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Focal Seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436816/-almost-lost-at-sea-an-unusual-cause-of-cortical-blindness
#1
Jeffrey Walden, Edward Van Williamson
A middle-aged man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, prior cerebral vascular accident, and remote history of generalized seizure disorder presented with worsening right-sided visual deficits and focal seizures. On examination the patient had dense homonymous hemianopsia on the right side. He was initially diagnosed with a stroke and underwent further investigation for potential causes. However, upon further review, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and repeat examination were more consistent with seizure-related effects on cortical brain matter as the cause of his visual disturbances rather than stroke...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434238/the-characteristics-and-long-term-course-of-epilepsy-in-lipoid-proteinosis-a-spectrum-from-mild-to-severe-seizures-in-relation-to-ecm1-mutations
#2
Emel Oguz Akarsu, Firdevs Dinçsoy Bir, Can Baykal, Volkan Taşdemir, Bülent Kara, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Oya Uyguner, Betül Baykan
Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by deposition of hyaline material in skin and mucosae. Epilepsy, as an extracutaneous manifestation associated with typical mesial temporal calcifications, has already been identified, but its characteristics and long-term prognosis have not been thoroughly investigated. We included 7 consecutive patients with LP with typical intracranial calcifications out of 16 patients with ECM1 mutations and investigated the semiologic features, ictal and interictal EEG findings, and long-term prognosis of epilepsy in this genodermatosis...
April 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#3
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434133/stiripentol-in-the-management-of-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
Stiripentol is a structurally unique antiepileptic drug that has several possible mechanisms of action, including diverse effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and novel inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase. Because of its inhibition of several cytochrome P450 enzymes, it has extensive pharmacokinetic interactions, which often necessitates reduction in doses of certain co-therapies, particularly clobazam. Stiripentol also has a neuroprotective action, by reducing calcium-mediated neurotoxicity...
April 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433856/detection-of-recurrent-activation-patterns-across-focal-seizures-application-to-seizure-onset-zone-identification
#5
Manel Vila-Vidal, Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Gustavo Deco, Adrià Tauste Campo, Rodrigo Rocamora
OBJECTIVE: We introduce a method that quantifies the consistent involvement of intracranially monitored regions in recurrent focal seizures. METHODS: We evaluated the consistency of two ictal spectral activation patterns (mean power change and power change onset time) in intracranial recordings across focal seizures from seven patients with clinically marked seizure onset zone (SOZ). We examined SOZ discrimination using both patterns in different frequency bands and periods of interest...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#6
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430287/dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumour-insight-into-the-pathology-and-pathogenesis
#7
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427848/early-outcomes-and-periprocedural-complications-of-transarterial-embolization-of-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-with-onyx-%C3%A2
#8
Wojciech Poncyljusz, Marcin Sawicki, Katarzyna Lubkowska, Monika Rać
BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is a rare pathology diagnosed mostly in young adults. However, due to its hemorrhagic complications, it constitutes an important clinical problem. Treatment modalities available include endovascular, surgery and radiosurgery. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment of BAVM with Onyx(®) by reporting one-center experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2013, 54 patients with BAVM were embolized with Onyx...
April 5, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425688/pediatric-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-preliminary-observational-data-from-a-prospective-study
#9
Michela Gatta, Alessia Raffagnato, Stefania Mannarini, Laura Balottin, Irene Toldo, Marilena Vecchi, Clementina Boniver
BACKGROUND: Several studies have confirmed psychiatric comorbidity and a worse quality of life in children with epilepsy, but the clinical assessment and monitoring of these patients often pays insufficient attention to their psychological aspects alongside their neurological issues. The present study aims to describe the distribution of psychopathologies and their clinical evolution over 18 months in a sample of children followed up since the onset of their epilepsy. METHODS: After being diagnosed with epilepsy, 49 subjects (age 4-18y) were followed up with psychiatric and psychological assessments based on the use of dimensional and categorical psychometric tools...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425015/the-new-classification-of-seizures-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#10
REVIEW
Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. RECENT FINDINGS: The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419980/evaluation-of-glut1-variation-in-non-acquired-focal-epilepsy
#11
Alexander Peeraer, John A Damiano, Susannah T Bellows, Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel F Berkovic, Saul A Mullen, Michael S Hildebrand
Brain glucose transport is dependent on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), encoded by the solute carrier family 2 member 1 (SLC2A1) gene. Mutations in SLC2A1 cause GLUT1 deficiency which is characterized by a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes including generalized epilepsy, motor disorders, developmental delay and microcephaly. Recent case reports suggest SLC2A1 mutations can contribute to non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) but interrogation of a large patient cohort has not been reported. We studied 200 patients with NAFE (126 with temporal lobe epilepsy) comprising 104 females and 96 males with a mean age of onset of 18 years...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419947/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-elderly-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-case-series
#12
A Gómez-Ibáñez, J M Serratosa, E Guillamón, M Garcés, B G Giráldez, M Toledo, J Salas-Puig, F J López-González, J Rodríguez-Uranga, A Castillo, J A Mauri, J L Camacho, E López-Gomáriz, P Giner, N Torres, J Palau, A Molins, V Villanueva
PURPOSE: Eslicarbazepine-acetate (ESL) is a third generation antiepileptic drug licensed as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal seizures. Efficacy and safety of ESL have been established in real-life setting. However, data about outcomes in elderly patients are scarce. Primary endpoint was to evaluate outcomes of ESL in elderly patients. METHOD: This was a retrospective survey that included patients >65years with focal seizures who started ESL between January 2010 and July 2012 at 12 Spanish Hospitals...
April 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419330/seizure-outcomes-in-occipital-lobe-and-posterior-quadrant-epilepsy-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Stephen C Harward, William C Chen, John D Rolston, Michael M Haglund, Dario J Englot
BACKGROUND: Occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) is an uncommon but debilitating focal epilepsy syndrome with seizures often refractory to medical management. While surgical resection has proven a viable treatment, previous studies examining postoperative seizure freedom rates are limited by small sample size and patient heterogeneity, thus exhibiting significant variability in their results. OBJECTIVE: To review the medical literature on OLE so as to investigate rates and predictors of both seizure freedom and visual outcomes following surgery...
April 13, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419058/a-method-for-u-fiber-quantification-from-7%C3%A2-t-diffusion-weighted-mri-data-tested-in-patients-with-nonlesional-focal-epilepsy
#14
Rafael O'Halloran, Rebecca Feldman, Lara Marcuse, Madeline Fields, Bradley Delman, Sophia Frangou, Priti Balchandani
In this methods development, we present an ultra-high-field, diffusion-weighted MRI method to quantitatively assess u-fibers and use it to compare u-fiber counts in nonlesional epilepsy patients with controls. Emerging evidence implicates white matter abnormalities in nonlesional epilepsy, including the short-range, cortical-cortical connections, or u-fibers. Eight patients with nonlesional epilepsy and eight demographically matched controls underwent 7 T MRI consisting of a T1-weighted sequence (0.7 mm isotropic resolution) and high-angular-resolved diffusion-weighted MRI (1...
April 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416780/new-onset-epilepsy-in-the-elderly-clinical-radiological-and-electroencephalographic-features-and-treatment-responses
#15
Erum M Shariff, Fahd A AlKhamis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new onset epilepsy characteristics, etiology, radiological and electroencephalographic features and to document treatment response in the elderly. METHODS: This was a retrospective study carried out in King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013. Medical records were searched to recruit patients. Hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled who fulfill the inclusion criteria. Clinical data with respect to seizure semiology, etiology, electroencephalographic findings, radiological findings, co-morbidities, and anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy were assessed...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412559/interictal-ripples-nested-in-epileptiform-discharge-help-to-identify-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#16
Shuang Wang, Norman K So, Bo Jin, Irene Z Wang, Juan C Bulacio, Rei Enatsu, Shenyi Dai, Zhong Chen, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the subtype of interictal ripples that help delineate the epileptogenic zone in neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Totally 25 patients with focal neocortical epilepsy who had invasive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation and subsequent surgery were included. They were followed up for at least 2years. Interictal ripples (80-250Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz) during slow-wave sleep were identified. Neocortical ripples were defined as type I ripples when they were superimposed on epileptiform discharges, and as type II ripples when they occurred independently...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412316/differentiating-stroke-and-seizure-in-acute-setting-perfusion-computed-tomography
#17
Katarzyna Kubiak-Balcerewicz, Urszula Fiszer, Ewa Nagańska, Cezary Siemianowski, Aleksander Sobieszek, Agnieszka Witak-Grzybowska, Aldona Kosińska-Szot
BACKGROUND: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) is part of acute stroke protocol in many hospitals; however, its clinical utility is still being disputed. Beyond its use in core and penumbra estimation, there is also a question about PCT role in stroke mimics diagnosis. Case series or small, retrospective studies showed equivocal results. This is the first published prospective, comparative study on PCT in differentiating stroke and seizure in acute setting. METHODS: Patients with acute focal neurologic deficits and without acute ischemic lesions on routine CT underwent PCT and electroencephalography (EEG) within 12 hours after symptom onset...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411331/glutaric-acidemia-type-1-a-case-of-infantile-stroke
#18
Gül Demet Kaya Ozcora, Songul Gokay, Mehmet Canpolat, Fatih Kardaş, Mustafa Kendirci, Sefer Kumandaş
BACKGROUND: Glutaric acidemia Type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder which is associated with GCDH gene mutations which alters the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme playing role in the catabolic pathways of the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Clinical findings are often encephalopathic crises, dystonia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant referred to our department with focal tonic-clonic seizures during rotavirus infection and acute infarcts in MRI...
April 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410464/surgical-outcomes-in-two-different-age-groups-with-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-ii-any-real-difference
#19
Jorge Luis Ramírez-Molina, Roberta Di Giacomo, Valeria Mariani, Francesco Deleo, Francesco Cardinale, Angélica María Uscátegui-Daccarett, Pablo Lorenzana, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Focal Cortical Dysplasias (FCDs) represent a common architectural cortical disorder underlying drug-resistant focal epilepsy. So far, studies aimed at evaluating whether age at surgery is a factor influencing surgical outcome are lacking, so that data on the comparison between patients harboring Type II FCD operated at younger age and those operated at adult age are still scarce. We compared presurgical clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients with histopathologically diagnosed Type II FCD undergoing surgery at an earlier age with those operated after 20 years of age...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410084/clinical-and-electroencephalographic-characteristics-of-infantile-onset-epilepsies-caused-by-genetic-mutations
#20
Yun Jung Hur, Sookyong Koh, John Millichap, Srishti Nangia, Lawrence J Jennings, Douglas R Nordli
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether certain characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features are indicative of a genetic cause in early-life epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled a total of 100 patients with infantile-onset (<3 years) epilepsy due to known genetic cause (n = 50) and nongenetic cause (acquired, structural, or unknown, n = 50). The genetic group was classified into synaptopathies, channelopathies, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-opathies, and chromosomal abnormalities...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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