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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927355/the-promise-of-qualitative-research-to-inform-theory-to-address-health-equity
#1
Rachel C Shelton, Derek M Griffith, Michelle C Kegler
Most public health researchers and practitioners agree that we need to accelerate our efforts to eliminate health disparities and promote health equity. The past two decades of research have provided a wealth of descriptive studies, both qualitative and quantitative, that describe the size, scale, and scope of health disparities, as well as the key determinants that affect disparities. We need, however, to shift more aggressively to action informed by this research and develop deeper understandings of how to shape multilevel interventions, influenced by theories across multiple levels of the social-ecologic framework...
October 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927322/-it-s-important-that-we-learn-too-empowering-parents-to-facilitate-participation-in-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth-with-disabilities
#2
Claire E Willis, Siobhan Reid, Catherine Elliott, Astrid Nyquist, Reidun Jahnsen, Michael Rosenberg, Sonya Girdler
AIM: The actions and behaviors of parents have been identified as key factors that influence a child's participation in physical activity. However, there is limited knowledge of how parents can be supported to embody facilitative roles. This study aimed to explore how an ecological intervention encourages parents of children with disabilities to develop as facilitators, to enable ongoing physical activity participation in a child's local environment. METHODS: A qualitative design using grounded theory was employed...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926148/biodiversity-and-species-competition-regulate-the-resilience-of-microbial-biofilm-community
#3
Kai Feng, Zhaojing Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Wenzong Liu, Meiying Xu, Huaqun Yin, Aijie Wang, Zhili He, Ye Deng
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is poorly understood in microbial communities. Biofilm communities in small bioreactors called microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) contain moderate species numbers and easy tractable functional traits, thus providing an ideal platform for verifying ecological theories in microbial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the resilience of biofilm communities with a gradient of diversity, and explored the relationship between biodiversity and stability in response to a pH shock...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923156/functional-constructivism-in-search-of-formal-descriptors
#4
Irina Trofimova
The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#5
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921808/long-term-agricultural-management-does-not-alter-the-evolution-of-a-soybean-rhizobium-mutualism
#6
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920075/of-mice-and-men-empirical-support-for-the-population-based-social-epistasis-amplification-model-a-comment-on
#7
Matthew Alexandar Sarraf, Michael Anthony Woodley Of Menie
This commentary article offers new perspective on recent research investigating the behavioral and social ecological effects of a mutation related to autism spectrum disorders in mice. The authors explain the consistency of this research on mice with predictions advanced by a theory of the role of mutations in altering interorganismal gene-gene interactions (social epistasis) in social species including humans, known as the social epistasis amplification model. The potential significance of the mouse research for understanding contemporary human behavioral trends is explored...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919203/process-mechanism-and-modeling-in-macroecology
#8
REVIEW
Sean R Connolly, Sally A Keith, Robert K Colwell, Carsten Rahbek
Macroecology has traditionally relied on descriptive characterization of large-scale ecological patterns to offer narrative explanations for the origin and maintenance of those patterns. Only recently have macroecologists begun to employ models termed 'process-based' and 'mechanistic', in contrast to other areas of ecology, where such models have a longer history. Here, we define and differentiate between process-based and mechanistic features of models, and we identify and discuss important advantages of working with models possessing such features...
September 14, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#9
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment, (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not unclearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist, with others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy in Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of local populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#10
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#11
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905305/a-systematic-review-of-promising-strategies-of-faith-based-cancer-education-and-lifestyle-interventions-among-racial-ethnic-minority-groups
#12
REVIEW
Su-I Hou, Xian Cao
Church-based interventions have been used to reach racial/ethnic minorities. In order to develop effective programs, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of faith-based cancer prevention studies (2005~2016) to examine characteristics and promising strategies. Combination terms "church or faith-based or religion," "intervention or program," and "cancer education or lifestyle" were used in searching the five major databases: CINAHL; ERIC; Health Technology Assessments; MEDLINE; and PsycInfo. A total of 20 studies met study criteria...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902445/nutrients-and-temperature-additively-increase-stream-microbial-respiration
#13
David W P Manning, Amy D Rosemond, Vladislav Gulis, Jonathan P Benstead, John S Kominoski
Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co-occurring global-change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon (C), but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across seasonal temperature gradients before (PRE) and after (ENR1, ENR2) experimental nutrient (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) additions to five forest streams...
September 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902394/quantity-and-quality-limit-detritivore-growth-mechanisms-revealed-by-ecological-stoichiometry-and-co-limitation-theory
#14
Halvor M Halvorson, Erik Sperfeld, Michelle A Evans-White
Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus:carbon, P:C ratios). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients...
September 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892369/unveiling-adsorption-mechanisms-of-organic-pollutants-onto-carbon-nanomaterials-by-dft-computations-and-pp-lfer-modeling
#15
Ya Wang, Jingwen Chen, Xiaoxuan Wei, Arturo J Hernandez-Maldonado, Zhongfang Chen
Predicting adsorption of organic pollutants onto carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and understanding the adsorption mechanisms are of great importance to assess the environmental behavior and ecological risks of organic pollutants and CNMs. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated the adsorption of 38 organic molecules (aliphatic hydrocarbons, benzene and its derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) onto pristine graphene in both gaseous and aqueous phases. Poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) were developed, which can be employed to predict adsorption energies of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons on graphene...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890126/the-nebulous-ecology-of-native-invasions
#16
REVIEW
Lloyd L Nackley, Adam G West, Andrew L Skowno, William J Bond
In the Anthropocene, alien species are no longer the only category of biological organism establishing and rapidly spreading beyond historical boundaries. We review evidence showing that invasions by native species are a global phenomenon and present case studies from Southern Africa, and elsewhere, that reveal how climate-mediated expansions of native plants into adjacent communities can emulate the functional and structural changes associated with invasions by alien plant species. We conclude that integrating native invasions into ecological practice and theory will improve mechanistic models and better inform policy and adaptive ecological management in the 21st century...
September 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889019/psychotraumatology-what-researchers-and-clinicians-can-learn-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Alfonso Troisi
This review outlines the contribution of evolutionary science to experimental and clinical psychotraumatology. From an evolutionary perspective, traumatic and psychosocial stressors are conceived of as events or circumstances that thwart the achievement of biological goals. The more important is the adaptive value of the goal, the more painful is the emotional impact of the life event that endangers goal achievement. Life history theory and sexual selection theory help to explain why goal priorities differ between the sexes and across age groups...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888279/a-social-ecology-of-civil-conflict-shifting-allegiances-in-the-conflict-in-sierra-leone
#18
Andrew P Davis
Drawing on data from a survey of 1043 ex-combatants who took part in the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) this paper explores the conditions that predict a key outcome in the conflict literature: defection, or side-switching between the various organizations at war. This paper advances arguments drawn from the organizational ecology school and works to extend key theories related to "Blau Space" to the study of civil war. Using a series of logistic regression procedures, this paper tests various competing hypotheses against key contributions of the organizational ecology school...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887468/the-network-of-plants-volatile-organic-compounds
#19
Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Cosimo Taiti, Guido Caldarelli, Stefano Mancuso
Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887176/ecoacoustic-codes-and-ecological-complexity
#20
Almo Farina
Multi-layer communication and sensing network assures the exchange of relevant information between animals and their umwelten, imparting complexity to the ecological systems. Individual soniferous species, the acoustic community, and soundscape are the three main operational levels that comprise this multi-layer network. Acoustic adaptation and acoustic niche are two more important mechanisms that regulate the acoustic performances at the first level while the acoustic community model explains the complexity of the interspecific acoustic network at the second level...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
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