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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030920/sandpits-as-a-reservoir-of-potentially-pathogenic-fungi-for-children
#2
Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Piotr Kurnatowski, Katarzyna Góralska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Fungi belonging to various physiological and morphological groups present in the environment are potential human pathogens. Some of them are considered as emerging pathogens. Therefore, their presence in children's playgrounds should be regarded as health risk factor. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty-eight samples of sand collected from 17 sandpits of different localities in Łódź, Poland, in autumn 2010 and 2011, and in spring 2011 and 2012 were evaluated...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996940/allergic-fungal-airway-disease
#3
REVIEW
E M Rick, K Woolnough, C H Pashley, A J Wardlaw
Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels...
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816904/aspergillus-serology-have-we-arrived-yet
#4
Malcolm D Richardson, Iain D Page
Aspergillosis presents in various clinical forms, among them chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which is a spectrum of disease entities including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also contributes to fungal allergy and sensitization. Analysis of the immune response to Aspergillus and its antigens is an integral part of the diagnosis of these diseases. Over the past half century, the techniques used to determine antibody titers have evolved from testing for precipitating and agglutinating antibodies by agar gel double diffusion and immunolectrophoresis to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant proteins as capture antigens...
January 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805757/the-relationship-between-biomarkers-of-fungal-allergy-and-lung-damage-in-asthma
#5
K F Woolnough, M Richardson, C Newby, M Craner, M Bourne, W Monteiro, S Siddiqui, P Bradding, C H Pashley, A J Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Immunological biomarkers are the key to the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and fungal sensitisation, but how these relate to clinically relevant outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess how fungal immunological biomarkers are related to fixed airflow obstruction and radiological abnormalities in moderate to severe asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 431 asthmatics. Inflammatory biomarkers, lung function and an IgE fungal panel to colonising filamentous fungi, yeasts and fungal aeroallergens were measured...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802882/respiratory-symptoms-and-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-feno-among-students-in-penang-malaysia-in-relation-to-signs-of-dampness-at-school-and-fungal-dna-in-school-dust
#6
Dan Norbäck, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Gui-Hong Cai, Vinoshini Sooria, Syazwan Aizat Ismail, Gunilla Wieslander
Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775836/allergy-in-severe-asthma
#7
S R Del Giacco, A Bakirtas, E Bel, A Custovic, Z Diamant, E Hamelmann, E Heffler, Ö Kalayci, S Saglani, S Sergejeva, S Seys, A Simpson, L Bjermer
It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773482/regulatory-t-cell-specificity-directs-tolerance-versus-allergy-against-aeroantigens-in-humans
#8
Petra Bacher, Frederik Heinrich, Ulrik Stervbo, Mikalai Nienen, Marco Vahldieck, Christina Iwert, Katrin Vogt, Jutta Kollet, Nina Babel, Birgit Sawitzki, Carsten Schwarz, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat, Guido Heine, Gabriele Gadermaier, Claudia Asam, Mario Assenmacher, Olaf Kniemeyer, Axel A Brakhage, Fátima Ferreira, Michael Wallner, Margitta Worm, Alexander Scheffold
FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain tolerance against self-antigens and innocuous environmental antigens. However, it is still unknown whether Treg-mediated tolerance is antigen specific and how Treg specificity contributes to the selective loss of tolerance, as observed in human immunopathologies such as allergies. Here, we used antigen-reactive T cell enrichment to identify antigen-specific human Tregs. We demonstrate dominant Treg-mediated tolerance against particulate aeroallergens, such as pollen, house dust mites, and fungal spores...
October 18, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762424/monitoring-of-airborne-biological-particles-in-outdoor-atmosphere-part-1-importance-variability-and-ratios
#9
Andrés Núñez, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Alberto Rastrojo, Ana M García, Antonio Alcamí, A Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Diego A Moreno
The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704024/invasive-aspergillosis-associated-with-severe-influenza-infections
#10
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
Background.  Invasive aspergillosis may occur in the setting of severe influenza infections due to viral-induced respiratory epithelium disruption and impaired immune effects, but data are limited. Methods.  A retrospective study was conducted among severe influenza cases requiring medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission at an academic center during the 2015-2016 season. Data collected included respiratory cultures, medical conditions and immunosuppressants, laboratory and radiographic data, and outcomes...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647349/dual-t-cell-and-b-cell-intrinsic-deficiency-in-humans-with-biallelic-rltpr-mutations
#11
Yi Wang, Cindy S Ma, Yun Ling, Aziz Bousfiha, Yildiz Camcioglu, Serge Jacquot, Kathryn Payne, Elena Crestani, Romain Roncagalli, Aziz Belkadi, Gaspard Kerner, Lazaro Lorenzo, Caroline Deswarte, Maya Chrabieh, Etienne Patin, Quentin B Vincent, Ingrid Müller-Fleckenstein, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Fatima Ailal, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Sylvie Fraitag, Marie-Alexandra Alyanakian, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Capucine Picard, Anne Puel, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Marie Malissen, Bernard Malissen, Laurent Abel, Alain Hovnanian, Luigi D Notarangelo, Emmanuelle Jouanguy, Stuart G Tangye, Vivien Béziat, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Combined immunodeficiency (CID) refers to inborn errors of human T cells that also affect B cells because of the T cell deficit or an additional B cell-intrinsic deficit. In this study, we report six patients from three unrelated families with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RLTPR, the mouse orthologue of which is essential for CD28 signaling. The patients have cutaneous and pulmonary allergy, as well as a variety of bacterial and fungal infectious diseases, including invasive tuberculosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521955/fungal-spores-and-pollen-in-particulate-matter-collected-during-agricultural-activities-in-the-po-valley-italy
#12
Chiara Telloli, Milvia Chicca, Marilena Leis, Carmela Vaccaro
Airborne particulate matter (PM) containing fungal spores and pollen grains was sampled within a monitoring campaign of wheat threshing, plowing and sowing agricultural operations. Fungal spores and pollen grains were detected and identified on morphological basis. No studies were previously available about fungal spore and pollen content in agricultural PM in the Po Valley. Sampling was conducted in a Po Valley farmland in Mezzano (Ferrara, Italy). The organic particles collected were examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer...
August 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417439/the-intestinal-barrier-as-an-emerging-target-in-the-toxicological-assessment-of-mycotoxins
#13
Peyman Akbari, Saskia Braber, Soheil Varasteh, Arash Alizadeh, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular, an impairment of the barrier function of the epithelial lining cells and the sealing tight junction proteins has been noted, as this could result in an increased translocation of luminal antigens and pathogens and an excessive activation of the immune system...
July 14, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358405/epitope-mapping-of-rhi-o-1-and-generation-of-a-hypoallergenic-variant-a-candidate-molecule-for-fungal-allergy-vaccines
#14
Gaurab Sircar, Kuladip Jana, Angira Dasgupta, Sudipto Saha, Swati Gupta Bhattacharya
Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy is often severely impaired by detrimental IgE-mediated side effects of native allergen during vaccination. Here, we present the molecular determinants for IgE recognition of Rhi o 1 and eventually converting the allergen into a hypoallergenic immunogen to restrain health hazards during desensitization. Rhi o 1 is a respiratory fungal allergen. Despite having cross-reactivity with cockroach allergen, we observed that non-cross-reactive epitope predominantly determined IgE binding to Rhi o 1...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340656/clinical-distinctness-of-allergic-rhinitis-in-patients-with-allergy-to-molds
#15
Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Andrzej Bozek
Introduction. Molds are a very diverse group of allergens. Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic rhinitis (AR). Objective. The natural course of allergic rhinitis was compared between a group of patients with allergy to molds and patients with AR to other allergens as the control groups. Material and Methods. The study group consisted of 229 patients, with a mean age of 27.4 ± 6.5 yrs. The study group was compared to groups of AR patients with allergy to house dust mites or pollens or with multivalent allergy...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334782/vacuolar-serine-protease-is-a-major-allergen-of-fusarium-proliferatum-and-an-ige-cross-reactive-pan-fungal-allergen
#16
Chang Ching Yeh, Hsiao Yun Tai, Hong Chou, Keh Gong Wu, Horng Der Shen
PURPOSE: Fusarium species are among prevalent airborne fungi and causative agents of human respiratory atopic disorders. We previously identified a 36.5-kDa F. proliferatum component recognized by IgE antibodies in 9 (53%) of the 17 F. proliferatum-sensitized atopic serum samples. The purpose of this study is to characterize the 36.5-kDa allergen of F. proliferatum. METHODS: Characterization of allergens and determination of IgE cross-reactivity were performed by cDNA cloning/expression and immunoblot inhibition studies...
September 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334781/orthologous-allergens-and-diagnostic-utility-of-major-allergen-alt-a-1
#17
Antonio Moreno, Fernando Pineda, Javier Alcover, David Rodríguez, Ricardo Palacios, Eduardo Martínez-Naves
PURPOSE: Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi...
September 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334778/does-spore-count-matter-in-fungal-allergy-the-role-of-allergenic-fungal-species
#18
Wan Rou Lin, Yi Hsing Chen, Mey Fann Lee, Ling Yi Hsu, Chih Jen Tien, Feng Ming Shih, Shih Ching Hsiao, Pi Han Wang
PURPOSE: Fungi have been known to be important aeroallergens for hundreds of years. Most studies have focused on total fungal concentration; however, the concentration of specific allergenic fungi may be more important on an individual basis. METHODS: Ten fungal allergic patients and 2 non-fungal allergic patients were enrolled. The patients with a decrease in physician or patient global assessment by more than 50% of their personal best were considered to have an exacerbation of allergic symptoms and to be in the active stage...
September 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325220/swallowed-fluticasone-propionate-is-an-effective-long-term-maintenance-therapy-for-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#19
Doerthe A Andreae, Matthew G Hanna, Margret S Magid, Stefano Malerba, Michael H Andreae, Emilia Bagiella, Mirna Chehade
OBJECTIVES: Although effective in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in children, limited data exist on long-term safety and efficacy of swallowed topical corticosteroids. We investigated whether long-term use of swallowed fluticasone in children with EoE leads to sustained reduction in esophageal eosinophils, and endoscopic and clinical improvement. METHODS: In an open-label, prospective, single-center study, we offered pediatric patients with active EoE fluticasone 2 puffs to swallow twice a day (strengths in μg/puff: 2-4 years: 44, 5-11 years: 110, ≥12 years: 220)...
August 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312145/immunoproteomics-of-aspergillus-for-the-development-of-biomarkers-and-immunotherapies
#20
Olaf Kniemeyer, Frank Ebel, Thomas Krüger, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Ting Luo, Maria Strassburger, Axel A Brakhage
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections as well as allergic reactions in humans. Particularly invasive mycoses caused by Aspergillus species are characterized by high mortality rates due to difficult diagnosis and insufficient antifungal therapy. The application of immunoproteomic approaches has a great potential to identify new targets for the diagnosis, therapy, and vaccine development of diseases caused by Aspergillus species...
October 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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