keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ecological theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#1
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079408/an-ecological-approach-to-hearing-health-promotion-in-workplaces
#2
Ravi Reddy, David Welch, Shanthi Ameratunga, Peter Thorne
OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess use, acceptability and feasibility of an ecological hearing conservation programme for workplaces. DESIGN: A school-based public health hearing preservation education programme (Dangerous Decibels®) was adapted for workplaces using the Multi-level Approach to Community Health (MATCH) Model. The programme was delivered in small manufacturing companies and evaluated using a questionnaire before the training and at one week and two-months after training...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#3
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065296/patterns-and-drivers-of-egg-pigment-intensity-and-colour-diversity-in-the-ocean-a-meta-analysis-of-phylum-echinodermata
#4
E M Montgomery, J-F Hamel, A Mercier
Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060362/cheating-fosters-species-co-existence-in-well-mixed-bacterial-communities
#5
Anne Leinweber, R Fredrik Inglis, Rolf Kümmerli
Explaining the enormous biodiversity observed in bacterial communities is challenging because ecological theory predicts that competition between species occupying the same niche should lead to the exclusion of less competitive community members. Competitive exclusion should be particularly strong when species compete for a single limiting resource or live in unstructured habitats that offer no refuge for weaker competitors. Here, we describe the 'cheating effect', a form of intra-specific competition that can counterbalance between-species competition, thereby fostering biodiversity in unstructured habitats...
January 6, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054801/longitudinal-associations-between-marital-stress-and-externalizing-behavior-does-parental-sense-of-competence-mediate-processes
#6
Willemijn M van Eldik, Peter Prinzie, Maja Deković, Amaranta D de Haan
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054420/parent-offspring-conflict-over-family-size-in-current-china
#7
Jianghua Liu, Chongli Duan, Virpi Lummaa
OBJECTIVES: In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042886/spatial-variation-in-soil-biota-mediates-plant-adaptation-to-a-foliar-pathogen
#9
Sini Mursinoff, Ayco J M Tack
Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040518/smoking-and-sedentary-behavior-changes-from-adolescence-to-emerging-adulthood-a-multilevel-modeling-perspective
#10
Dalnim Cho, Crystal L Park
The present research investigated a) the effects of psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms, delinquency) and neighborhood socioeconomic environmental factors (e.g., education, poverty, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities) on changes in smoking and sedentary behaviors from adolescence to emerging adulthood and b) whether there were any cross-level interactions based on socio-ecological models. A series of multilevel analyses (level-1: individual-level; level-2: neighborhood-level) were conducted with the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) wave I (1995) and wave III (2001) data among about 10,000 US adolescents...
December 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039973/tangent-map-intermittency-as-an-approximate-analysis-of-intermittency-in-a-high-dimensional-fully-stochastic-dynamical-system-the-tangled-nature-model
#11
Alvaro Diaz-Ruelas, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen, Duccio Piovani, Alberto Robledo
It is well known that low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic maps close to a tangent bifurcation exhibit intermittency and this circumstance has been exploited, e.g., by Procaccia and Schuster [Phys. Rev. A 28, 1210 (1983)], to develop a general theory of 1/f spectra. This suggests it is interesting to study the extent to which the behavior of a high-dimensional stochastic system can be described by such tangent maps. The Tangled Nature (TaNa) Model of evolutionary ecology is an ideal candidate for such a study, a significant model as it is capable of reproducing a broad range of the phenomenology of macroevolution and ecosystems...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035682/invasive-plant-alters-community-and-ecosystem-dynamics-by-promoting-native-predators
#12
Lauren M Smith-Ramesh
Placing invasion in a more complete food-web context expands our understanding of species invasions to reflect the inherent complexity of ecological networks. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) has traditionally been predicted to dominate native communities through mechanisms embodied in popular hypotheses such as direct plant-plant interactions (allelopathy) and plant-herbivore interactions (enemy escape). However, garlic mustard also interacts directly with native predators by providing habitat for web-building spiders, which colonize the dry fruit structures (siliques) that garlic mustard leaves behind after it senesces...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035282/trade-off-between-early-emergence-and-herbivore-susceptibility-mediates-exotic-success-in-an-experimental-california-plant-community
#13
Joseph Waterton, Elsa E Cleland
Ecological trade-offs are fundamental to theory in community ecology; critical for understanding species coexistence in diverse plant communities, as well as the evolution of diverse life-history strategies. Invasions by exotic species can provide insights into the importance of trade-offs in community assembly, because the ecological strategies of invading species often differ from those present in the native species pool. Exotic annual species have invaded many Mediterranean-climate areas around the globe, and often germinate and emerge earlier in the growing season than native species...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030596/phase-shift-dynamics-of-sea-urchin-overgrazing-on-nutrified-reefs
#14
Nina Kriegisch, Simon Reeves, Craig R Johnson, Scott D Ling
Shifts from productive kelp beds to impoverished sea urchin barrens occur globally and represent a wholesale change to the ecology of sub-tidal temperate reefs. Although the theory of shifts between alternative stable states is well advanced, there are few field studies detailing the dynamics of these kinds of transitions. In this study, sea urchin herbivory (a 'top-down' driver of ecosystems) was manipulated over 12 months to estimate (1) the sea urchin density at which kelp beds collapse to sea urchin barrens, and (2) the minimum sea urchin density required to maintain urchin barrens on experimental reefs in the urbanised Port Phillip Bay, Australia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029730/historical-foundations-and-future-directions-in-macrosystems-ecology
#15
Kevin C Rose, Rose A Graves, Winslow D Hansen, Brian J Harvey, Jiangxiao Qiu, Stephen A Wood, Carly Ziter, Monica G Turner
Macrosystems ecology is an effort to understand ecological processes and interactions at the broadest spatial scales and has potential to help solve globally important social and ecological challenges. It is important to understand the intellectual legacies underpinning macrosystems ecology: How the subdiscipline fits within, builds upon, differs from and extends previous theories. We trace the rise of macrosystems ecology with respect to preceding theories and present a new hypothesis that integrates the multiple components of macrosystems theory...
December 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028880/metapopulation-theory-identifies-biogeographical-patterns-among-core-and-satellite-marine-bacteria-scaling-from-tens-to-thousands-of-kilometers
#16
Markus V Lindh, Johanna Sjöstedt, Börje Ekstam, Michele Casini, Daniel Lundin, Luisa W Hugerth, Yue O O Hu, Anders F Andersson, Agneta Andersson, Catherine Legrand, Jarone Pinhassi
Metapopulation theory developed in terrestrial ecology provides applicable frameworks for interpreting the role of local and regional processes in shaping species distribution patterns. Yet, empirical testing of metapopulation models on microbial communities is essentially lacking. We determined regional bacterioplankton dynamics from monthly transect sampling in the Baltic Sea Proper using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A strong positive trend was found between local relative abundance and occupancy of populations...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027571/bottom-up-and-trait-mediated-effects-of-resource-quality-on-amphibian-parasitism
#17
Jeffrey P Stephens, Karie A Altman, Keith A Berven, Scott D Tiegs, Thomas R Raffel
Leaf litter subsidies are important resources for aquatic consumers like tadpoles and snails, causing bottom-up effects on wetland ecosystems. Recent studies have shown that variation in litter nutritional quality can be as important as litter quantity in driving these bottom-up effects. Resource subsidies likely also have indirect and trait-mediated effects on predation and parasitism, but these potential effects remain largely unexplored. We generated predictions for differential effects of litter nutrition and secondary polyphenolic compounds on tadpole (Lithobates sylvatica) exposure and susceptibility to Ribeiroia ondatrae, based on ecological stoichiometry and community-ecology theory...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026195/age-differences-in-negative-emotional-responses-to-daily-stressors-depend-on-time-since-event
#18
Stacey B Scott, Nilam Ram, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Martin J Sliwinski
Research on age differences in the experience of negative emotional states have produced inconsistent results, particularly when emotion is examined in the context of daily stress. Strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI; Charles, 2010) theory postulates that age differences in emotional states are contingent upon whether a stressor occurred, and whether sufficient time has passed since the stressor to allow older adults to benefit from theorized strengths. The present study uses an ecological momentary assessment design to examine how timing of daily stressors relates to age differences in negative emotional responses...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025287/do-floral-and-niche-shifts-favour-the-establishment-and-persistence-of-newly-arisen-polyploids-a-case-study-in-an-alpine-primrose
#19
Gabriele Casazza, Florian C Boucher, Luigi Minuto, Christophe F Randin, Elena Conti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polyploidization plays a key role in plant evolution. Despite the generally accepted 'minority-cytotype exclusion' theory, the specific mechanisms leading to successful establishment and persistence of new polyploids remain controversial. The majority of newly formed polyploids do not become established, because they are less common, have fewer potential mates or may not be able to compete successfully with co-occurring progenitors at lower ploidy levels. Changes in floral traits and ecological niches have been proposed as important mechanisms to overcome this initial frequency-dependent disadvantage...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024224/facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-the-role-of-facial-mimicry-in-depression
#20
Julia C Zwick, Larissa Wolkenstein
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether acutely (aMDD) and remitted depressed patients (rMDD) show deficits in the two aspects of social cognition - facial emotion recognition (FER) and reasoning - when using ecologically valid material. Furthermore, we examined whether reduced facial mimicry mediates the association between depressive symptoms and FER, and whether FER deficits and reasoning deficits are associated. METHOD: In 42 aMDD, 43 rMDD, and 39 healthy controls (HC) FER was assessed using stimuli from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set, reasoning by the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
keyword
keyword
76528
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"