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Peng Zou, Longhua Liu, Louise D Zheng, Kyle K Payne, Masoud H Manjili, Michael O Idowu, Jinfeng Zhang, Eva M Schmelz, Zhiyong Cheng
Overactive mitochondrial fission was shown to promote cell transformation and tumor growth. It remains elusive how mitochondrial quality is regulated in such conditions. Here, we show that upregulation of mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin related protein-1 (Drp1), was accompanied with increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers (PGC1α, NRF1, and Tfam) in breast cancer cells. However, mitochondrial number was reduced, which was associated with lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity in breast cancer cells...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Amy E Mendham, Rob Duffield, Aaron J Coutts, Frank E Marino, Andriy Boyko, Andrew J McAinch, David John Bishop
PURPOSE: This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of non-contact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. METHOD: In a randomized, cross-over design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-d recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were collected during each bout...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura A Favetta, W Allan King, Gabriela F Mastromonaco
BACKGROUND: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Shilei Wen, Jinhang Gao, Linhao Zhang, Hongying Zhou, Dingzhi Fang, Shi Feng
In colorectal cancer, no study has been carried out discovering the relationship among p53, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) expression and change of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. In our study, co-expression of p53 and TFAM was observed in colon adenocarcinoma tissues, paracancerous tissues and 9 colorectal cancer cell lines. Then, a significant linear correlation was established between either p53 or TFAM expression and advanced TNM stage, positive lymph nodes and low 5-year survival rate in patients with colon adenocarcinoma...
October 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Carla Busquets-Cortés, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Josep A Tur, Antoni Sureda, Antoni Pons
Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Inga Jarosch, Sebastian Gehlert, Daniel Jacko, Rembert Andreas Koczulla, Marion Wencker, Tobias Welte, Wilhelm Bloch, Sabina Janciauskiene, Klaus Kenn
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves oxidative capacity of peripheral muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exercise-induced oxidative skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To compare PR effects on skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with and without A1ATD. METHODS: Nine COPD patients with A1ATD (genotype PiZZ, 6 receiving A1AT augmentation therapy), and 10 'usual' COPD patients (genotype PiMM) performed an incremental cycling test and underwent musculus vastus lateralis biopsies before and after a 3-week PR program including exercise training...
September 30, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
William J Smiles, Evelyn B Parr, Vernon G Coffey, Orly Lacham-Kaplan, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Alcohol ingestion decreases post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, but the mechanism(s) (e.g., increased protein breakdown) underlying this observation are unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular "recycling" system required for homeostatic substrate and organelle turnover; its dysregulation may provoke apoptosis and lead to muscle atrophy. We investigated the acute effects of alcohol ingestion on autophagic cell signaling responses to a bout of concurrent (combined resistance- and endurance-based) exercise...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria Manczak, Ramesh Kandimalla, David Fry, Hiromi Sesaki, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the protective effects of reduced expression of dynamin-related protein (Drp1) against amyloid beta (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and pathogenesis. Our recent molecular and biochemical studies revealed that impaired mitochondrial dynamics - increased mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased fusion - in neurons from autopsy brains of AD patients and from transgenic AD mice and neurons expressing Aβ, suggesting that Aβ causes mitochondrial fragmentation in AD...
September 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Hyeon-Jun Shin, Hyuk-Kwon Kwon, Jae-Hyeok Lee, Muhammad Ayaz Anwar, Sangdun Choi
Etoposide (ETO) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that inhibits topoisomerase II activity, thereby leading to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. However, ETO has limited application due to its side effects on normal organs, especially the kidney. Here, we report the mechanism of ETO-induced cytotoxicity progression in human kidney proximal tubule (HK-2) cells. Our results show that ETO perpetuates DNA damage, activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and triggers morphological changes, such as cell and nuclear swelling...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marcia A Ogasawara, Jinyun Liu, Helene Pelicano, Naima Hammoudi, Carlo M Croce, Michael J Keating, Peng Huang
Deletion of chromosome 17p with a loss of p53 is an unfavorable cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor clinical outcome. Since p53 affects mitochondrial function and integrity, we examined possible mitochondrial changes in CLL mice with TCL1-Tg/p53(-/-) and TCL1-Tg/p53(+/+) genotypes and in primary leukemia cells from CLL patients with or without 17p-deletion. Although the expression of mitochondrial COX1, ND2, and ND6 decreased in p53(-/-)CLL cells, there was an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis as evidenced by higher mitochondrial mass and mtDNA copy number associated with an elevated expression of TFAM and PGC-1α...
September 17, 2016: Mitochondrion
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, David Fry, Yeguvapalli Suneetha, Hiromi Sesaki, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the protective effects of a partial reduction of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylated Tau and mitochondrial abnormalities are involved in the loss of synapses, defective axonal transport and cognitive decline, in patients with AD. In the current study, we investigated whether a partial reduction of Drp1 protect neurons from phosphorylated Tau-induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in AD progression...
September 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Anna Picca, Vito Pesce, Giuseppe Sirago, Flavio Fracasso, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Angela Maria Serena Lezza
Extremely interesting for aging research are those individuals able to reach older ages still with functions similar to those of younger counterparts. We examined liver samples from ad libitum-fed old (28-month-old, AL-28) and ad libitum-fed very old (32-month-old, AL-32) rats for a number of markers, relevant for mitochondrial functionality and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content. As for the mtDNA content and the protein amounts of the citrate synthase and the antioxidant peroxiredoxin III there were no significant changes in the AL-32 animals...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Elena Barbieri, Michele Guescini, Cinzia Calcabrini, Luciana Vallorani, Anna Rita Diaz, Carmela Fimognari, Barbara Canonico, Francesca Luchetti, Stefano Papa, Michela Battistelli, Elisabetta Falcieri, Vanina Romanello, Marco Sandri, Vilberto Stocchi, Caterina Ciacci, Piero Sestili
Creatine (Cr) is a nutritional supplement promoting a number of health benefits. Indeed Cr has been shown to be beneficial in disease-induced muscle atrophy, improve rehabilitation, and afford mild antioxidant activity. The beneficial effects are likely to derive from pleiotropic interactions. In accord with this notion, we previously demonstrated that multiple pleiotropic effects, including preservation of mitochondrial damage, account for the capacity of Cr to prevent the differentiation arrest caused by oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lorna Mulvey, William A Sands, Karine Salin, Amanda E Carr, Colin Selman
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and healthspan in many species, but precisely how it elicits its beneficial effects is unclear. We investigated the impact of DR on mitochondrial function within liver and skeletal muscle of female ILSXISS mice that exhibit strain-specific variation in lifespan under 40% DR. Strains TejJ89 (lifespan increased under DR), TejJ48 (lifespan unaffected by DR) and TejJ114 (lifespan decreased under DR) were studied following 10 months of 40% DR (13 months of age). Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) within isolated liver mitochondria were unaffected by DR in TejJ89 and TejJ48, but decreased by DR in TejJ114...
September 2, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Hideki Igarashi, Toshifumi Takahashi, Hiroyuki Abe, Hiroshi Nakano, Osamu Nakajima, Satoru Nagase
STUDY QUESTION: Does in vivo aging of mouse oocytes affect mitochondrial function? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitochondrial function was impaired in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes and microinjection of somatic cell mitochondria did not rescue poor fertilization and embryonic development rates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The mechanisms underlying the decline in oocyte quality associated with oocyte aging remain unknown, although studies have suggested that the decline is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Md Razia Sultana, Pankaj K Bagul, Parameshwar B Katare, Soheb Anwar, Raju Padiya, Sanjay K Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. METHODS: Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl)...
August 30, 2016: Life Sciences
Luana Naia, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Ana M Oliveira, Sofia I Oliveira-Sousa, Gladys L Caldeira, Catarina Carmo, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Catarina R Oliveira, A Cristina Rego
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent lysine deacetylase that regulates longevity and enhances mitochondrial metabolism. Both activation and inhibition of SIRT1 were previously shown to ameliorate neuropathological mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects the striatum and cortex and is commonly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we tested the influence of resveratrol (RESV, a SIRT1 activator) versus nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor) in counteracting mitochondrial dysfunction in HD models, namely striatal and cortical neurons isolated from YAC128 transgenic mice embryos, HD human lymphoblasts, and an in vivo HD model...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Bin He, Huiduo Guo, Yabin Gong, Ruqian Zhao
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to exert detrimental effects on boar sperm viability. In the present study, LPS was detected in boar semen samples at an average level of 0.62 ± 0.14 μg/mL. We treated boar sperm with 1 μg/mL LPS for 6 hours and examined alterations in sperm motility and apoptosis, together with mitochondrial functionality and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation. The expression and the location of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were determined to reveal possible mechanisms...
August 4, 2016: Theriogenology
K Gaweda-Walerych, F Mohagheghi, C Zekanowski, E Buratti
We have analyzed the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD)-related genetic variants on splicing using dedicated minigene assays. Out of 14 putative splicing variants in 5 genes (PINK1, [PTEN induced kinase 1]; LRPPRC, [leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein]; TFAM, [mitochondrial transcription factor A]; PARK2, [parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase]; and HSPA9, [heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 9]) 4 LRPPRC variants, (IVS32-3C>T, IVS35+14C>T, IVS35+15C>T, and IVS9+30A>G) influenced pre-messenger RNA splicing by modulating the inclusion of the respective exons...
July 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Polina A Vishnyakova, Maria A Volodina, Nadezhda V Tarasova, Maria V Marey, Daria V Tsvirkun, Olga V Vavina, Zulfiya S Khodzhaeva, Natalya E Kan, Ramkumar Menon, Mikhail Yu Vysokikh, Gennady T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44...
2016: Scientific Reports
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