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Ecological theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543226/interactions-within-and-between-clades-shaped-the-diversification-of-terrestrial-carnivores
#1
Mathias M Pires, Daniele Silvestro, Tiago B Quental
A longstanding debate in evolutionary biology and paleontology is whether ecological interactions such as competition impose diversity dependence on speciation and extinction rates. Here we analyze the fossil record of terrestrial mammalian carnivores in North America and Eurasia using a Bayesian framework to assess whether their diversity dynamics were affected by diversity dependence within and between families (12 in Eurasia, 10 in North America). We found eight instances of within-clade diversity dependence suppressing speciation rates and detected between-clade effects increasing extinction rates in six instances...
May 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542901/mechanisms-and-implications-of-a-type-iv-functional-response-for-short-term-intake-rate-of-dry-matter-in-large-mammalian-herbivores
#2
J C Mezzalira, O J F Bonnet, P C de F Carvalho, L Fonseca, C Bremm, C C Mezzalira, E A Laca
1.The functional response (i.e. the relationship between consumers' intake rate and resource density) is central in plant-herbivore interactions. Its shape and the biological processes leading to it have significant implications for both foraging theory and ecology of grazing systems. 2.A type IV functional response (i.e. dome-shaped relationship) of short-term intake rate of dry matter (intake while grazing) has rarely been reported for large herbivores and the conditions that can lead to it are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533896/sex-specific-differences-in-functional-traits-and-resource-acquisition-in-five-cycad-species
#3
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530167/biofilm-community-succession-a-neutral-perspective
#4
Stephen Woodcock, William T Sloan
Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528276/a-review-of-neighborhood-effects-and-early-child-development-how-where-and-for-whom-do-neighborhoods-matter
#5
REVIEW
Anita Minh, Nazeem Muhajarine, Magdalena Janus, Marni Brownell, Martin Guhn
This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected...
May 18, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527377/fishing-for-leadership-the-role-diversification-plays-in-facilitating-change-agents
#6
Joshua S Stoll
Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516321/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pigmy-rattlesnake-venoms-on-treefrog-prey
#7
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Theory predicts that predator-prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator-prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator-the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)-and a co-occurring prey-the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515871/wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-model-misspecification-undermines-tests-of-the-neutral-theory-for-life-histories
#8
Matthieu Authier, Lise M Aubry, Emmanuelle Cam
Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral: Once previous (breeding) state is taken into account, variations are mostly random...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514988/how-latina-mothers-navigate-a-food-swamp-to-feed-their-children-a-photovoice-approach
#9
Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Rafael Monge-Rojas, Elena Cremm, Ivonne M Rivera, Elizabeth L Andrade, Mark C Edberg
OBJECTIVE: To understand how mothers who recently migrated from Central America to the USA feed their children in a neighbourhood saturated with unhealthful food choices ('food swamp') and to formulate a mother-driven plan of action to facilitate their acquisition of foods. Design/Setting/Subjects We purposively sampled mothers with children (<10 years old) who were recent immigrants/refugees from Central America and lived in a 'food swamp' neighbourhood. We used the photovoice approach to elicit textual data from thirty in-depth interviews, a participatory workshop, and visual data from photographs...
May 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511099/the-social-exigencies-of-the-gateway-progression-to-the-use-of-illicit-drugs-from-adolescence-into-adulthood
#10
Roy Otten, Chung Jung Mun, Thomas J Dishion
BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. METHOD: This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27...
May 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509389/a-revised-sociogenomic-model-of-personality-traits
#11
Brent W Roberts
In this paper, I seek to update the sociogenomic model of personality traits (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Specifically, I seek to outline a broader and more comprehensive theoretical perspective on personality traits than offered in the original version of the sociogenomic model of personality traits. First, I review the major points of our 2008 paper. Second, I update our earlier model mostly with insights derived from a deeper reading of evolutionary theoretical systems, such as those found in life-history theory and ecological-evolutionary-developmental biology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499076/single-cell-analysis-linking-ribosomal-r-dna-and-rrna-copy-numbers-to-cell-size-and-growth-rate-provides-insights-into-molecular-protistan-ecology
#12
Rao Fu, Jun Gong
Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496954/sexual-risk-behaviors-constructed-in-iranian-women-s-life-with-substance-use-disorders-a-new-implication-of-human-ecological-theory
#13
Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Effat Merghati-Khoei, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Afsaneh Keramat
BACKGROUND: Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. METHODS: In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493911/long-term-fertilization-determines-different-metabolomic-profiles-and-responses-in-saplings-of-three-rainforest-tree-species-with-different-adult-canopy-position
#14
Albert Gargallo-Garriga, S Joseph Wright, Jordi Sardans, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo, Michal Oravec, Kristýna Večeřová, Otmar Urban, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Teodor Parella, Josep Peñuelas
BACKGROUND: Tropical rainforests are frequently limited by soil nutrient availability. However, the response of the metabolic phenotypic plasticity of trees to an increase of soil nutrient availabilities is poorly understood. We expected that increases in the ability of a nutrient that limits some plant processes should be detected by corresponding changes in plant metabolome profile related to such processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the foliar metabolome of saplings of three abundant tree species in a 15 year field NPK fertilization experiment in a Panamanian rainforest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493505/resilience-in-ecotoxicology-towards-a-multiple-equilibrium-concept
#15
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), being the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change; that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493499/length-mass-allometries-in-amphibians
#16
L Santini, A Benítez-López, G F Ficetola, M A J Huijbregts
Body mass is rarely recorded in amphibians, and other body measurements (e.g. Snout to vent length, SVL) are generally collected instead. However length measurements, when used as proxies of body mass in comparative analyses, are problematic if different taxa and morphotypes are included. We developed allometric relationships to derive body mass from SVL measurements. We fitted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Square models for frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata) and for several families separately. We tested whether allometric relationships differed between species with different habitat preferences and between morphs in salamanders...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491327/understanding-perceived-determinants-of-nurses-eating-and-physical-activity-behaviour-a-theory-informed-qualitative-interview-study
#17
Brian T Power, Kirsty Kiezebrink, Julia L Allan, Marion K Campbell
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy eating and physical activity behaviours are common among nurses but little is known about determinants of eating and physical activity behaviour in this population. The present study used a theoretical framework which summarises the many possible determinants of different health behaviours (the Theoretical Domains Framework; TDF) to systematically explore the most salient determinants of unhealthy eating and physical activity behaviour in hospital-based nurses. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the TDF were conducted with nurses (n = 16) to explore factors that behavioural theories suggest may influence nurses' eating and physical activity behaviour...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489264/critical-factors-for-the-recovery-of-marine-mammals
#18
Heike K Lotze, Joanna Mills Flemming, Anna M Magera
Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or experience further declines. To understand these discrepancies, we asked which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. Building on a published database on abundance trends of 137 marine mammal populations worldwide, we compiled data on 28 potential critical factors and used random forests and additive mixed models in our analytical approach...
May 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488414/a-proteomic-based-investigation-of-potential-copper-responsive-biomarkers-proteins-conceptual-networks-and-metabolic-pathways-featuring-penicillium-janthinellum-from-a%C3%A2-heavy-metal-polluted-ecological-niche
#19
Xin Feng, Jian Xu, Yu Liang, Guo-Li Chen, Xian-Wei Fan, You-Zhi Li
Filamentous fungi-copper (Cu) interactions are very important in the formation of natural ecosystems and the bioremediation of heavy metal pollution. However, important issues at the proteome level remain unclear. We compared six proteomes from Cu-resistant wild-type (WT) Penicillium janthinellum strain GXCR and a Cu-sensitive mutant (EC-6) under 0, 0.5, and 3 mmol/L Cu treatments using iTRAQ. A total of 495 known proteins were identified, and the following conclusions were drawn from the results: Cu tolerance depends on ATP generation and supply, which is relevant to glycolysis pathway activity; oxidative phosphorylation, the TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and metabolism are also affected by Cu; high Cu sensitivity is primarily due to an ATP energy deficit; among ATP generation pathways, Cu-sensitive and Cu-insensitive metabolic steps exist; gluconeogenesis pathway is crucial to the survival of fungi in Cu-containing and sugar-scarce environments; fungi change their proteomes via two routes (from ATP, ATP-dependent RNA helicases (ADRHs), and ribosome biogenesis to proteasomes and from ATP, ADRHs to spliceosomes and/or stress-adapted RNA degradosomes) to cope with changes in Cu concentrations; and unique routes exist through which fungi respond to high environmental Cu...
May 9, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487259/the-role-of-niche-divergence-and-geographic-arrangement-in-the-speciation-of-eared-pheasants-crossoptilon-hodgson-1938
#20
Pengcheng Wang, Yang Liu, Yinong Liu, Yajing Chang, Nan Wang, Zhengwang Zhang
One of the most contentious theories in current ecology is the ecological niche conservatism, which is defined as conservatism among closely related species; however, the ecological niche can also be shifted, as documented in several cases. Genetic drift and ecological divergent selection may cause ecological niche divergence. The current study aims to test whether the ecological niche is conserved or divergent and to determine the main factor that drives ecological niche divergence or conservation. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship, ecological niche model (ENM) and demographic history of Eared Pheasants in the genus Crossoptilon (Galliformes: Phasianidae) to test niche conservatism with respect to different geographically distributed patterns...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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