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Focal Seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806589/novel-clinical-manifestations-in-patients-with-kcna2-mutations
#1
Monisha Sachdev, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Yong-Hui Jiang, Tobias Loddenkemper, Mohamad A Mikati
PURPOSE: To report novel clinical manifestations of KCNA2 mutation related epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood samples were sent for whole exome and Sanger sequencing. Seizure types were characterized by clinical criteria and EEG recording. RESULTS: KCNA2 mutations have been reported in 10 cases who presented with focal, absence, generalized tonic-clonic or myoclonic astatic seizures. Here we describe 3 patients with previously unreported, more severe manifestations...
August 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806243/ictal-18f-fdg-pet-mri-in-a-patient-with-cortical-heterotopia-and-focal-epilepsy
#2
Ferdinando F Calabria, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate, Andrea Cherubini, Domenico Gullà, Benedetta Tafuri, Umberto Sabatini, Virginia Vescio, Aldo Quattrone
A 19-year-old man with epilepsy underwent ictal F-FDG PET/MRI, showing a 5 mm heterotopic nodule in the periventricular white matter, adjacent to the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle (SUVmax, 5.5; glucidic cerebral metabolic rate, 0.317 μmol/mL). A repeated F-FDG PET/MRI, during seizure freedom, showed, at visual analysis, subtle decrease of the nodule metabolism. SUVmax and glucidic cerebral metabolic rate were clearly reduced to 3.7 and 0.226, respectively. Ictal F-FDG PET/MRI could be useful in epilepsy because of the added value of SUVmax and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose analysis to understand the relationship between heterotopy and epilepsy...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805769/-psychiatry-of-the-future-an-overview-of-foreign-scientists-opinions-of-the-position-of-psychiatry-in-the-modern-world
#3
E D Belousova, N N Zavadenko, A A Kholin, A A Sharkov
This review presents the recently published revised classifications of epilepsies and seizure types developed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The Classification of Epilepsies includes several diagnostic levels (steps): 1) from seizure type to epilepsy type (generalized/focal/combined generalized and focal/unknown), 2) diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome 3) etiology (genetic/ structural/ infectious/ metabolic/ immune/unknown). A clinician can use any level of the classification. Operational classification of seizure types is replaced by the previous classification that was grounded on the anatomical basis...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804898/epilepsy-surgery-of-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumors-a-retrospective-nationwide-italian-study
#4
Marco Giulioni, Gianluca Marucci, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Carmen Barba, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier Paolo Quarato, Vincenzo Esposito, Alessandro Consales, Matteo Martinoni, Gianfranco Vornetti, Corrado Zenesini, Carlo Efisio Marras, Nicola Specchio, Luca De Palma, Raffaele Rocchi, Flavio Giordano, Giovanni Tringali, Paolo Nozza, Gabriella Colicchio, Guido Rubboli, Giorgio Lo Russo, Renzo Guerrini, Paolo Tinuper, Francesco Cardinale, Massimo Cossu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude and results of Italian epilepsy surgery centers in the surgical management of "low grade epilepsy associated neuroepithelial tumors" (LEATs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling 339 consecutive patients with LEATs who underwent surgery between January 2009 and June 2015 at eight Italian epilepsy surgery centers. We compared demographic, clinical, pathologic, and surgical features of patients with favorable (Engel class I) and unfavorable (Engel class II, III, and IV) seizure outcome...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802771/dmd-and-west-syndrome
#5
Ruxandra Cardas, Catrinel Iliescu, Nina Butoianu, Andreea Seferian, Svetlana Gataullina, Elena Gargaun, Juliette Nectoux, Thierry Bienvenu, Dana Craiu, Teresa Gidaro, Laurent Servais
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of one in 5000 live male births. It is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene leading to absence of full-length dystrophin protein. Central nervous system involvement is well-known in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The multiple dystrophin isoforms expressed in brain have important roles in cerebral development and functioning. The association of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with seizures has been reported, and there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients (between 6...
July 19, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794986/west-syndrome-in-three-patients-with-brain-injury-and-a-benign-course
#6
Angelo Russo, Michael Duchowny, Antonella Boni, Melania Giannotta, Melissa Filippini, Giuseppe Gobbi
Infants with West Syndrome and underlying structural pathology typically experience persistent symptomatic focal seizures and intellectual disability. We performed a retrospective case review of 84 patients with West Syndrome evaluated at one institution between 1990 and 2013. From this group we identified three patients with West syndrome and congenital hemiplegia who later developed genetic epilepsy features and had normal intellectual development. This outcome is highly unusual and raises important questions about the relationship and possible influence of genetic epilepsy in patients with pre-existent West Syndrome and brain injury...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794407/focal-cortical-seizures-start-as-standing-waves-and-propagate-respecting-homotopic-connectivity
#7
L Federico Rossi, Robert C Wykes, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matteo Carandini
Focal epilepsy involves excessive cortical activity that propagates both locally and distally. Does this propagation follow the same routes as normal cortical activity? We pharmacologically induced focal seizures in primary visual cortex (V1) of awake mice, and compared their propagation to the retinotopic organization of V1 and higher visual areas. We used simultaneous local field potential recordings and widefield imaging of a genetically encoded calcium indicator to measure prolonged seizures (ictal events) and brief interictal events...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783808/recrudescence-of-deficits-after-stroke-clinical-and-imaging-phenotype-triggers-and-risk-factors
#8
Mehmet A Topcuoglu, Esen Saka, Scott B Silverman, Lee H Schwamm, Aneesh B Singhal
Importance: Reemergence of previous stroke-related deficits (or poststroke recrudescence [PSR]) is an underrecognized and inadequately characterized phenomenon. Objective: To investigate the clinical features, triggers, and risk factors for PSR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study incorporated a crossover cohort study to identify triggers and a case-control study to identify risk factors. The study used the Massachusetts General Hospital Research Patient Data Repository to identify patients for the period January 1, 2000, to November 30, 2015, who had a primary or secondary diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at least once, and whose inpatient or outpatient clinician note or discharge summary stated the term recrudescence...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767715/lafora-disease-in-miniature-wirehaired-dachshunds
#9
Lindsay Swain, Gill Key, Anna Tauro, Saija Ahonen, Peixiang Wang, Cameron Ackerley, Berge A Minassian, Clare Rusbridge
Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive late onset, progressive myoclonic epilepsy with a high prevalence in the miniature Wirehaired Dachshund. The disease is due to a mutation in the Epm2b gene which results in intracellular accumulation of abnormal glycogen (Lafora bodies). Recent breed-wide testing suggests that the carrier plus affected rate may be as high as 20%. A characteristic feature of the disease is spontaneous and reflex myoclonus; however clinical signs and disease progression are not well described...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766041/the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-the-control-of-seizure
#10
REVIEW
J Vuong, Annaelle Devergnas
Epilepsy is a network disorder and each type of seizure involves distinct cortical and subcortical network, differently implicated in the control and propagation of the ictal activity. The role of the basal ganglia has been revealed in several cases of focal and generalized seizures. Here, we review the data that show the implication of the basal ganglia in absence, temporal lobe, and neocortical seizures in animal models (rodent, cat, and non-human primate) and in human. Based on these results and the advancement of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia neuromodulation has been tested with some success that can be equally seen as promising or disappointing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765766/asystole-in-focal-epilepsy-complicating-a-traumatic-subdural-hematoma
#11
Yuk-Ming Lau, Chi-Hung Lo, Kathy Lai-Fun Lee, Chu-Pak Lau
Ictal asystole due to sinus node suppression is a cause of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Here, for the first time, we describe a complete atrioventricular nodal block in a patient with non-compressive traumatic subdural hematoma, who developed ictal asystole as a delayed presentation. A leadless VVI pacemaker (ventricular paced, ventricular sensed, and pacing inhibited in response to a sensed beat) was implanted as a preventive measure against seizure-related heart block.
August 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763722/glutamate-metabolism-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-as-revealed-by-dynamic-proton-mrs-following-the-infusion-of-u-13-c-glucose
#12
Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Daniel Ding, John Howe, Amul Shah, Travis Losey
Focal metabolic dysfunction commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is associated with the development of medical intractability and neurocognitive deficits. It has not been established if this dysfunction is due to cell loss or biochemical dysfunction in metabolic pathways. To explore this question, dynamic (1)H MRS following an infusion of [U(13)- C] glucose was performed to measure glutamate (Glu) metabolism. Subjects (n=6) showed reduced Glu levels (p<0.01) in the ipsilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) compared with controls (n=4)...
July 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762041/neuroinfluenza-evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-associated-severe-neurological-complications-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#13
Muhammet Sukru Paksu, Kerim Aslan, Tanil Kendirli, Basak Nur Akyildiz, Nazik Yener, Riza Dincer Yildizdas, Mehmet Davutoglu, Ayhan Yaman, Sedat Isikay, Gulnar Sensoy, Haydar Ali Tasdemir
PURPOSE: Although influenza primarily affects the respiratory system, in some cases, it can cause severe neurological complications. Younger children are especially at risk. Pediatric literature is limited on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of influenza-related neurological complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate children who suffered severe neurological manifestation as a result of seasonal influenza infection. METHODS: The medical records of 14 patients from six hospitals in different regions of the country were evaluated...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758095/clinical-presentation-and-epidemiology-of-brain-tumors-firstly-diagnosed-in-adults-in-the-emergency-department-a-10-year-single-center-retrospective-study
#14
Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi, Valentina Campana, Franco Servadei, Gianfranco Cervellin
BACKGROUND: Several patients with new onset brain tumors present to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining for new symptoms. Although information exists on symptom prevalence in the entire population of patients with brain tumors, little is known about the clinical presentation in ED. This retrospective study was planned to investigate clinical presentation and epidemiology of brain tumors firstly diagnosed in a large urban ED throughout a 10-year period. METHODS: All medical records of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from our ED with a diagnosis of brain tumor were retrieved from the electronic hospital database during a 10-year period (2006 to 2015)...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755452/extrapolating-evidence-of-antiepileptic-drug-efficacy-in-adults-to-children-%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-years-of-age-with-focal-seizures-the-case-for-disease-similarity
#15
John M Pellock, Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Gregory L Holmes, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar
Expediting pediatric access to new antiseizure drugs is particularly compelling, because epileptic seizures are the most common serious neurological symptom in children. Analysis of antiepileptic drug (AED) efficacy outcomes of randomized controlled trials, conducted during the past 20 years in different populations and a broad range of study sites and countries, has shown considerable consistency for each drug between adult and pediatric populations. Historically, the majority of regulatory approvals for AEDs have been for seizure types and not for specific epilepsy syndromes...
July 29, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753112/impact-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-iiia-on-seizure-outcome-following-anterior-mesial-temporal-lobe-resection-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#16
Lasse Dührsen, Thomas Sauvigny, Patrick M House, Stefan Stodieck, Brigitte Holst, Jakob Matschke, Gerhard Schön, Manfred Westphal, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, for which anterior mesial temporal lobe resection (AMTLR) is a treatment option. Focal cortical dysplasia Type IIIa (FCD IIIa), a developmental lesion resulting from defects in neuronal formation and migration into the temporal pole (FCD I) combined with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), can be a neuropathological finding. In this study, the authors investigate the impact of FCD IIIa on seizure outcome in patients with TLE who underwent AMTLR...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752473/safety-profile-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-add-on-therapy-in-adults-with-refractory-focal-onset-seizures-from-clinical-studies-to-6-years-of-post-marketing-experience
#17
Helena Gama, Mariana Vieira, Raquel Costa, Joana Graça, Luís M Magalhães, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
INTRODUCTION: Eslicarbazepine acetate was first approved in the European Union in 2009 as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the safety profile of eslicarbazepine acetate analyzing the data from several clinical studies to 6 years of post-marketing surveillance. METHODS: We used a post-hoc pooled safety analysis of four phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies (BIA-2093-301, -302, -303, -304) of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on therapy in adults...
July 27, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749594/seizure-activity-per-se-does-not-induce-tissue-damage-markers-in-human-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#18
Laura Rossini, Rita Garbelli, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Roberto Spreafico, Francesco Deleo, Giorgio Lo Russo, Giovanni Tringali, Francesca Gozzo, Laura Tassi, Marco de Curtis
Objective The contribute of recurring seizures to the progression of epileptogenesis is debated. Seizure-induced brain damage is not conclusively demonstrated both in humans and in animal models of epilepsy. We evaluated the expression of brain injury biomarkers on post-surgical brain tissue obtained from 20 patients with frequent seizures and a long history of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Methods The expression patterns of specific glial, neuronal and inflammatory molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the core of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCD-II), at the FCD boundary (perilesion) and in the adjacent normal-appearing area included in the epileptogenic region...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749544/combined-electroencephalography-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-electrical-source-imaging-improves-localization-of-pediatric-focal-epilepsy
#19
Maria Centeno, Tim M Tierney, Suejen Perani, Elhum A Shamshiri, Kelly St Pier, Charlotte Wilkinson, Daniel Konn, Serge Vulliemoz, Frédéric Grouiller, Louis Lemieux, Ronit M Pressler, Christopher A Clark, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and electrical source imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to (1) localize the EZ and (2) predict seizure outcome were then evaluated. METHODS: Fifty-three children with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent EEG-fMRI...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749393/adverse-effects-drug-load-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy-monotherapy-versus-polytherapy
#20
Rupa Joshi, Manjari Tripathi, Pooja Gupta, Sheffali Gulati, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although the need for a combination of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the treatment of epilepsy is well justified, but an associated increase in adverse effects (AEs) lends a restriction to polytherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate AEs and drug load (prescribed daily dose/defined daily doses) of AEDs in patients with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: Consecutive PWEs attending Epilepsy clinic in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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