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Alejandro Prados, George Kollias, Vasiliki Koliaraki
Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ayfer Aslan, Alp Ozgun Borcek, Selma Pamukcuoglu, M Kemali Baykaner
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a rare hereditary autosomal recessive disorder with broken cholesterol synthesis causing by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency. Although the clinical features and pathogenesis is well-defined, it is unknown whether there is a relationship between SLOS and neoplastic processes, especially brain neoplasms. PURPOSE: We aimed to attract the attentions to any possibility of relation between SLOS and intracranial tumor development via a pediatric case with both intracranial high-grade neuroglial tumor and SLOS, and thus to contribute an additional data to the literature on togetherness of these two clinical conditions...
August 15, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christopher A Wassif, Lisa Kratz, Susan E Sparks, Courtney Wheeler, Simona Bianconi, Andrea Gropman, Karim A Calis, Richard I Kelley, Elaine Tierney, Forbes D Porter
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation/cognitive impairment syndrome characterized by the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor sterol of cholesterol. Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier, has been proposed for the treatment of SLOS based on in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that simvastatin increases the expression of hypomorphic DHCR7 alleles. METHODS: Safety and efficacy of simvastatin therapy in 23 patients with mild to typical SLOS were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
August 11, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Sudheer K Pabbisetty, Whitney Rabacal, Emmanuel J Volanakis, Vrajesh V Parekh, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Delphine Cendron, Kelli L Boyd, Luc Van Kaer, Eric Sebzda
Tregs are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, and thus targeting these cells may aid in the treatment of autoimmunity and cancer by enhancing or reducing suppressive functions, respectively. Before these cells can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes, it is necessary to understand how they maintain tolerance under physiologically relevant conditions. We now report that transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) controls naive Treg migration patterns via regulation of homeostatic and inflammatory homing receptors, and that in its absence KLF2-deficient Tregs are unable to migrate efficiently to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs)...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jan Kranich, Nike Julia Krautler
Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are stromal cells residing in primary follicles and in germinal centers of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs (SLOs and TLOs). There, they play a crucial role in B-cell activation and affinity maturation of antibodies. FDCs have the unique capacity to bind and retain native antigen in B-cell follicles for long periods of time. Therefore, FDCs shape the B-cell antigenome (the sum of all B-cell antigens) in SLOs and TLOs. In this review, we discuss recent findings that explain how this stromal cell type can arise in almost any tissue during TLO formation and, furthermore, focus on the mechanisms of antigen capture and retention involved in the generation of long-lasting antigen depots displayed on FDCs...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
M R Boland, N P Tatonetti
Mendelian diseases contain important biological information regarding developmental effects of gene mutations that can guide drug discovery and toxicity efforts. In this review, we focus on Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a rare Mendelian disease characterized by compound heterozygous mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) resulting in severe fetal deformities. We present a compilation of SLOS-inducing DHCR7 mutations and the geographic distribution of those mutations in healthy and diseased populations...
October 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Myriam Gou-Fàbregas, Anna Macià, Carlos Anerillas, Marta Vaquero, Mariona Jové, Sanjay Jain, Joan Ribera, Mario Encinas
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disorder of cholesterol synthesis. Affected individuals exhibit growth failure, intellectual disability and a broad spectrum of developmental malformations. Among them, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, decreased innervation of the gut, and ptosis are consistent with impaired Ret signaling. Ret is a receptor tyrosine kinase that achieves full activity when recruited to lipid rafts. Mice mutant for Ret are born with no kidneys and enteric neurons, and display sympathetic nervous system defects causing ptosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
András Balajthy, Sándor Somodi, Zoltán Pethő, Mária Péter, Zoltán Varga, Gabriella P Szabó, György Paragh, László Vígh, György Panyi, Péter Hajdu
In vitro manipulation of membrane sterol level affects the regulation of ion channels and consequently certain cellular functions; however, a comprehensive study that confirms the pathophysiological significance of these results is missing. The malfunction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) reductase in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) leads to the elevation of the 7-dehydrocholesterol level in the plasma membrane. T lymphocytes were isolated from SLOS patients to assess the effect of the in vivo altered membrane sterol composition on the operation of the voltage-gated Kv1...
August 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Agata Szpera-Goździewicz, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Paweł Rzymski, Grzegorz H Bręborowicz
The aim of the study was to present a case of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) in a fetus of a 33-year-old patient. At 31 weeks of gestation, the following fetal malformations were detected on an ultrasound: atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), aortic coarctation, shortening of the lower limbs, narrow forehead, hyperthelorism, micrognathia, anteverted nares, ambiguous genitalia, and signs of intrauterine growth restriction. The baby died 11 days after birth. Further genetic screening of the parents revealed the 7-DHCR enzyme mutation in both of them...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Kurt A Freeman, Erin Olufs, Megan Tudor, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, Robert D Steiner
OBJECTIVE: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cholesterol synthesis impairment. A host of physical, developmental, and behavioral presentations are associated with SLOS, many of which have been related with disorder severity. Sleep disturbance is commonly reported in SLOS. This study is the first to examine the association between sleep disturbance and biomarkers of cholesterol synthesis defect. METHOD: Twenty youth with SLOS participated...
June 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Luca Genovese, Andrea Brendolan
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage...
2016: Stem Cells International
Stephanie M Cologna, Christine Shieh, Cynthia L Toth, Antony Cougnoux, Kathryn R Burkert, Simona E Bianconi, Christopher A Wassif, Forbes D Porter
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple malformation syndrome with neurocognitive impairment. SLOS arises from mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene which results in impaired enzymatic conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. In the current work, we sought to measure proteins that were altered in the cerebrospinal fluid from SLOS patients compared to pediatric controls. Using a multi-analyte antibody-based assay, we found that 12 proteins are altered in SLOS patients...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Hye-Young H Kim, Zeljka Korade, Keri A Tallman, Wei Liu, C David Weaver, Karoly Mirnics, Ned A Porter
A small library of pharmacologically active compounds (the NIH Clinical Collection) was assayed in Neuro2a cells to determine their effect on the last step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, the transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol promoted by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, DHCR7. Of some 727 compounds in the NIH Clinical Collection, over 30 compounds significantly increased 7-DHC in Neuro2a cells when assayed at 1 μM. Active compounds that increased 7-DHC with a Z-score of +3 or greater generally gave rise to modest decreases in desmosterol and increases in lanosterol levels...
May 16, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Yotam E Bar-Ephraïm, Reina E Mebius
The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally...
May 2016: Immunological Reviews
Audrey Thurm, Elaine Tierney, Cristan Farmer, Phebe Albert, Lisa Joseph, Susan Swedo, Simona Bianconi, Irena Bukelis, Courtney Wheeler, Geeta Sarphare, Diane Lanham, Christopher A Wassif, Forbes D Porter
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of cholesterol metabolism syndrome with neurocognitive manifestations. SLOS is the result of mutations in the gene encoding the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which results in the elevation of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Previous reports indicate that intellectual disability, behavioral disturbances, and autism symptoms are frequently part of the SLOS behavioral phenotype...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Edward B Nuhfer, Christopher B Cogan, Carl Kloock, Gregory G Wood, Anya Goodman, Natalie Zayas Delgado, Christopher W Wheeler
After articulating 12 concepts for the reasoning component of citizen-level science literacy and restating these as assessable student learning outcomes (SLOs), we developed a valid and reliable assessment instrument for addressing the outcomes with a brief 25-item science literacy concept inventory (SLCI). In this paper, we report the results that we obtained from assessing the citizen-level science literacy of 17,382 undergraduate students, 149 graduate students, and 181 professors. We address only findings at or above the 99...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Lintao Zhao, Jianbao Gao, Yan Li, Lina Liu, Yang Yang, Bo Guo, Bo Zhu
Research has firmly established that infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to structural disruption in secondary lymph organs (SLOs) and that IL-7 expression by SLOs is downregulated in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques. However, the foregoing has not been demonstrated in HIV-infected patients. As well, SLO-produced chemokines and cytokines, other than IL-7, have not been tested. In this study, SLOs in HIV-infected patients exhibit decreased levels of lymphoid cytokines, such as IL-7 and C-C motif chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), due to lower expression of lymphotoxin (LT)-β...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kevin R Francis, Amy N Ton, Yao Xin, Peter E O'Halloran, Christopher A Wassif, Nasir Malik, Ian M Williams, Celine V Cluzeau, Niraj S Trivedi, William J Pavan, Wonhwa Cho, Heiner Westphal, Forbes D Porter
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a malformation disorder caused by mutations in DHCR7, which impair the reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to cholesterol. SLOS results in cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities and nervous system defects, though neither affected cell types nor impaired signaling pathways are fully understood. Whether 7DHC accumulation or cholesterol loss is primarily responsible for disease pathogenesis is also unclear. Using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from subjects with SLOS, we identified cellular defects that lead to precocious neuronal specification within SLOS derived neural progenitors...
April 2016: Nature Medicine
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Peter J Crick, Michael Ogundare, Cedric H Shackleton, Karin Tuschl, Mei Kwun Kwok, Brian W Bigger, Andrew A Morris, Akira Honda, Libin Xu, Ned A Porter, Ingemar Björkhem, Peter T Clayton, Yuqin Wang
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects in the cholesterol synthesising enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Δ(7)-sterol reductase, DHCR7, EC leading to a build-up of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in tissues and blood plasma. Although the underling enzyme deficiency associated with SLOS is clear there are likely to be multiple mechanisms responsible for SLOS pathology. In an effort to learn more of the aetiology of SLOS we have analysed plasma from SLOS patients to search for metabolites derived from 7-DHC which may be responsible for some of the pathology...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Arianna Tucci, Luisa Ronzoni, Carlo Arduino, Paola Salmin, Susanna Esposito, Donatella Milani
BACKGROUND: Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome (SLOS; OMIM #270400) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. SLOS is characterized by a plethora of abnormalities involving mainly the brain and the genitalia but also the cardiac, skeletal and gastroenteric system, typical dysmorphic facial features, and variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). SLOS has a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from multiple congenital malformation syndrome, to mild developmental delay and minor malformations...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
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