keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ecological theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339334/eco-compensation-in-china-theory-practices-and-suggestions-for-the-future
#1
Wenxiu Shang, Yicheng Gong, Zhongjing Wang, Michael J Stewardson
Eco-compensation is the most important form of compensatory conservation in China. However, this compensatory mechanism is criticized for vague definition and massive government participation. For better understanding of eco-compensation in China, this paper compares theories and practices of compensatory mechanisms in China and abroad. The analysis of theoretical backgrounds shows that eco-compensation in China is a combination of 'ecological compensation' and 'payments for ecosystem services'. Ten compensatory projects in China and abroad are assessed to reveal characteristics and problems of eco-compensation in China...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336480/species-co-occurrence-networks-can-they-reveal-trophic-and-non-trophic-interactions-in-ecological-communities
#2
Mara A Freilich, Evie Wieters, Bernardo R Broitman, Pablo A Marquet, Sergio A Navarrete
Co-occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co-occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well-resolved, empirically-based, species interaction network from the same region...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#3
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330534/when-increasing-population-density-can-promote-the-evolution-of-metabolic-cooperation
#4
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#5
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323412/microsystems-of-recovery-in-homeless-services-the-influence-of%C3%A2-service-provider-values-on-service-users-recovery-experiences
#6
Rachel M Manning, Ronni Michelle Greenwood
There is still much to learn about how aspects of the ecology of homelessness shape homeless adults' recovery experiences. In the present mixed-methods study, the relationship of service providers' work-related values to their service users' recovery experiences in the microsystem of homelessness were examined. Service providers completed semi-structured qualitative interviews about their service users, daily work activities, and work-related goals. At three time points, their service users completed quantitative measures of choice, mastery, and recovery in four life domains: physical health, psychiatric symptoms, substance use, and community integration...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321873/identifying-compartments-in-ecological-networks-based-on-energy-channels
#7
Lei Zhao, Huayong Zhang, Wang Tian, Xiang Xu
It has been confirmed in many food webs that the interactions between species are divided into "compartments," that is, subgroups of highly interacting taxa with few weak interactions between the subgroups. Many of the current methods for detecting compartments in food webs are borrowed from network theory, which do little to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning them. Therefore, a method based on ecological context is needed. Here, we develop a new method for detecting compartments in food webs based on the reliance of each node on energy derived from basal resources (i...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#8
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321506/interference-of-chemical-defence-and-sexual-communication-can-shape-the-evolution-of-chemical-signals
#9
Lisa Pfeiffer, Joachim Ruther, John Hofferberth, Johannes Stökl
According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones can originate from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer. This is exemplified by females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma whose defensive secretion consisting mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin has evolved secondary functions as cue to avoid other females during host search and as female sex pheromone. To promote our understanding of pheromone evolution from defensive secretions we studied the chemical ecology of Leptopilina clavipes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316977/the-lung-tissue-microbiota-of-mild-and-moderate-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Alexa A Pragman, Tianmeng Lyu, Joshua A Baller, Trevor J Gould, Rosemary F Kelly, Cavan S Reilly, Richard E Isaacson, Chris H Wendt
BACKGROUND: Oral taxa are often found in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung microbiota, but it is not clear if this is due to a physiologic process such as aspiration or experimental contamination at the time of specimen collection. METHODS: Microbiota samples were obtained from nine subjects with mild or moderate COPD by swabbing lung tissue and upper airway sites during lung lobectomy. Lung specimens were not contaminated with upper airway taxa since they were obtained surgically...
January 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316299/survival-in-spatially-variable-thermal-environments-consequences-of-induced-thermal-defense
#11
Mark Denny
As Earth's climate warms, plants and animals are likely to encounter an increased frequency and severity of extreme thermal events, and the ensuing destruction is likely to play an important role in structuring ecological communities. However, accurate prediction of the population-scale consequences of extreme thermal events requires detailed knowledge of the small-scale interaction between individual organisms and their thermal environment. In this study I propose a simple model that allows one to explore how individual-to-individual variation in body temperature and thermal physiology determines what fraction of a population will be killed by an extreme thermal event...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304381/biofilms-in-shower-hoses
#12
Caitlin R Proctor, Mauro Reimann, Bas Vriens, Frederik Hammes
Shower hoses offer an excellent bacterial growth environment in close proximity to a critical end-user exposure route within building drinking water plumbing. However, the health risks associated with and processes underlying the development of biofilms in shower hoses are poorly studied. In a global survey, biofilms from 78 shower hoses from 11 countries were characterized in terms of cell concentration (4.1 × 104-5.8 × 108 cells/cm2), metal accumulation (including iron, lead, and copper), and microbiome composition (including presence of potential opportunistic pathogens)...
December 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302610/what-theory-for-whom-and-in-which-context-reflections-on-the-application-of-theory-in-the-development-and-evaluation-of-complex-population-health-interventions
#13
Graham F Moore, Rhiannon E Evans
Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on the value of building and testing middle range theory throughout the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. We agree that a coherent theoretical basis for intervention development, and use of evaluation to test key causal assumptions and build theory, are crucial. However, in this editorial, we argue that such recommendations have often been operationalised in somewhat simplistic terms with potentially perverse consequences, and that an uncritical assumption that an intervention explicitly based on theory is inherently superior carries significant risks...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#14
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300810/the-enigma-of-sex-allocation-in-selaginella
#15
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
Background and Aims: The division of resource investment between male and female functions is poorly known for land plants other than angiosperms. The ancient lycophyte genus Selaginella is similar in some ways to angiosperms (in heterospory and in having sex allocation occur in the sporophyte generation, for example) but lacks the post-fertilization maternal investments that angiosperms make via fruit and seed tissues. One would therefore expect Selaginella to have sex allocation values less female-biased than in flowering plants and closer to the theoretical prediction of equal investment in male and female functions...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299280/senescence-and-carryover-effects-of-reproductive-performance-influence-migration-condition-and-breeding-propensity-in-a-small-shorebird
#16
Chelsea Weithman, Daniel Gibson, Kelsi Hunt, Meryl Friedrich, James Fraser, Sarah Karpanty, Daniel Catlin
Breeding propensity, the probability that an animal will attempt to breed each year, is perhaps the least understood demographic process influencing annual fecundity. Breeding propensity is ecologically complex, as associations among a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may interact to affect an animal's breeding decisions. Individuals that opt not to breed can be more difficult to detect than breeders, which can (1) lead to difficulty in estimation of breeding propensity, and (2) bias other demographic parameters...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299276/drought-effect-on-plant-biomass-allocation-a-meta-analysis
#17
Anwar Eziz, Zhengbing Yan, Di Tian, Wenxuan Han, Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang
Drought is one of the abiotic stresses controlling plant function and ecological stability. In the context of climate change, drought is predicted to occur more frequently in the future. Despite numerous attempts to clarify the overall effects of drought stress on the growth and physiological processes of plants, a comprehensive evaluation on the impacts of drought stress on biomass allocation, especially on reproductive tissues, remains elusive. We conducted a meta-analysis by synthesizing 164 published studies to elucidate patterns of plant biomass allocation in relation to drought stress...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298137/how-do-marine-pelagic-species-respond-to-climate-change-theories-and-observations
#18
Grégory Beaugrand, Richard R Kirby
In this review, we show how climate affects species, communities, and ecosystems, and why many responses from the species to the biome level originate from the interaction between the species' ecological niche and changes in the environmental regime in both space and time. We describe a theory that allows us to understand and predict how marine species react to climate-induced changes in ecological conditions, how communities form and are reconfigured, and so how biodiversity is arranged and may respond to climate change...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297131/social-interface-model-theorizing-ecological-post-delivery-processes-for-intervention-effects
#19
Jonathan Pettigrew, Jeremy Segrott, Colter D Ray, Hannah Littlecott
Successful prevention programs depend on a complex interplay among aspects of the intervention, the participant, the specific intervention setting, and the broader set of contexts with which a participant interacts. There is a need to theorize what happens as participants bring intervention ideas and behaviors into other life-contexts, and theory has not yet specified how social interactions about interventions may influence outcomes. To address this gap, we use an ecological perspective to develop the social interface model...
January 3, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291108/do-it-yourself-networks-a-novel-method-of-generating-weighted-networks
#20
D W Shanafelt, K R Salau, J A Baggio
Network theory is finding applications in the life and social sciences for ecology, epidemiology, finance and social-ecological systems. While there are methods to generate specific types of networks, the broad literature is focused on generating unweighted networks. In this paper, we present a framework for generating weighted networks that satisfy user-defined criteria. Each criterion hierarchically defines a feature of the network and, in doing so, complements existing algorithms in the literature. We use a general example of ecological species dispersal to illustrate the method and provide open-source code for academic purposes...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
keyword
keyword
76528
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"