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Human mycosis

Giang Huong Nguyen, James Y Wang, Kenneth B Hymes, Cynthia M Magro
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and often aggressive lymphoid malignancy known to be associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. There are 2 broad categories: acute and chronic. In the acute category, there is a leukemic and a lymphomatous variant, whereas in the designated "chronic" form, there is mild peripheral blood lymphocytosis. The intermediate "smoldering" category is without peripheral blood lymphocytosis with only discernible skin involvement. We present a 68-year-old human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 seropositive female with a mild peripheral blood atypical lymphocytosis who had indurated nodules on her hands of 2 years duration and a new scaly ichthyosiform eruption on her lower extremities...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Marta Maciejewska, Delphine Adam, Loïc Martinet, Aymeric Naômé, Magdalena Całusińska, Philippe Delfosse, Monique Carnol, Hazel A Barton, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw, Marc Hanikenne, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk speleothems of limestone caves host a rich microbiome, among which Actinobacteria represent one of the most abundant phyla. Ancient medical texts reported that moonmilk had therapeutical properties, thereby suggesting that its filamentous endemic actinobacterial population might be a source of natural products useful in human treatment. In this work, a screening approach was undertaken in order to isolate cultivable Actinobacteria from moonmilk of the Grotte des Collemboles in Belgium, to evaluate their taxonomic profile, and to assess their potential in biosynthesis of antimicrobials...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
José F Muñoz, Rhys A Farrer, Christopher A Desjardins, Juan E Gallo, Sean Sykes, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Elizabeth Misas, Emily A Whiston, Eduardo Bagagli, Celia M A Soares, Marcus de M Teixeira, John W Taylor, Oliver K Clay, Juan G McEwen, Christina A Cuomo
The Paracoccidioides genus includes two species of thermally dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a neglected health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. To examine the genome evolution and the diversity of Paracoccidioides spp., we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 31 isolates representing the phylogenetic, geographic, and ecological breadth of the genus. These samples included clinical, environmental and laboratory reference strains of the S1, PS2, PS3, and PS4 lineages of P...
September 2016: MSphere
Venkataramana Kandi, Ritu Vaish, Padmavali Palange, Mohan Rao Bhoomagiri
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. It is a dimorphic fungus which lives as a saprophyte in the environment and occasionally infects immunosuppressed people. H capsulatum is a ubiquitous fungus present throughout the globe and is more common in the temperate world. Human infection with H capsulatum occurs through respiratory route by inhalation of spores present in the air as droplet nuclei. Pulmonary histoplasmosis is difficult to diagnose, more so in the regions where tuberculosis is endemic, and many infected patients remain asymptomatic...
August 26, 2016: Curēus
Marie-Pierre Hayette, Rosalie Sacheli
Dermatophytes are causing superficial mycosis in animals and humans. Depending on the geophilic, zoophilic or anthropophilic origin of the fungus but also on the immunological status of the patient, symptomatology can widely differ. Nevertheless, each species is currently associated with typical clinical manifestations, even if atypical localizations and/or clinical pictures are sometimes also reported. Diagnostic tools applied to species identification have been changing since the last two decades with the more frequent use of molecular methods currently considered nowadays as reference methods for species identification...
September 17, 2016: Mycopathologia
Caroline Maria Marcos, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Patricia Akemi Assato, Daniella Sayuri Yamazaki, Rosângela Aparecida Moraes da Silva, Cláudia Tavares Santos, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida
Paracoccidioides spp., which are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi, are responsible for the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America, the paracoccidioidomycosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the involvement of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction. Adhesive properties were examined using recombinant PbEF-Tu proteins and the respective polyclonal anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody. Immunogold analysis demonstrated the surface location of EF-Tu in P...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Brady J Hurtgen, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Maria Del Pilar Jiménez-Alzate, Garry T Cole, Chiung-Yu Hung
There is an emerging interest to develop human vaccines against medically-important fungal pathogens and a need for a preclinical animal model to assess vaccine efficacies and protective correlates. HLA-DR4 (DRB1∗0401 allele) transgenic mice express a human major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) receptor in such a way that CD4(+) T-cell response is solely restricted by this human molecule. In this study HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were immunized with a live-attenuated vaccine (ΔT) and challenged by the intranasal route with 50-70 Coccidioides posadasii spores, a potentially lethal dose...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Alison F A Chaves, Daniele G Castilho, Marina V Navarro, Ana K Oliveira, Solange M T Serrano, Alexandre K Tashima, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that is widespread in Latin America. This fungus is a facultative intracellular pathogen able to survive and replicate inside non-activated macrophages. Therefore, the survival of P. brasiliensis inside the host depends on the ability to adapt to oxidative stress induced by immune cells, especially alveolar macrophages. For several years, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were only associated with pathological processes...
August 30, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Liliana Scorzoni, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii belong to a group of thermodimorphic fungi and cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which is a human systemic mycosis endemic in South and Central America. Patients with this mycosis are commonly treated with amphotericin B (AmB) and azoles. The study of fungal virulence and the efficacy and toxicity of antifungal drugs has been successfully performed in a Galleria mellonella infection model. In this work, G. mellonella larvae were infected with two Paracoccidioides spp...
September 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Cyntia Silva Ferreira, Erica Milena de Castro Ribeiro, Alfredo de Miranda Goes, Breno de Mello Silva
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a human systemic granulomatous mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi from Paracoccidioides genus. The disease is prevalent in Latin America and triggers a serious clinical condition. Consequently, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent progression of the disease, which can result in death. Currently, there are several established methods for PCM diagnosis. However, many of these tests still present challenges in terms of cost, accessibility and efficiency. In this scenario, gold nanoparticles represent a promising alternative since they have particular optical and electronic properties, which allow its use for biomolecules detection...
July 2016: Future Microbiology
Shervin Shokouhi, Shabnam Tehrani, Marjan Hemmatian
UNLABELLED: Penicillium notatum is a fungus that widely exists in the environment and is often non-pathogenic to humans. However, in immunocompromised hosts it may be recognized as a cause of systemic mycosis. A 44-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was admitted to our hospital with fever and neutropenia. Due to no improvement after initial treatment, he underwent bronchoscopy. The patient was found to have P. notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection, and therefore was given voriconazole, primaquine and clindamycin...
2016: Tanaffos
Tung G Phan, Brigitte Dreno, Antonio Charlys da Costa, Linlin Li, Patricia Orlandi, Xutao Deng, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Juliana Siqueira, Anne-Chantal Knol, Franck Halary, Jacques Dantal, Kathleen A Alexander, Patricia A Pesavento, Eric Delwart
We genetically characterized seven nearly complete genomes in the protoparvovirus genus from the feces of children with diarrhea. The viruses, provisionally named cutaviruses (CutaV), varied by 1-6% nucleotides and shared ~76% and ~82% amino acid identity with the NS1 and VP1 of human bufaviruses, their closest relatives. Using PCR, cutavirus DNA was found in 1.6% (4/245) and 1% (1/100) of diarrhea samples from Brazil and Botswana respectively. In silico analysis of pre-existing metagenomics datasets then revealed closely related parvovirus genomes in skin biopsies from patients with epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL or mycosis fungoides)...
September 2016: Virology
Roberta Teixeira da Silva, Dávson A Guimarães, Zoilo P Camargo, Anderson M Rodrigues, Juan P Maceira, Andréa R Bernardes-Engemann, Rosane Orofino-Costa
Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is an emerging fungus that causes a skin infection similar to dermatophytosis; it affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals, and it may invade deeper tissues and organs and cause systemic disease. Little is known about the etiopathogenesis of the infection caused by this fungus, and no standard effective treatment is available. The aim of the present experimental study was to develop an animal model of skin infection with N. dimidiatum. BALB/c mice were inoculated with two fungal strains, and different routes of infection were tested...
November 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
F M C Carvalho, F D Busser, V L T Freitas, C R Furucho, A Sadahiro, A S G Kono, P R Criado, M L Moretti, P K Sato, M A Shikanai-Yasuda
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic chronic mycosis, endemic in Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the eighth leading cause of death among chronic and recurrent infectious diseases. PCM infection is characterized by the presence of Th1 immune response; the acute form, by a mixed Th2/Th9, while the chronic form is characterized by Th17/Th22 profiles. The occurrence and severity of human PCM may also be associated with genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on cytokines encoding genes...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Paloma K Maza, Erika Suzuki
Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Akihiko Morita, Masaki Ishihara, Michiko Konno
Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures...
April 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
A H Verma, C L Bueter, M E Rothenberg, G S Deepe
Eosinophils contribute to type II immune responses in helminth infections and allergic diseases; however, their influence on intracellular pathogens is less clear. We previously reported that CCR2(-/-) mice exposed to the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum exhibit dampened immunity caused by an early exaggerated interleukin (IL)-4 response. We sought to identify the cellular source promulgating IL-4 in infected mutant animals. Eosinophils were the principal instigators of non-protective IL-4 and depleting this granulocyte population improved fungal clearance in CCR2(-/-) animals...
April 6, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
M Battistella, A Janin, F Jean-Louis, C Collomb, C Leboeuf, H Sicard, C Bonnafous, A Dujardin, C Ram-Wolff, M E Kadin, A Bensussan, M Bagot, L Michel
BACKGROUND: KIR3DL2, an inhibitory receptor expressed by natural killer cells and a subset of normal CD8(+) T cells, is aberrantly expressed in neoplastic cells in transformed mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Anti-KIR3DL2 targeted antibody therapy has shown potent activity in preclinical models for these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the expression of KIR3DL2 and its potential use as a therapeutic target in patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (pcALCL), the most aggressive cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disease...
August 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Shigeto Nagao, Takayuki Kondo, Takashi Nakamura, Tomokazu Nakagawa, Sadayuki Matsumoto
We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that showed subacute progressive cerebellar ataxia without HIV encephalopathy or other encephalopathies, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or encephalitis of other human herpes virus (HHV) infections. A 43-year-old man exhibited unsteady gait. Neurological examination disclosed ataxia of the trunk and lower extremities. Personality change and dementia were absent. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormal finding, including of the cerebellum...
April 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Pedro Dantas Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Salvino, Herbert Henrique de Melo Santos, Achiléa Lisboa Bittencourt
Infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) causes deregulation of the immune system, which makes the infected individuals more susceptible to infectious diseases. Immune deregulation is even more pronounced in HTLV-1 carriers with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), which results in frequent opportunistic infections. Hyalohyphomycosis is a rare subcutaneous mycosis which is more commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a HTLV-1-infected man with skin tumors, inguinal lymphadenomegaly, and lymphocytosis...
May 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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