keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ecological theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784670/cancer-as-a-social-dysfunction-why-cancer-research-needs-new-thinking
#1
Kenneth J Pienta, Robert Axelrod
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781679/exploring-the-socio-ecological-levels-for-prevention-of-sexual-risk-behaviours-of-the-youth-in-umgungundlovu-district-municipality-kwazulu-natal
#2
Nelisiwe Khuzwayo, Myra Taylor
BACKGROUND: Prevention of youth sexual risk behaviour among the youth in uMgungundlovu District Municipality continues to be a primary challenge for public health and health promotion. Current prevention interventions are targeted at an individual level, whilst youth behaviour is influenced by many social and environmental factors. AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviours of the youth at different socio-ecological levels in uMgungundlovu District Municipality...
March 7, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780337/making-sense-of-biodiversity-the-affordances-of-systems-ecology
#3
REVIEW
Erik Andersson, Timon McPhearson
We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774426/plant-physical-and-chemical-defence-variation-along-elevation-gradients-a-functional-trait-based-approach
#4
Alan Kergunteuil, Patrice Descombes, Gaetan Glauser, Loïc Pellissier, Sergio Rasmann
Predicting variation in plant functional traits related to anti-herbivore defences remains a major challenge in ecological research, considering that multiple traits have evolved in response to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Therefore, understanding variation in plant anti-herbivore defence traits requires studying their expression along steep environmental gradients, such as along elevation, where multiple biotic and abiotic factors co-vary. We expand on plant defence theory and propose a novel conceptual framework to address the sources of variations of plant resistance traits at the community level...
May 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772910/qualitative-assessment-of-smoke-free-policy-implementation-in-low-income-housing-enhancing-resident-compliance
#5
Jodi Anthony, Roberta Goldman, Vaughan W Rees, Rochelle L Frounfelker, Jessica Davine, Robyn R Keske, Daniel R Brooks, Alan C Geller
PURPOSE: As public housing agencies and other low-income housing providers adopt smoke-free policies, data are needed to inform implementation approaches that support compliance. DESIGN: Focused ethnography used including qualitative interviews with staff, focus groups with residents, and property observations. SETTING: Four low-income housing properties in Massachusetts, 12 months postpolicy adoption. PARTICIPANTS: Individual interviews (n = 17) with property staff (managers, resident service coordinators, maintenance, security, and administrators) and focus groups with resident smokers (n = 28) and nonsmokers (n = 47)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769362/reverse-engineering-ecological-theory-from-data
#6
Benjamin T Martin, Stephan B Munch, Andrew M Hein
Ecologists have long sought to understand the dynamics of populations and communities by deriving mathematical theory from first principles. Theoretical models often take the form of dynamical equations that comprise the ecological processes (e.g. competition, predation) believed to govern system dynamics. The inverse of this approach-inferring which processes and ecological interactions drive observed dynamics-remains an open problem in ecology. Here, we propose a way to attack this problem using a machine learning method known as symbolic regression, which seeks to discover relationships in time-series data and to express those relationships using dynamical equations...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760441/origin-and-maintenance-of-chemical-diversity-in-a-species-rich-tropical-tree-lineage
#7
Diego Salazar, John Lokvam, Italo Mesones, Magno Vásquez Pilco, Jacqueline Milagros Ayarza Zuñiga, Perry de Valpine, Paul V A Fine
Plant secondary metabolites play important ecological and evolutionary roles, most notably in the deterrence of natural enemies. The classical theory explaining the evolution of plant chemical diversity is that new defences arise through a pairwise co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their specialized natural enemies. However, plant species are bombarded by dozens of different herbivore taxa from disparate phylogenetic lineages that span a wide range of feeding strategies and have distinctive physiological constraints that interact differently with particular plant metabolites...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758719/theory-of-time-averaged-neutral-dynamics-with-environmental-stochasticity
#8
Matan Danino, Nadav M Shnerb
Competition is the main driver of population dynamics, which shapes the genetic composition of populations and the assembly of ecological communities. Neutral models assume that all the individuals are equivalent and that the dynamics is governed by demographic (shot) noise, with a steady state species abundance distribution (SAD) that reflects a mutation-extinction equilibrium. Recently, many empirical and theoretical studies emphasized the importance of environmental variations that affect coherently the relative fitness of entire populations...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755250/guiding-young-children-s-digital-media-use-ses-differences-in-mediation-concerns-and-competence
#9
Peter Nikken, Suzanna J Opree
Previous research about parents' mediation of their young children's (digital) media use has predominantly focused on the different types, determinants, and effectiveness of parental mediation strategies. Although research on parents' perceived mediation concerns and competences is scarce, it is known that, compared to mothers and high-educated parents, fathers and low-educated parents experience greater insecurity (i.e., higher concern and lower competence) when applying media mediation. Based on Bourdieu's theory of social capital it may be expected that-in addition to educational level-marital status and family income predict parents' perceived mediation concerns and competences: Family demographics may predict parents' media proficiency and adoption of new media technologies and these media ecological factors may, in turn, affect perceived concerns and competences...
2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745213/-bacterial-quorum-sensing-cooperation-and-cheating
#10
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740805/examining-ecological-constraints-on-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-attachment-via-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#11
Marije L Verhage, R M Pasco Fearon, Carlo Schuengel, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sheri Madigan, Glenn I Roisman, Mirjam Oosterman, Kazuko Y Behrens, Maria S Wong, Sarah Mangelsdorf, Lynn E Priddis, Karl-Heinz Brisch
Parents' attachment representations and child-parent attachment have been shown to be associated, but these associations vary across populations (Verhage et al., 2016). The current study examined whether ecological factors may explain variability in the strength of intergenerational transmission of attachment, using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Analyses on 4,396 parent-child dyads (58 studies, child age 11-96 months) revealed a combined effect size of r = .29. IPD meta-analyses revealed that effect sizes for the transmission of autonomous-secure representations to secure attachments were weaker under risk conditions and weaker in adolescent parent-child dyads, whereas transmission was stronger for older children...
May 9, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738621/using-social-network-research-to-improve-outcomes-in-natural-resource-management
#12
REVIEW
Julie E Groce, Megan A Farrelly, Bradley S Jorgensen, Carly N Cook
The conservation and management of natural resources operates within social-ecological systems, in which resource users are embedded in social and environmental contexts that influence their management decisions. Characterizing social networks of resource users has received growing interest as an approach for understanding social influences on decision-making, and social network analysis (SNA) has emerged as a useful technique to explore these relationships. In this review, we synthesize how SNA has been used in studies of natural resource management...
May 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736242/association-with-humans-and-seasonality-interact-to-reverse-predictions-for-animal-space-use
#13
Peter N Laver, Kathleen A Alexander
Background: Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734346/quantifying-urban-growth-patterns-in-hanoi-using-landscape-expansion-modes-and-time-series-spatial-metrics
#14
Duong H Nong, Christopher A Lepczyk, Tomoaki Miura, Jefferson M Fox
Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731726/overcoming-the-subject-object-dichotomy-in-urban-modeling-axial-maps-as-geometric-representations-of-affordances-in-the-built-environment
#15
Lars Marcus
The world is witnessing unprecedented urbanization, bringing extreme challenges to contemporary practices in urban planning and design. This calls for improved urban models that can generate new knowledge and enhance practical skill. Importantly, any urban model embodies a conception of the relation between humans and the physical environment. In urban modeling this is typically conceived of as a relation between human subjects and an environmental object, thereby reproducing a humans-environment dichotomy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729183/invoking-adaptation-to-decipher-the-genetic-legacy-of-past-climate-change
#16
Guillaume de Lafontaine, Joseph D Napier, Rémy J Petit, Feng Sheng Hu
Persistence of natural populations during periods of climate change is likely to depend on migration (range shifts) or adaptation. These responses were traditionally considered discrete processes and conceptually divided into the realms of ecology and evolution. In a milestone paper, Davis and Shaw (2001) argued that the interplay of adaptation and migration was central to biotic responses to Quaternary climate, but since then there has been no synthesis of efforts made to set up this research program. Here we review some of the salient findings from molecular genetic studies assessing ecological and evolutionary responses to Quaternary climate change...
May 5, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727808/an-investigation-of-the-mentalization-based-model-of-borderline-pathology-in-adolescents
#17
Jeremy Quek, Clair Bennett, Glenn A Melvin, Naysun Saeedi, Michael S Gordon, Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: According to mentalization-based theory, transgenerational transmission of mentalization from caregiver to offspring is implicated in the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has demonstrated an association between hypermentalizing (excessive, inaccurate mental state reasoning) and BPD, indicating the particular relevance of this form of mentalizing dysfunction to the transgenerational mentalization-based model. As yet, no study has empirically assessed a transgenerational mentalization-based model of BPD...
April 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721787/an-optimal-stopping-approach-for-onset-of-fish-migration
#18
Hidekazu Yoshioka, Yuta Yaegashi
Comprehending life history of migratory fish, onset of migration in particular, is a key biological and ecological research topic that still has not been clarified. In this paper, we propose a simple mathematical model for the onset of fish migration in the context of a stochastic optimal stopping theory, which is a new attempt to our knowledge. Finding the criteria of the onset of migration reduces to solving a variational inequality of a degenerate elliptic type. As a first step of the new mathematical modeling, mathematical and numerical analyses with particular emphasis on whether the model is consistent with the past observation results of fish migration are examined, demonstrating reasonable agreement between the theory and observation results...
May 2, 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716461/evaluation-of-optional-fee-structures-for-solid-waste-management-in-china
#19
Yun-Ga Wu, Zhu-Jie Chu, Jun Zhuang
A municipal solid waste fee has become an important means for the implementation of the waste management rendered by the government all around the world. Based on the ecological environmental compensation theory, this article constructs an analytical framework of waste charging from the perspective of public policy evaluation, to carry on the comprehensive comparison and analysis to the operability, feasibility, validity, rationality, and universality of the two modes of waste charging: Ration charge and unit-pricing modes...
April 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709853/mean-annual-precipitation-predicts-primary-production-resistance-and-resilience-to-extreme-drought
#20
Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Hans J De Boeck, Nathan P Lemoine, Pille Mänd, György Kröel-Dulay, Inger K Schmidt, Anke Jentsch, Andreas Stampfli, William R L Anderegg, Michael Bahn, Juergen Kreyling, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Francisco Lloret, Aimée T Classen, Christopher M Gough, Melinda D Smith
Extreme drought is increasing in frequency and intensity in many regions globally, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity to withstand change during extreme drought, and resilience, the degree to which production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring generalized patterns of ecological stability. Theory and many observations suggest forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought; however, studies of production sensitivity to precipitation variability indicate that the processes controlling resistance and resilience may be influenced more by mean annual precipitation (MAP) than ecosystem type...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
keyword
keyword
76528
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"