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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100923/reductions-in-central-arterial-compliance-with-age-are-related-to-sympathetic-vasoconstrictor-nerve-activity-in-healthy-men
#1
Hirofumi Tanaka, Frank A Dinenno, Douglas R Seals
The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic circulation declines, whereas sympathetic nervous system activity increases markedly with advancing age in adult humans. We tested the hypothesis that the reduction in compliance of the large elastic arteries with age is associated with elevations in sympathetic tone to vascular smooth muscle in 16 young and 17 older adults. Carotid arterial compliance (via ultrasonography) was 45% lower in healthy older compared with young men (P<0.001), and was inversely related to sympathetic nerve activity (via microneurography) (r=-0...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094073/muscle-function-of-the-pelvic-floor-in-healthy-puerperal-women-with-pelvic-floor-dysfunction
#2
M A Castro-Pardiñas, M Torres-Lacomba, B Navarro-Brazález
OBJECTIVES: To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance)...
January 13, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090285/pulmonary-vascular-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-susceptible-patient-2015-grover-conference-series
#3
REVIEW
Bradley A Maron, Roberto F Machado, Larissa Shimoda
Pulmonary blood vessel structure and tone are maintained by a complex interplay between endogenous vasoactive factors and oxygen-sensing intermediaries. Under physiological conditions, these signaling networks function as an adaptive interface between the pulmonary circulation and environmental or acquired perturbations to preserve oxygenation and maintain systemic delivery of oxygen-rich hemoglobin. Chronic exposure to hypoxia, however, triggers a range of pathogenetic mechanisms that include hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin 1 in pulmonary endothelial cells...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089837/direct-midline-posterior-corpectomy-and-fusion-of-a-lumbar-burst-fracture-with-retrospondyloptosis-a-case-report
#4
Arthur Carminucci, Rachid Assina, R Nick Hernandez, Ira M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Traumatic burst fractures of the lumbar spine can result in significant neurological injury and mechanical instability. The ideal surgical approach for the treatment of unstable lumbar spine burst fractures remains debatable. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37 year-old male presented with severe neurological injury including loss of motor function below the level of the iliopsoas muscles bilaterally, saddle anesthesia, and absent rectal tone, following a fall from 60 ft...
January 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087430/ryanodine-receptor-1-polymorphism-is-not-associated-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-or-its-clinical-sequelae
#5
Philipp Hendrix, Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan, Winfield S Fisher, Nilesh A Vyas, Robert H Lipsky, Minkuan Lin, Beverly C Walters, R Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M Shoja, Jean-Francois Pittet, Mali Mathru, Christoph J Griessenauer
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remain poorly understand. Ryanodine receptors (RYR) are intracellular calcium channels involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cerebrovascular tone and diameter. Previous work reported an association between a RYR polymorphism and cerebral vasospasm. Here, we sought to assess the impact of that RYR polymorphism on aSAH and its clinical sequelae...
January 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077261/ventral-medullary-control-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-atonia
#6
Michael C Chen, Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Chun-Ni Guo, Catie Chang, Patrick M Fuller, Jun Lu
Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep...
January 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074672/a-power-assisted-exercise-intervention-in-people-with-profound-intellectual-and-multiple-disabilities-living-in-a-residential-facility-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Leontien Wm Bossink, Annette Aj van der Putten, Aly Waninge, Carla Vlaskamp
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention. DESIGN: Pilot randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A large-scale twenty-four-hour residential facility in the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Thirty-seven persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073285/muscle-nerve-muscle-grafting-for-facial-reanimation-in-rats
#8
Steven J Charous, Jeffery M Hotaling, Bridget D Burgess, Joshua M Sappington, James Park, Grant Turek, Eileen M Foecking
OBJECTIVE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition leaving patients with a myriad of aesthetic and functional consequences. Muscle-nerve-muscle (MNM) neurotization is a reinnervation technique that involves implanting an autogenous nerve graft as a conduit between an innervated "donor" muscle and a denervated "recipient" muscle. We investigated the use of MNM reinnervation, alone or in combination with electrical stimulation (ES) and testosterone propionate (TP) in comparison to nerve reanastomosis (RE), on functional recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057794/purinergic-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
There is nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory-motor nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Centers in the brain control heart activities and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involve purines. Adenine nucleotides and nucleosides act on purinoceptors on cardiomyocytes, AV and SA nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels. Vascular tone is controlled by a dual mechanism. ATP, released from perivascular sympathetic nerves, causes vasoconstriction largely via P2X1 receptors...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057087/sleep-homeostatic-and-waking-behavioral-phenotypes-in-egr3-deficient-mice-associated-with-serotonin-receptor-5-ht2-deficits
#10
Janne Grønli, William C Clegern, Michelle A Schmidt, Rahmi S Nemri, Michael J Rempe, Amelia L Gallitano, Jonathan P Wisor
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The expression of the immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a functional marker of brain activity including responses to novelty, sustained wakefulness, and sleep. We examined the role of this gene in regulating wakefulness and sleep. METHODS: Electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) were recorded in Egr3-/- and wild-type (WT) mice during 24 h baseline, 6 h sleep disruption and 6 h recovery. Serotonergic signaling was assessed with 6 h EEG/EMG recordings after injections of nonselective 5-HT2 antagonist (clozapine), selective 5-HT2 antagonists (5-HT2A; MDL100907 and 5-HT2BC; SB206553) and a cocktail of both selective antagonists, administered in a randomized order to each animal...
December 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054347/ano1-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-plays-a-key-role-in-the-generation-of-slow-waves-and-tone-in-the-internal-anal-sphincter
#11
C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049696/endothelium-derived-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-contributes-to-blood-pressure-regulation-by-maintaining-endothelial-integrity
#12
Kazuhiro Nakao, Koichiro Kuwahara, Toshio Nishikimi, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Takeya Minami, Yoshihiro Kuwabara, Chinatsu Yamada, Yuko Yamada, Takeshi Tokudome, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Naoto Minamino, Yoko M Nakao, Shinji Yasuno, Kenji Ueshima, Masakatsu Sone, Takeshi Kimura, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
We previously reported the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) from vascular endothelial cells and proposed the existence of a vascular natriuretic peptide system composed of endothelial CNP and smooth muscle guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B), the CNP receptor, and involved in the regulation of vascular tone, remodeling, and regeneration. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of this system in the regulation of blood pressure in vivo using vascular endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout and vascular smooth muscle cell-specific GC-B knockout mice...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042862/hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-adipose-tissue-physiology-pathology-and-a-target-for-pharmacotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Jerzy Bełtowski, Anna Jamroz-Wiśniewska
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is synthesized in the adipose tissue mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Several studies have demonstrated that H₂S is involved in adipogenesis, that is the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, most likely by inhibiting phosphodiesterases and increasing cyclic AMP concentration. The effect of H₂S on adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake is controversial. Some studies suggest that H₂S inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake and that excess of H₂S contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035444/multimodal-vaginal-toning-for-bladder-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-in-stress-urinary-incontinence
#14
Sarah de la Torre, Larry E Miller
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Treatment options for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have limitations. We hypothesized that multimodal vaginal toning therapy would improve bladder symptoms and quality of life in women with postpartum SUI and sexual function complaints. METHODS: Patients self-administered 24 sessions of multimodal vaginal toning therapy lasting 10 min each over 50 days. Outcomes included 1-h pad weight test, Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-7), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised 2005 (FSDS-R), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), pelvic floor muscle strength, patient satisfaction, and adverse events...
December 29, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031017/nitric-oxide-signaling-and-the-cross-talk-with-prostanoids-pathways-in-vascular-system
#15
Bruno R Silva, Tiago D Paula, Michele Paulo, Lusiane M Bendhack
BACKGROUND: This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. CONCLUSION: In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP)...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027251/evidence-based-medicine-a-graded-approach-to-lower-lid-blepharoplasty
#16
Ahmed M Hashem, Rafael A Couto, Joshua T Waltzman, Richard L Drake, James E Zins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Define the anatomy of the lower eyelid tarsoligamentous framework and the related periorbital retaining ligaments, and cite their surgical relevance. 2. Perform a systematic functional and aesthetic evaluation of the lower eyelid focusing on the lid-cheek junction, and clinical tests that predict the need for lateral canthal tightening. 3. Enumerate the different approaches to lower eyelid rejuvenation and discuss their merits/limitations...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024997/androgen-receptor-ar-gene-cag-n-and-ggn-n-length-polymorphisms-and-symptoms-in-young-males-with-long-lasting-adverse-effects-after-finasteride-use-against-androgenic-alopecia
#17
Sabina Cauci, Giovanni Chiriacò, Erika Cecchin, Giuseppe Toffoli, Serena Xodo, Giuseppe Stinco, Carlo Trombetta
INTRODUCTION: Long-term adverse symptoms of men who used oral finasteride against androgenic alopecia have been recently described as post-finasteride syndrome (PFS). AIM: To determine whether (CAG)n-rs4045402 and (GGN)n-rs3138869 polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) gene are implicated in PFS. METHODS: AR polymorphisms were studied according to PFS symptoms in 66 white participants (31.8% Italian, 28.8% American, and 39.4% other). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms were investigated by an ad hoc 100-item questionnaire and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and Aging Male Symptom Scale (AMS)...
December 23, 2016: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018918/role-of-bkca-in-stretch-induced-relaxation-of-colonic-smooth-muscle
#18
Jie Ren, Fang Xin, Ping Liu, Hai-Yan Zhao, Si-Tao Zhang, Peng Han, Hai-Xia Huang, Wei Wang
Stretch-induced relaxation has not been clearly identified in gastrointestinal tract. The present study is to explore the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in stretch-induced relaxation of colon. The expression and currents of BKCa were detected and the basal muscle tone and contraction amplitude of colonic smooth muscle strips were measured. The expression of BKCa in colon is higher than other GI segments (P < 0.05). The density of BKCa currents was very high in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017279/cardiovascular-remodeling-and-the-peripheral-serotonergic-system
#19
REVIEW
Estelle Ayme-Dietrich, Gaëlle Aubertin-Kirch, Luc Maroteaux, Laurent Monassier
Plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), released from blood platelets, plays a major role in the human cardiovascular system. Besides the effect of endogenous serotonin, many drugs targeting serotonergic receptors are widely used in the general population (antiobesity agents, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antimigraine agents), and may enhance the cardiovascular risk. Depending on the type of serotonin receptor activated and its location, the use of these compounds triggers acute and chronic effects...
December 21, 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012296/effects-of-aging-on-mechanical-properties-of-sternocleidomastoid-and-trapezius-muscles-during-transition-from-lying-to-sitting-position-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Piotr Kocur, Marcin Grzeskowiak, Marzena Wiernicka, Magdalena Goliwas, Jacek Lewandowski, Dawid Łochyński
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the viscoelastic properties of the upper trapezius (UT) and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during transition from lying to sitting position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 39 older (mean age 67±5.9years) and 36 younger (21.1±1.8years) women. Tone, stiffness and elasticity of the UT and the SCM were measured by means of myotonometry (MyotonPRO) in lying and then, in sitting position...
December 15, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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