keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ecological theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150414/constraints-on-statistical-learning-across-species
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Santolin, Jenny R Saffran
Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#2
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144848/watching-the-evolution-of-the-american-family-amazon-s-transparent-ecological-systems-theory-and-the-changing-dynamics-of-public-opinion
#3
Amy B Becker, Maureen E Todd
Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory as an organizing framework, the research closely examines the text of the Amazon Studios hit show, Transparent, and by extension the evolution of public opinion towards transgender individuals. By examining the Pfefferman family in detail and their related microsystem and macrosystem, we are able to closely unpack the transition of Jeffrey Tambor's character from Mort to Maura and the show's connections with broader developments in the Los Angeles LGBT community and the Jewish diaspora in postwar and contemporary Los Angeles...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142333/approaches-to-macroevolution-1-general-concepts-and-origin-of-variation
#4
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135793/an-ecological-model-of-well-being-after-sexual-assault-the-voices-of-victims-and-survivors
#5
Pamela Wadsworth, Eve Krahe, Kim Searing
In this article, the authors describe factors that enhance or detract from well-being after adult sexual assault from the perspective of sexual assault victims and survivors. The authors present a holistic view of the complex ways in which women respond to and cope with the impact of adult sexual assault while trying to create a sense of well-being. The forces that facilitate or detract from well-being are organized into an ecological model. The data originate from a grounded theory study in 2015, with 22 adult female adult sexual assault victims/survivors...
January 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133418/normalized-value-coding-explains-dynamic-adaptation-in-the-human-valuation-process
#6
Mel W Khaw, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
The notion of subjective value is central to choice theories in ecology, economics, and psychology, serving as an integrated decision variable by which options are compared. Subjective value is often assumed to be an absolute quantity, determined in a static manner by the properties of an individual option. Recent neurobiological studies, however, have shown that neural value coding dynamically adapts to the statistics of the recent reward environment, introducing an intrinsic temporal context dependence into the neural representation of value...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#7
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126564/information-theory-broadens-the-spectrum-of-molecular-ecology-and-evolution
#8
REVIEW
W B Sherwin, A Chao, L Jost, P E Smouse
Information or entropy analysis of diversity is used extensively in community ecology, and has recently been exploited for prediction and analysis in molecular ecology and evolution. Information measures belong to a spectrum (or q profile) of measures whose contrasting properties provide a rich summary of diversity, including allelic richness (q=0), Shannon information (q=1), and heterozygosity (q=2). We present the merits of information measures for describing and forecasting molecular variation within and among groups, comparing forecasts with data, and evaluating underlying processes such as dispersal...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122242/mitigation-of-harmful-algal-blooms-using-modified-clays-theory-mechanisms-and-applications
#9
Zhiming Yu, Xiuxian Song, Xihua Cao, Yang Liu
Clay dispersal is one of only a few mitigation methods for harmful algal blooms (HABs) ever applied in the field; however, low flocculation efficiency has always been the most significant drawback associated with natural unmodified clays. This review discusses key factors affecting the flocculation efficiency, based on results obtained in studies of the mechanisms underlying interactions between clay particles and HAB organisms. It further elaborates clay surface modification theory and methods for improving removal efficiency of HAB cells, followed by descriptions of various modified clays successfully prepared with removal efficiencies of HAB cells that are up to hundreds of times greater than natural clays and have lower dosing requirements of 4-10t/km(2)...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#10
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113696/embracing-colonizations-a-new-paradigm-for-species-association-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
Sören Nylin, Salvatore Agosta, Staffan Bensch, Walter A Boeger, Mariana P Braga, Daniel R Brooks, Matthew L Forister, Peter A Hambäck, Eric P Hoberg, Tommi Nyman, Alexander Schäpers, Alycia L Stigall, Christopher W Wheat, Martin Österling, Niklas Janz
Parasite-host and insect-plant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insect-plant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting...
November 4, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110382/transcriptional-profile-and-differential-fitness-in-a-specialist-milkweed-insect-across-host-plants-varying-in-toxicity
#12
S S L Birnbaum, D C Rinker, N M Gerardo, P Abbot
Interactions between plants and herbivorous insects have been models for theories of specialization and coevolution for over a century. Phytochemicals govern many aspects of these interactions and have fostered the evolution of adaptations by insects to tolerate or even specialize on plant defensive chemistry. While genomic approaches are providing new insights into the genes and mechanisms insect specialists employ to tolerate plant secondary metabolites, open questions remain about the evolution and conservation of insect counter-defenses, how insects respond to the diversity defenses mounted by their host plants, and the costs and benefits of resistance and tolerance to plant defenses in natural ecological communities...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109261/scale-dependent-portfolio-effects-explain-growth-inflation-and-volatility-reduction-in-landscape-demography
#13
Cang Hui, Gordon A Fox, Jessica Gurevitch
Population demography is central to fundamental ecology and for predicting range shifts, decline of threatened species, and spread of invasive organisms. There is a mismatch between most demographic work, carried out on few populations and at local scales, and the need to predict dynamics at landscape and regional scales. Inspired by concepts from landscape ecology and Markowitz's portfolio theory, we develop a landscape portfolio platform to quantify and predict the behavior of multiple populations, scaling up the expectation and variance of the dynamics of an ensemble of populations...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107553/a-single-community-dominates-structure-and-function-of-a-mixture-of-multiple-methanogenic-communities
#14
Pawel Sierocinski, Kim Milferstedt, Florian Bayer, Tobias Großkopf, Mark Alston, Sarah Bastkowski, David Swarbreck, Phil J Hobbs, Orkun S Soyer, Jérôme Hamelin, Angus Buckling
The ecology of microbes frequently involves the mixing of entire communities (community coalescence), for example, flooding events, host excretion, and soil tillage [1, 2], yet the consequences of this process for community structure and function are poorly understood [3-7]. Recent theory suggests that a community, due to coevolution between constituent species, may act as a partially cohesive unit [8-11], resulting in one community dominating after community coalescence. This dominant community is predicted to be the one that uses resources most efficiently when grown in isolation [11]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106275/the-effect-of-pathological-narcissism-on-interpersonal-and-affective-processes-in-social-interactions
#15
Aidan G C Wright, Stephanie D Stepp, Lori N Scott, Michael N Hallquist, Joseph E Beeney, Sophie A Lazarus, Paul A Pilkonis
Narcissism has significant interpersonal costs, yet little research has examined behavioral and affective patterns characteristic of narcissism in naturalistic settings. Here we studied the effect of narcissistic features on the dynamic processes of interpersonal behavior and affect in daily life. We used interpersonal theory to generate transactional models of social interaction (i.e., linkages among perceptions of others' behavior, affect, and one's own behavior) predicted to be characteristic of narcissism...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104821/estimating-the-potential-biodiversity-impact-of-redeveloping-small-urban-spaces-the-natural-history-museum-s-grounds
#16
Helen R P Phillips, Sandra Knapp, Andy Purvis
Background: With the increase in human population, and the growing realisation of the importance of urban biodiversity for human wellbeing, the ability to predict biodiversity loss or gain as a result of land use change within urban settings is important. Most models that link biodiversity and land use are at too coarse a scale for informing decisions, especially those related to planning applications. Using the grounds of the Natural History Museum, London, we show how methods used in global models can be applied to smaller spatial scales to inform urban planning...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102408/meta-ecosystems-2-0-rooting-the-theory-into-the-field
#17
REVIEW
Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J Little, Florian Altermatt
The meta-ecosystem framework demonstrates the significance of among-ecosystem spatial flows for ecosystem dynamics and has fostered a rich body of theory. The high level of abstraction of the models, however, impedes applications to empirical systems. We argue that further understanding of spatial dynamics in natural systems strongly depends on dense exchanges between field and theory. From empiricists, more and specific quantifications of spatial flows are needed, defined by the major categories of organismal movement (dispersal, foraging, life-cycle, and migration)...
November 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098932/understanding-active-school-travel-through-the-behavioural-ecological-model
#18
Samuel Ginja, Bronia Arnott, Anil Namdeo, Elaine McColl
Active school travel (AST) is an important source of physical activity for children and a conceptual understanding of AST is necessary to inform promotion efforts. The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual analysis of AST. All currently identified AST formulations include intra-individual variables which are often recommended as intervention targets. However, existing literature lacks clarity on precisely how these intra-individual variables might shape specific AST interventions. Moreover, evaluative studies of AST interventions typically fail to specify an underpinning theory or model...
November 3, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098815/-cultural-regionalization-for-notopterygium-incisum-based-on-3s-technology-platform-%C3%A2-functional-regionalization-for-cultivation-based-on-suitability-evaluation-of-growth-and-production-quality
#19
Hong-Bing Sun, Shun-Yuan Jiang, Hui Sun, Hong-Lan Wang, Yi Zhou, Wen-Tao Zhu
Based on the research results of suitability evaluation of growth and production quality, a functional production cultivation regionalization with high feasibility and operability to solve the problem of the separation of high quality and high yield were formatted for protection, wild monitoring, and cultivation of this plant by weighted sum of spatial suitability data of ecology and quality, as well as integrated with land use and cover data. The results of the study revealed that good quality and high yield area were mainly distributed in the original production areas in Sichuan province and where could carry out monitoring and commercialization cultivation...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095520/the-grand-challenge-of-great-ape-health-and-conservation-in-the-anthropocene
#20
Dominic A Travis, Elizabeth V Lonsorf, Thomas R Gillespie
"Ecosystem Health recognizes the inherent interdependence of the health of humans, animals and ecosystems and explores the perspectives, theories and methodologies emerging at the interface between ecological and health sciences." This broad focus requires new approaches and methods for solving problems of greater complexity at larger scales than ever before. Nowhere is this point more salient than the case of disease emergence and control at the human-non human primate interface in shrinking tropical forests under great anthropogenic pressure...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
keyword
keyword
76528
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"