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Ecological theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#1
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211758/life-cycle-host-utilization-and-ecological-fitting-for-invasive-lancet-liver-fluke-dicrocoelium-dendriticum-emerging-in-southern-alberta-canada
#2
Bradley van Paridon, John S Gilleard, Douglas D Colwell, Cameron P Goater
The expansion of parasite distributions outside of their native host and geographical ranges has occurred repeatedly over evolutionary time. Contemporary examples include emerging infectious diseases (EID's), many of which pose threats to human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations. Theory predicts that parasites with complex life cycles will be rare as EID's due to constraints imposed by host specialization at each life-cycle stage. In contrast to predictions of this theory, we report 2 new intermediate hosts in the 3-host life cycle of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#3
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208412/neutral-aggregation-in-finite-length-genotype-space
#4
Bahram Houchmandzadeh
The advent of modern genome sequencing techniques allows for a more stringent test of the neutrality hypothesis of Darwinian evolution, where all individuals have the same fitness. Using the individual-based model of Wright and Fisher, we compute the amplitude of neutral aggregation in the genome space, i.e., the probability of finding two individuals at genetic (Hamming) distance k as a function of the genome size L, population size N, and mutation probability per base ν. In well-mixed populations, we show that for Nν<1/L, neutral aggregation is the dominant force and most individuals are found at short genetic distances from each other...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207956/application-of-network-methods-for-understanding-evolutionary-dynamics-in-discrete-habitats
#5
Gili Greenbaum, Nina H Fefferman
In populations occupying discrete habitat patches, gene flow between habitat patches may form an intricate population structure. In such structures, the evolutionary dynamics resulting from interaction of gene flow patterns with other evolutionary forces may be exceedingly complex. Several models describing gene flow between discrete habitat patches have been presented in the population genetics literature; however, these models have usually addressed relatively simple settings of habitable patches, and have stopped short of providing general methodologies for addressing non-trivial gene flow patterns...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206799/military-service-member-and-veteran-reintegration-a-critical-review-and-adapted-ecological-model
#6
Christine A Elnitsky, Cara L Blevins, Michael P Fisher, Kathryn Magruder
Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205508/global-dynamics-of-non-equilibrium-gliding-in-animals
#7
Isaac Yeaton, Jake Socha, Shane Ross
Gliding flight - moving horizontally downward through the air without power - has evolved in a broad diversity of taxa and serves numerous ecologically relevant functions such as predator escape, expanding foraging locations, and finding mates, and has been suggested as an evolutionary pathway to powered flight. Historically, gliding has been conceptualized using the idealized conditions of equilibrium, in which the net aerodynamic force on the glider balances its weight. While this assumption is appealing for its simplicity, recent studies of glide trajectories have shown that equilibrium gliding is not the norm for most species...
February 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199335/ecological-networks-to-unravel-the-routes-to-horizontal-transposon-transfers
#8
Samuel Venner, Vincent Miele, Christophe Terzian, Christian Biémont, Vincent Daubin, Cédric Feschotte, Dominique Pontier
Transposable elements (TEs) represent the single largest component of numerous eukaryotic genomes, and their activity and dispersal constitute an important force fostering evolutionary innovation. The horizontal transfer of TEs (HTT) between eukaryotic species is a common and widespread phenomenon that has had a profound impact on TE dynamics and, consequently, on the evolutionary trajectory of many species' lineages. However, the mechanisms promoting HTT remain largely unknown. In this article, we argue that network theory combined with functional ecology provides a robust conceptual framework and tools to delineate how complex interactions between diverse organisms may act in synergy to promote HTTs...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197129/the-ecological-role-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-the-interaction-of-bacteria-with-fungi-in-soil-and-related-habitats-is-diverse-and-context-dependent
#9
REVIEW
Rashid Nazir, Sylvie Mazurier, Pu Yang, Philippe Lemanceau, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteria and fungi constitute important organisms in many ecosystems, in particular terrestrial ones. Both organismal groups contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling processes. Ecological theory postulates that bacteria capable of receiving benefits from host fungi are likely to evolve efficient association strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms that underpin the bacterial interactions with fungi in soil and other systems, with special focus on the type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196574/applying-the-social-ecological-model-and-theory-of-self-efficacy-in-the-worksite-heart-health-improvement-project-plus
#10
Kelly Doran, Barbara Resnick, Natalie Kim, Donna Lynn, Tyrell McCormick
BACKGROUND: Long-term care (LTC) employees are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Despite the documented benefits of worksite health promotion (WHP) programs for employees and employers and the potential benefits to residents in LTC facilities, LTC employees are rarely offered WHP programs. PURPOSE: The purpose of the intervention described in this article is to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among LTC workers using a physical activity, nutrition, and stress management WHP implemented during paid work time with 98 LTC staff members...
February 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195025/the-depth-of-fields-managing-focus-in-the-epistemic-subcultures-of-mind-and-brain-science
#11
David Peterson
The 'psy' sciences emerged from the tangled roots of philosophy, physiology, biology and medicine, and these origins have produced heterogeneous fields. Scientists in these areas work in a complex, overlapping ecology of fields that results in the constant co-presence of dissonant theories, methods and research objects. This raises questions regarding how conceptual clarity is maintained. Using the optical metaphor 'depth of field', I show how researchers in all fields marginalize potential threats to routine scientific work by framing them as either too broad and imprecise or too narrow and technical...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192852/effective-disengagement-insecure-people-are-more-likely-to-disengage-from-an-ongoing-task-and-take-effective-action-when-facing-danger
#12
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Adi Perry-Paldi, Jenna Merrin, Yaniv Efrati, Gilad Hirschberger
OBJECTIVE: People believe that they can respond effectively to threats, but actually experience difficulties in disengaging from ongoing tasks and shifting their attention to life-threatening events. We contend that this tendency is especially true for secure people with respect to their worldview and perception of others and not to insecure individuals. METHOD: In Study 1 (N=290), we examined individuals' reactions to various threat scenarios. In Study 2 (N=65), we examined these reactions using a behavioral design high in ecological validity...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192739/on-international-fisheries-agreements-entry-deterrence-and-ecological-uncertainty
#13
Hans Ellefsen, Lone Grønbæk, Lars Ravn-Jonsen
A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187628/an-analytical-review-of-halffter-s-mexican-transition-zone-and-its-relevance-for-evolutionary-biogeography-ecology-and-biogeographical-regionalization
#14
Gonzalo Halffter, Juan J Morrone
The Mexican transition zone (MTZ) is the complex area where the Neotropical and Nearctic biotas overlap, including south-western United States, Mexico and a large part of Central America extending to the Nicaraguan lowlands. In a strict sense, it corresponds to the mountain highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. We review Halffter's theory explaining the biotic evolution of the MTZ, including the description and discussion of the distributional patterns and cenocrons recognized within it...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187353/towards-an-ecologically-grounded-functional-practice-in-rehabilitation
#15
Daniela Virgínia Vaz, Paula Lanna Silva, Marisa Cotta Mancini, Claudia Carello, Jeffrey Kinsella-Shaw
According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, effective rehabilitation requires interventions that go beyond minimizing pathological conditions and associated symptoms. The scope of practice must include promoting an individual's activity within relevant contexts. We argue that best practice requires decisions that are not only evidence-based but also theory-based. Perception and action theories are essential for interpreting evidence and clinical phenomena as well as for developing new interventions...
February 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187165/the-influence-of-resilience-based-management-on-coral-reef-monitoring-a-systematic-review
#16
Vivian Y Y Lam, Christopher Doropoulos, Peter J Mumby
With rapid changes taking place on coral reefs, managers and scientists are faced with prioritising interventions that might avoid undesirable losses in ecosystem health. The property of resilience captures how reefs react and respond to stressors and environmental changes. Therefore, in principle, management goals are more likely to be realised if resilience theory is used to inform decision making and help set realistic expectations for reef outcomes. Indeed, a new approach to reef management has been termed 'resilience-based management' (RBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185863/offspring-mortality-was-a-determinant-factor-in-the-evolution-of-paternal-investment-in-humans-an-evolutionary-game-approach
#17
Diego López Alonso, Isabel M Ortiz-Rodríguez
Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183978/decoupled-ecomorphological-evolution-and-diversification-in-neogene-quaternary-horses
#18
J L Cantalapiedra, J L Prado, M Hernández Fernández, M T Alberdi
Evolutionary theory has long proposed a connection between trait evolution and diversification rates. In this work, we used phylogenetic methods to evaluate the relationship of lineage-specific speciation rates and the mode of evolution of body size and tooth morphology in the Neogene and Quaternary radiation of horses (7 living and 131 extinct species). We show that diversification pulses are a recurrent feature of equid evolution but that these pulses are not correlated with rapid bursts in phenotypic evolution...
February 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178971/building-social-capital-to-promote-adolescent-wellbeing-a-qualitative-study-with-teens-in-a-latino-agricultural-community
#19
Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Colette Auerswald, Linda McGlone, Megan Comfort, Alexandra Minnis
BACKGROUND: Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. METHODS: Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148830/does-sex-really-matter-explaining-intraspecies-variation-in-ocean-acidification-responses
#20
Robert P Ellis, William Davison, Ana M Queirós, Kristy J Kroeker, Piero Calosi, Sam Dupont, John I Spicer, Rod W Wilson, Steve Widdicombe, Mauricio A Urbina
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine ecosystems globally, having significant ecological and economic importance. The number and complexity of experiments examining the effects of OA has substantially increased over the past decade, in an attempt to address multi-stressor interactions and long-term responses in an increasing range of aquatic organisms. However, differences in the response of males and females to elevated pCO2 have been investigated in fewer than 4% of studies to date, often being precluded by the difficulty of determining sex non-destructively, particularly in early life stages...
February 2017: Biology Letters
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