large intestinal preparations the effects of bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridyl-2-methane (BHPM), the active metabolite of the laxatives bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate on smooth muscle tone and epithelial secretion. METHODS: Circular and longitudinal muscle tone of small or large intestinal preparations were recorded with isometric force transducers. Epithelial ion flux (I SC ) and tissue resistance was measured with Ussing chamber technique after apical and basolateral BHPM application to large intestinal mucosa/submucosa preparations...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Gulam Rabbani, Eun Ju Lee, Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Inho Choi
Tolperisone hydrochloride (TH) has muscle relaxant activity, and has been widely used for several years in clinical practice to treat pathologically high skeletal muscle tone (spasticity) and related pains. The current study was designed to explore the binding efficacy of TH with human serum albumin (HSA) using a multispectroscopic approach, FRET, esterase-like activity, and a molecular docking method. A reduction in fluorescence emission at 340 nm of HSA was attributed to florescence quenching by TH via a static quenching type...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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