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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935285/mechanical-testing-of-engineered-spider-silk-filaments-provides-insights-into-molecular-features-on-a-meso-scale
#1
Gregor Lang, Benedikt Richard Neugirg, Daniel Kluge, Andreas Fery, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk shows the highest toughness in comparison to all other known natural or man-made fibers. Despite a broad experimental foundation concerning the macroscopic silk thread properties as well as a thorough simulation-based molecular understanding, the impact of the mesoscale building blocks, namely nano-/submicron-sized filaments, on the mechanical properties of the threads remains the missing link. Here, we illustrate the function of these meso-scaled building blocks using electrospun fibers made of a recombinant spider silk protein and show the impact of β-sheet content and fiber hydration on their mechanical performance...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935211/bioinspired-special-wettability-surfaces-from-fundamental-research-to-water-harvesting-applications
#2
Songnan Zhang, Jianying Huang, Zhong Chen, Yuekun Lai
Nowadays, the pollution of water has become worse in many parts of the world, which causes a severe shortage of clean water and attracts widespread attention worldwide. Bioinspired from nature, i.e. spider silk, cactus, Namib desert beetle, Nepenthes alata, special wettability surfaces have attracted great interest from fundamental research to water-harvesting applications. Here, recently published literature about creatures possessing water-harvesting ability are reviewed, with a focus on the corresponding water-harvesting mechanisms of creatures in dry or arid regions, consisting of the theory of wetting and transporting...
December 9, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934692/in-the-midst-of-life-cell-death-what-is-it-what-is-it-good-for-and-how-to-study-it
#3
John Silke, Ricky W Johnstone
Cell death, one of the most fundamental biological processes, has not made it into the public consciousness in the same way that genetic inheritance, cell division, or DNA replication has. Everyone knows they get their genes from their parents, but few would be aware that even before they were born a lot of essential cell death has shaped their development. The greater population, for the most part, is blissfully unaware that every day millions of their own cells die in a programmed way and that this is essential for normal human physiology-their well-being, in fact...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934290/correction-to-2-furoylglycine-as-a-candidate-biomarker-of-coffee-consumption
#4
Silke S Heinzmann, Elaine Holmes, Sunil Kochhar, Jeremy K Nicholson, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933835/fully-printed-ultraflexible-supercapacitor-supported-by-a-single-textile-substrate
#5
Huihui Zhang, Yan Qiao, Zhisong Lu
Textile-based supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their great potential as energy storage components in wearable electronics. However, fabrication of a high-performance, fully printed, and ultraflexible supercapacitor based on a single textile still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile, low-cost, and textile-compatible method involving screen printing and transfer printing is developed to construct all-solid-state supercapacitors on a single silk fabric. The system exhibits a high specific capacitance of 19...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933765/3d-printing-of-hierarchical-silk-fibroin-structures
#6
Marianne R Sommer, Manuel Schaffner, Davide Carnelli, André R Studart
Like many other natural materials, silk is hierarchically structured from the amino acid level up to the cocoon or spider web macroscopic structures. Despite being used industrially in a number of applications, hierarchically structured silk fibroin objects with a similar degree of architectural control as in natural structures have not been produced yet due to limitations in fabrication processes. In a combined top-down and bottom-up approach, we exploit the freedom in macroscopic design offered by 3D printing and the template-guided assembly of ink building blocks at the meso- and nanolevel to fabricate hierarchical silk porous materials with unprecedented structural control...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933187/validation-of-the-german-diabetes-risk-score-among-the-general-adult-population-findings-from-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-surveys
#7
Rebecca Paprott, Kristin Mühlenbruch, Gert B M Mensink, Silke Thiele, Matthias B Schulze, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Christin Heidemann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) among the general adult German population for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes. METHODS: The longitudinal sample for prediction of incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes included 3625 persons who participated both in the examination survey in 1997-1999 and the examination survey in 2008-2011. Incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes was defined as first-time physician diagnosis or antidiabetic medication during 5 years of follow-up excluding potential incident type 1 and gestational diabetes...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931176/in-vitro-evaluation-of-electrospun-silk-fibroin-nano-hydroxyapatite-bmp-2-scaffolds-for-bone-regeneration
#8
Bingjie Niu, Bin Li, Yong Gu, Xiaofeng Shen, Yong Liu, Liang Chen
Bone tissue engineering by using osteoinductive scaffolds seeded with stem cells to promote bone extracellular matrix (ECM) production and remodeling has evolved into a promising approach for bone repair and regeneration. In order to mimic the ECM of bone tissue structurally and compositionally, nanofibrous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were fabricated in this study using electrospinning technique. The microstructure, mechanical property, biocompatibility, and osteogenic characteristics were examined...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928709/the-gabaergic-system-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-modulates-context-related-extinction-learning-and-renewal-in-humans
#9
Silke Lissek, Anne Golisch, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff
Context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans is mediated by hippocampal and prefrontal regions. Renewal is defined as the reoccurrence of an extinguished response if the contexts present during extinction learning and recall differ. Animal studies implicate hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors in extinction and renewal. However, human studies on GABAergic mechanisms in extinction learning are lacking. In this fMRI study, we therefore investigated the role of the GABAergic system in context-related extinction learning and renewal...
December 7, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928670/tensile-strength-and-failure-load-of-sutures-for-robotic-surgery
#10
Ahmad Abiri, Omeed Paydar, Anna Tao, Megan LaRocca, Kang Liu, Bradley Genovese, Robert Candler, Warren S Grundfest, Erik P Dutson
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgical platforms have seen increased use among minimally invasive gastrointestinal surgeons (von Fraunhofer et al. in J Biomed Mater Res 19(5):595-600, 1985. doi: 10.1002/jbm.820190511 ). However, these systems still suffer from lack of haptic feedback, which results in exertion of excessive force, often leading to suture failures (Barbash et al. in Ann Surg 259(1):1-6, 2014. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a5c8b8 ). This work catalogs tensile strength and failure load among commonly used sutures in an effort to prevent robotic surgical consoles from exceeding identified thresholds...
December 7, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927870/insidious-risk-of-severe-mycobacterium-chimaera-infection-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#11
Meera Chand, Theresa Lamagni, Katharina Kranzer, Jessica Hedge, Ginny Moore, Simon Parks, Samuel Collins, Carlos Del Ojo Elias, Nada Ahmed, Tim Brown, E Grace Smith, Peter Hoffman, Peter Kirwan, Brendan Mason, Alison Smith-Palmer, Philip Veal, Maeve K Lalor, Allan Bennett, James Walker, Alicia Yeap, Antonio Isidro Carrion Martin, Gayle Dolan, Sonia Bhatt, Andrew Skingsley, André Charlett, David Pearce, Katherine Russell, Simon Kendall, Andrew A Klein, Stephen Robins, Silke Schelenz, William Newsholme, Stephanie Thomas, Tim Collyns, Eleri Davies, Jim McMenamin, Lorraine Doherty, Tim Ea Peto, Derrick Crook, Maria Zambon, Nick Phin
BACKGROUND: An urgent UK investigation was launched to assess risk of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infection in cardiothoracic surgery and a possible association with cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units following alerts in Switzerland and the Netherlands. METHODS: Parallel investigations were pursued: i) identification of cardiopulmonary bypass-associated M. chimaera infection through national laboratory and hospital admissions data linkage ii) cohort study to assess patient risk iii) microbiological and aerobiological investigations of heater-coolers in situ and under controlled laboratory conditions iv) whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental isolates...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927037/clinical-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-antifungal-agents
#12
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Silke München, Andreas H Groll
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients with bone marrow failure syndromes, hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), those admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and those with prolonged febrile neutropenia. IFDs occur in a setting of multiple morbidities and are associated with case fatality rates between 30 and 70%. Along with the development of classes and compounds, the last two decades have seen substantial improvements in the prevention and management of these infections and an overall increased use of antifungal agents...
December 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926540/the-novel-interleukin-1-cytokine-family-members-in-inflammatory-diseases
#13
Madelaine Hahn, Silke Frey, Axel J Hueber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the new interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family members in inflammatory diseases with focus on recent findings concerning the family members IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 and their different expression patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: The IL-1 cytokines are known to be involved in many different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The latest IL-1 family members, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38 have been shown to be differently regulated during course of disease...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925440/enhancing-bioactive-properties-of-silk-fibroin-with-diatom-particles-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#14
Thi Duy Hanh Le, Volha Liaudanskaya, Walter Bonani, Claudio Migliaresi, Antonella Motta
Many studies have highlighted the role of silicon in human bone formation and maintenance. Silicon, in fact, is considered to nucleate the precipitation of hydroxyapatite and to reduce the bone resorption. For this reason, we have combined silk fibroin with silicon releasing diatom particles, as potential material for bone tissue engineering applications. Sponges of fibroin loaded with different amounts and sizes of diatom particles were prepared by solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and their morphology, porosity and mechanical properties were evaluated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924802/clinical-course-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-individuals-above-80-years
#15
Isabell Funk, Eric Seibert, Silke Markau, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aging is associated with renal function decline and elderly patients are more vulnerable to acute kidney injury (AKI). The causes and prognosis of AKI according to new KDIGO definition that broadened the diagnosis and included more patients without dialysis dependence have not yet been compared between younger and elderly patients. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis all patients with AKI admitted to a tertiary care Nephrology department (N=424) were included...
December 8, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923480/versatile-and-inexpensive-hall-effect-force-sensor-for-mechanical-characterization-of-soft-biological-materials
#16
Daniel E Backman, Bauer L LeSavage, Joyce Y Wong
Mismatch of hierarchical structure and mechanical properties between tissue-engineered implants and native tissue may result in signal cues that negatively impact repair and remodeling. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. However, characterizing microscale mechanical properties is challenging, and current methods do not provide the versatility and sensitivity required to measure these fragile, soft biological materials...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921382/core-shell-silk-hydrogels-with-spatially-tuned-conformations-as-drug-delivery-system
#17
Le-Ping Yan, Joaquim M Oliveira, Ana L Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920525/fabrication-and-characterization-of-drug-loaded-nano-hydroxyapatite-polyamide-66-scaffolds-modified-with-carbon-nanotubes-and-silk-fibroin
#18
Meng-Zhu Yao, Ming-Yi Huang-Fu, Hui-Na Liu, Xia-Rong Wang, Xiaoxia Sheng, Jian-Qing Gao
Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) porous scaffolds were fabricated by a phase inversion method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silk fibroin (SF) were used to modify the surface of the nHA/PA66 scaffolds by freeze-drying and cross-linking. Dexamethasone was absorbed to the CNTs to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The cell viability of BMSCs was investigated by changing the concentration of the CNT dispersion, and the most biocompatible scaffold was selected...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919131/-an-intravesical-foreign-body-after-caesarean-section-and-tissue-fixing-system-tfs-operation-two-case-reports
#19
Kohei Mori, Masahiro Yanagisawa, Kotaro Hirai
Foreign body in the bladder is a relatively rare case. We encountered two cases of foreign bodies in the bladder after gynecological surgery. Case 1 was a 72-year-old woman. When she was 70 years old,an operation for her pelvic organ prolapse was performed. She visited our hospital because of discomfort in urination. We performed a transurethral lithotripsy of the bladder stone and detected a foreign body,and it was an anchor used for the Tissue Fixation System(TFS)operation (a pelvic organ prolapse operation)...
October 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918448/secondary-structure-adopted-by-the-gly-gly-x-repetitive-regions-of-dragline-spider-silk
#20
Geoffrey M Gray, Arjan van der Vaart, Chengchen Guo, Justin Jones, David Onofrei, Brian R Cherry, Randolph V Lewis, Jeffery L Yarger, Gregory P Holland
Solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented to help elucidate the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X), which is one of the most common structural repetitive motifs found in orb-weaving dragline spider silk proteins. The combination of NMR and computational experiments provides insight into the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X) segments and provides further support that these regions are disordered and primarily non-β-sheet. Furthermore, the combination of NMR and MD simulations illustrate the possibility for several secondary structural elements in the poly(Gly-Gly-X) regions of dragline silks, including β-turns, 310-helicies, and coil structures with a negligible population of α-helix observed...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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