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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334504/redd1-deficiency-impairs-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-articular-cartilage-and-increases-the-severity-of-experimental-osteoarthritis
#1
Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Tokio Matsuzaki, Merissa Olmer, Lars Plate, Jeffery W Kelly, Martin K Lotz
Objective REDD1 is an endogenous inhibitor of mTOR that regulates cellular stress responses. REDD1 expression is decreased in aged and osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and it regulates mTOR signaling and autophagy in articular chondrocytes in vitro. The present study investigated the effects of REDD1 deletion in vivo using a mouse model of experimental OA. Methods Severity of OA was histologically assessed in 4-month-old wild-type and in Redd1(-/-) mice subjected to surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
March 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301064/mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
P Andy Li, Xiaolin Hou, Shaocai Hao
Mitochondria play a key role in energy production, calcium homeostasis, cell survival, and death. Adverse stimulations including neurodegenerative diseases may result in mitochondrial dynamic imbalance, free radical production, calcium accumulation, intrinsic cell death pathway activation and eventually cell death. Therefore, preserving or promoting mitochondrial function is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a process by which new mitochondria are produced from existing mitochondria...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276514/the-human-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-is-a-versatile-g-quadruplex-binding-protein
#3
Sébastien Lyonnais, Aleix Tarrés-Soler, Anna Rubio-Cosials, Anna Cuppari, Reicy Brito, Joaquim Jaumot, Raimundo Gargallo, Marta Vilaseca, Cristina Silva, Anton Granzhan, Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou, Ramon Eritja, Maria Solà
The ability of the guanine-rich strand of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to form G-quadruplex structures (G4s) has been recently highlighted, suggesting potential functions in mtDNA replication initiation and mtDNA stability. G4 structures in mtDNA raise the question of their recognition by factors associated with the mitochondrial nucleoid. The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a high-mobility group (HMG)-box protein, is the major binding protein of human mtDNA and plays a critical role in its expression and maintenance...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272266/lack-of-activation-of-mitophagy-during-endurance-exercise-in-human
#4
Céline Schwalm, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
PURPOSE: To determine whether fission and mitophagy are activated by acute endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle and to investigate if this activation is dependent upon the nutritional state. METHODS: Trained athletes (n = 7) cycled for 2 h at 70% VO2 peak in a fed or fasted state. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, before, immediately after and 1 h after exercise. Protein and mRNA markers for mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, fission and fusion were analyzed using qRT-PCR and Western blot...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257939/cold-exposure-induces-the-acquisition-of-brown-adipocyte-gene-expression-profiles-in-cattle-inguinal-fat-normalized-with-a-new-set-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr
#5
K X Cao, D Hao, J Wang, W W Peng, Y J Yan, H X Cao, F Sun, H Chen
The last few years have seen great advances in our understanding of browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) where white adipocytes take on characteristics of brown adipocytes. At present, the economic significance of browning for animal husbandry is beginning to be realized with the emerging evidence that browning affects body weight not only in human and rodent but in farm animals. Quantitative RT-PCR provides a quick and sensitive way to preliminary determine browning of WAT. However, there have been no established condition specific reference genes for browning of cattle WAT...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255277/sirtuin-3-is-required-for-osteogenic-differentiation-through-maintenance-of-pgc-1%C3%A9-sod2-mediated-regulation-of-mitochondrial-function
#6
Yong Ding, Hongmei Yang, Yucai Wang, Jun Chen, Zhenwei Ji, Honghui Sun
Osteogenic differentiation is crucial for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a member of sirtuins family, functions as a critical deacetylase that regulates many key proteins. In the current study, we aimed to clarify the role of SIRT3 in osteogenic differentiation and the possible mechanisms, using mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Expression of SIRT3 was substantially increased in differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells. Knock down of SIRT3 significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, and mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and collagen type I ɑ 1 (Col1ɑ1), and osteocalcin in differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251397/effect-of-lifelong-football-training-on-the-expression-of-muscle-molecular-markers-involved-in-healthy-longevity
#7
A Mancini, D Vitucci, G Labruna, E Imperlini, M B Randers, J F Schmidt, M Hagman, T R Andersen, R Russo, S Orrù, P Krustrup, F Salvatore, P Buono
PURPOSE: We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. METHODS: Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250276/atractylenolide-iii-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-increasing-the-sirt-1-and-pgc1%C3%AE-expression-with-ampk-phosphorylation-in-c2c12-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells
#8
Mi Young Song, Hyo Won Jung, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park
Targeting energy expenditure provides a potential alternative strategy for achieving energy balance to combat obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we investigated whether atractylenolide III (AIII) regulates energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with AIII (10, 20, or 50 µM) or metformin (2.5 mM) for indicated times. The levels of glucose uptake, the expressions of key mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors and their target genes were measured in C2C12 myotubes...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242328/mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-tfam-rs1937-and-ap-endonuclease-1-ape1-rs1130409-alleles-are-associated-with-reduced-cognitive-performance
#9
Meryl S Lillenes, Mari Støen, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Per Selnes, Vidar T V Stenset, Thomas Espeseth, Ivar Reinvang, Tormod Fladby, Tone Tønjum
Mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage is intimately connected to ageing and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particular culprit in this context is oxidative stress, which is a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to hyperactive or dysfunctional mitochondria and/or reduced DNA repair capacity. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for repairing oxidative damage events in chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA. Defects in BER have been detected in ageing and neurodegeneration...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215579/mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-defects
#10
REVIEW
Ayman W El-Hattab, William J Craigen, Fernando Scaglia
The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depends on a number of nuclear gene-encoded proteins including a battery of enzymes forming the replisome needed to synthesize mtDNA. These enzymes need to be in balanced quantities to function properly that is in part achieved by exchanging intramitochondrial contents through mitochondrial fusion. In addition, mtDNA synthesis requires a balanced supply of nucleotides that is achieved by nucleotide recycling inside the mitochondria and import from the cytosol. Mitochondrial DNA maintenance defects (MDMDs) are a group of diseases caused by pathogenic variants in the nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance resulting in impaired mtDNA synthesis leading to quantitative (mtDNA depletion) and qualitative (multiple mtDNA deletions) defects in mtDNA...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210221/pharmacogenomic-characterization-and-isobologram-analysis-of-the-combination-of-ascorbic-acid-and-curcumin-two-main-metabolites-of-curcuma-longa-in-cancer-cells
#11
Edna Ooko, Onat Kadioglu, Henry J Greten, Thomas Efferth
Curcuma longa has long been used in China and India as anti-inflammatory agent to treat a wide variety of conditions and also as a spice for varied curry preparations. The chemoprofile of the Curcuma species exhibits the presence of varied phytochemicals with curcumin being present in all three species but AA only being shown in C. longa. This study explored the effect of a curcumin/AA combination on human cancer cell lines. The curcumin/AA combination was assessed by isobologram analysis using the Loewe additivity drug interaction model...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199194/regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression-the-epigenetic-enigma
#12
Archibold Mposhi, Monique Gp Van der Wijst, Klaas Nico Faber, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetics provides an important layer of information on top of the DNA sequence and is essential for establishing gene expression profiles. Extensive studies have shown that nuclear DNA methylation and histone modifications influence nuclear gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) undergoes similar epigenetic changes to regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, it has been shown that mtDNA is differentially methylated in various diseases such as diabetes and colorectal cancer...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178868/low-level-lasers-effect-on-proliferation-migration-and-anti-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be helpful elements in tissue regeneration. Photobiomodulation (PBM) used extremely low level lasers (LLL) to affect the behaviour of cells. The effect mechanism of LLL on MSCs remained to be discovered. Here cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by FACS. The influence of LLL on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, ROS, NO) were evaluated by TEM, FACS, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177717/a-systematic-upregulation-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genes-is-not-present-in-the-initial-post-exercise-recovery-period-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#14
Trisha D Scribbans, Brittany A Edgett, Jacob T Bonafiglia, Brittany L Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Brendon J Gurd
The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if an exercise-mediated upregulation of nuclear and mitochondrial-encoded genes targeted by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) occurs in a systematic manner following different exercise intensities in humans. Ten recreationally active males (Age: 23 ±3 yrs; VO2peak: 41.8 ±6.6 mL/kg/min) completed two acute bouts of work-matched interval exercise at ~73% (LO) and ~100% (HI) of work rate at VO2peak in a randomized cross-over design...
January 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177702/modulation-of-mitochondrial-biomarkers-by-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-aerobic-exercise-after-eccentric-exercise-in-trained-rats
#15
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, José Magalhães, António Ascensão, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD), in trained rats, of two recovery protocols based on: 1) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and 2) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress and bioenergetics was evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163080/neuroprotective-effects-of-lycopene-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-via-antioxidative-and-anti-apoptotic-pathway
#16
Wei Hu, Hongbo Wang, Zhenfeng Liu, Yanlu Liu, Rong Wang, Xiao Luo, Yifei Huang
Oxidative damage induced-mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis has been widely studied in spinal cord injury (SCI). Lycopene, a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon, has the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other carotenoids. However, the role of lycopene in SCI is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant effects of lycopene on mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis following T10 contusion SCI in rats. The rats were randomized into 5 groups: the sham group, the SCI group and the SCI pre-treated with lycopene (5, 10, or 20mg/kg) group...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143904/ampk-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-phosphorylating-the-epigenetic-factors-dnmt1-rbbp7-and-hat1
#17
Traci L Marin, Brendan Gongol, Fan Zhang, Marcy Martin, David A Johnson, Han Xiao, Yinsheng Wang, Shankar Subramaniam, Shu Chien, John Y-J Shyy
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis by directly phosphorylating metabolic enzymes and nutrient transporters and by indirectly promoting the transactivation of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We explored the mechanism of AMPK-mediated induction of gene expression. We identified AMPK consensus phosphorylation sequences in three proteins involved in nucleosome remodeling: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), retinoblastoma binding protein 7 (RBBP7), and histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1)...
January 31, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126676/mir-199a-3p-enhances-breast-cancer-cell-sensitivity-to-cisplatin-by-downregulating-tfam-tfam
#18
Xuelong Fan, Shangcheng Zhou, Miao Zheng, Xiyun Deng, Yinsha Yi, Tieniu Huang
Chemotherapy resistance is the major obstacle to the effective therapy of cancer. While the mechanism of chemotherapy resistance is still not fully understood. Increasing evidences demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may have a crucial function in chemotherapy resistance through modulating intracellular pathways. MiR-199a has been shown to be involved in multiple malignancy-related processes, although the precise mechanism is unclear at present. In this study, we found that the expression level of miR-199a-3p was lower in cisplatin (DDP) resistant breast cancer MDA-MB-231/DDP cells compared with parental DDP-sensitive cells...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120943/melatonin-ameliorates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-type-1-diabetic-rats-by-preserving-mitochondrial-function-role-of-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-sirt3-signaling
#19
Liming Yu, Bing Gong, Weixun Duan, Chongxi Fan, Jian Zhang, Zhi Li, Xiaodong Xue, Yinli Xu, Dandan Meng, Buying Li, Meng Zhang, Bin Zhang, Zhenxiao Jin, Shiqiang Yu, Yang Yang, Huishan Wang
Enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress have emerged as crucial therapeutic strategies to ameliorate diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has been reported to be a safe and potent cardioprotective agent. However, its role on mitochondrial biogenesis or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in type 1 diabetic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesize that melatonin ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic rats by preserving mitochondrial function via AMPK-PGC-1α-SIRT3 signaling pathway...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118753/protective-effects-of-leucine-on-redox-status-and-mitochondrial-related-gene-abundance-in-the-jejunum-of-intrauterine-growth-retarded-piglets-during-early-weaning-period
#20
Qiang Huang, Wen Xu, Kai-Wen Bai, Jin-Tian He, Hussain Ahmad, Le Zhou, Li-Li Zhang, Tian Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.35% l-leucine on redox status and gene abundance relating to mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the jejunum of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets during early weaning period. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal body weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet without l-leucine supplementation or a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine supplementation from the age of 14 to 35 d. The results showed that compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a lower (p < 0...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
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