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Focal Seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732280/evaluation-of-a-novel-median-power-spectrogram-for-seizure-detection-by-non-neurophysiologists
#1
Peter Yan, Tamar Melman, Sherry Yan, Munkhzul Otgonsuren, Zachary Grinspan
PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate how well resident physicians use a novel EEG spectral analysis tool (the median power spectrogram; MPS) to detect seizures. (2) To assess the capability of the MPS to identify different seizure types. METHODS: 120 EEG records from children with intractable seizures were converted to MPS by taking the median power across leads and using multi-taper spectral estimation. Twelve blinded neurology residents were trained to interpret the spectrogram with a five-minute video tutorial and post-test...
June 15, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732257/epileptiform-discharges-in-eeg-and-seizure-risk-in-adolescent-children-of-women-with-epilepsy
#2
Joseph Samuel, Manna Jose, V S Nandini, Sanjeev V Thomas
We aimed to study the epileptiform discharges (ED) and seizure risk in EEG of 12-18-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Children of WWE who were prospectively followed up in the Kerala registry of epilepsy and pregnancy (KREP), aged 12-16years (n=92; males 48, females 44) underwent clinical evaluation and a 30-min digital 18-channel EEG. The EEG showed epileptiform discharges in 13 children (5 males and 8 females). The EDs were generalized in 9 and focal in 4 (occipital 2, frontal 1, and centroparietal 1)...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728838/kcnq2-encephalopathy-a-case-due-to-a-de-novo-deletion
#3
Carlotta Spagnoli, Grazia Gabriella Salerno, Alessandro Iodice, Daniele Frattini, Francesco Pisani, Carlo Fusco
KCNQ2 encephalopathy is characterized by severely abnormal EEG, neonatal-onset epilepsy and developmental delay. It is caused by mutations (typically missense) in the KCNQ2 gene, encoding the voltage gated potassium channel Kv7.2 and leading to a negative-dominant effect. We present one case experiencing recurrent neonatal seizures with changing hemispheres of origin, reminiscent of epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures. At 9months of age the patient is still seizure-free on carbamazepine, although he is developing a spastic-dystonic tetraplegia with severe dysphagia...
July 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#4
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718234/paediatrics-brain-imaging-in-epilepsy-common-presenting-symptoms-and-spectrum-of-abnormalities-detected-on-mri
#6
Azmat Ali, Faiza Akram, Ghayyur Khan, Shaukat Hussain
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder can present at any age and has a number of aetiologies with underlying brain disease being the most common aetiology. Brain imaging becomes important and mandatory in the work up for epilepsy in localization and lateralization of the seizure focus. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institution Abbottabad from 1st March 2015 to 31st March 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713260/automated-detection-of-epileptic-biomarkers-in-resting-state-interictal-meg-data
#7
Miguel C Soriano, Guiomar Niso, Jillian Clements, Silvia Ortín, Sira Carrasco, María Gudín, Claudio R Mirasso, Ernesto Pereda
Certain differences between brain networks of healthy and epilectic subjects have been reported even during the interictal activity, in which no epileptic seizures occur. Here, magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded in the resting state is used to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients with either idiopathic generalized epilepsy or frontal focal epilepsy. Signal features extracted from interictal periods without any epileptiform activity are used to train a machine learning algorithm to draw a diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710548/retrospective-evaluation-and-seeg-trajectory-analysis-for-interactive-multi-trajectory-planner-assistant
#8
Davide Scorza, Elena De Momi, Lisa Plaino, Gaetano Amoroso, Gabriele Arnulfo, Massimo Narizzano, Luis Kabongo, Francesco Cardinale
PURPOSE: Focal epilepsy is a neurological disease that can be surgically treated by removing area of the brain generating the seizures. The stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) procedure allows patient brain activity to be recorded in order to localize the onset of seizures through the placement of intracranial electrodes. The planning phase can be cumbersome and very time consuming, and no quantitative information is provided to neurosurgeons regarding the safety and efficacy of their trajectories...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709814/the-therapeutic-implication-of-a-novel-scn2a-mutation-associated-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-rett-like-features
#9
Jao-Shwann Liang, Li-Ju Lin, Ming-Tao Yang, Jinn-Shyan Wang, Jyh-Feng Lu
Epileptic encephalopathies are highly heterogeneous and phenotypical disorders with different underlying genetic defects. Mutations in the SCN2A gene cause different epilepsy syndromes, including epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, Ohtahara syndrome, and West syndrome. We utilized a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach on a girl with early-onset seizures and Rett-like features, including autistic behavior, limited hand function with chorea, and profound intellectual disability, to identify novel missense mutation (c...
July 11, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709121/spatiotemporal-propagation-patterns-of-generalized-ictal-spikes-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#10
Vasileios Kokkinos, Andreas M Koupparis, Michalis Koutroumanidis, George K Kostopoulos
OBJECTIVE: This work investigates the spatial distribution in time of generalized ictal spikes in the typical absences of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). METHODS: We studied twelve children with CAE, who had more than two typical absences during their routine video-EEG. Seizures were identified, and ictal spikes were marked over the maximum electronegative peak, clustered, waveform-averaged and spatiotemporaly analyzed in 2D electrode space. RESULTS: Consistency of spatiotemporal patterns of ictal spikes was high between the absences of the same child, but low between children...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709078/insomnia-in-people-with-epilepsy-a-review-of-insomnia-prevalence-risk-factors-and-associations-with-epilepsy-related-factors
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Joaquim Oliveira Menezes Macêdo, Pedro Sudbrack de Oliveira, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer, Marleide da Mota Gomes
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a common sleep complaint in the general population, and sleep loss may be a trigger for epileptic seizures. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive review of the literature of insomnia symptoms and insomnia disorder, their prevalence and epilepsy-related risk factors in people with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: A PUBMED search was performed for articles indexed to June 2016 involving human subjects, excluding papers in languages other than English, Spanish and Portuguese and case reports...
June 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705474/rf-ablation-in-periventricular-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#12
Massimo Cossu, Laura Mirandola, Laura Tassi
Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a common occurrence in patients with gray matter nodular heterotopia (NH), and surgical treatment is often considered in these cases. NH-related epileptogenicity is sustained by complex networks, which may involve the nodules and extralesional cortex in various combinations. Therefore, invasive EEG is usually required to identify the structures involved in seizure generation. It has been reported that surgery may be effective in cases with unilateral lesions, whereas bilateral cases are not optimal candidates for surgical success...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704875/sonographic-and-doppler-sonographic-diagnosis-of%C3%A2-neonatal-ischemic-stroke
#13
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Children are particularly at risk for stroke in the neonatal period. 1/3 of all strokes in children occur during the perinatal period. The incidence of perinatal stroke is 1:4000. A differentiation is made between ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic strokes are caused by arterial occlusion due to thrombosis or embolism. As a result of the nonspecific clinical symptoms in this age group, diagnosis is usually made too late. The only relatively specific symptom is focal cerebral seizure during the first week of life...
July 13, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699152/-characteristics-of-structural-injuries-in-pediatric-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-in-a-honduran-hospital
#14
A Ramirez-Izcoa, D Varela-Gonzalez, M I Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is the most commonly occurring neurological disorder in the world. The study of structural brain lesions is important to understand the secondary complications. In Honduras there is little information on this topic. AIM: To determine the characteristics and proportion of structural brain lesions in paediatric patients with focal epilepsy at the Hospital Escuela Universitario. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective-prospective study...
August 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696034/fast-non-invasive-functional-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-brain-imaging
#15
Xianjin Dai, Tao Zhang, Hao Yang, Jianbo Tang, Paul R Carney, Huabei Jiang
Advances in epilepsy studies have shown that specific changes in hemodynamics precede and accompany seizure onset and propagation. However, it has been challenging to non-invasively detect these changes in real-time and in humans, due to the lack of fast functional neuroimaging tools. Here, we present a functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) method with the guidance of an anatomical human-head atlas for three-dimensionally mapping the brain in real time. Central to our DOT system is a human head interface coupled with a technique that can incorporate topological information of the brain surface into the DOT image reconstruction...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691204/mortality-with-brainstem-seizures-from-focal-4-aminopyridine-induced-recurrent-hippocampal-seizures
#16
Muhammad Tariqus Salam, Gaspard Montandon, Roman Genov, Orrin Devinsky, Martin Del Campo, Peter L Carlen
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is the leading cause of death in young adult epilepsy patients, typically occurring during the early postictal period, presumably resulting from brainstem and cardiorespiratory dysfunction. We hypothesized that ictal discharges in the brainstem disrupt the cardiorespiratory network, causing mortality. To study this hypothesis, we chose an animal model comprising focal unilateral hippocampal injection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which produced focal recurrent hippocampal seizures with secondary generalization in awake, behaving rats...
July 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688333/toxoplasmosis-accelerates-acquisition-of-epilepsy-in-rats-undergoing-chemical-kindling
#17
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Samira Choopani, Tara Asgari, Majid Golkar, Kourosh Gharagozli
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of the world population has been infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This intracellular parasite has high tropism for excitable cells including neurons. We assessed impact of acute and chronic T. gondii infection on epileptogenesis in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in male rats. T. gondii cysts were administered to rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The presence of T. gondii cysts in the brain of rats was verified by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686997/management-of-epilepsy-in-merrf-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome is a rare syndromic mitochondrial disorder (MID) with a broad phenotypic but narrow genotypic heterogeneity. One of the predominant phenotypic features in addition to myopathy is epilepsy. The most frequent seizure type in MERRF is generalised myoclonic seizure but also focal myoclonic, focal atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, generalised atonic, generalised myoclonic-atonic, typical absences, or tonic-clonic seizures of unknown onset have been reported...
June 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683344/age-related-sleep-nocturnal-tonic-and-tonic-clonic-seizure-clusters-are-underdiagnosed-in-patients-with-dravet-syndrome
#19
Emma Losito, Matthieu Kuchenbuch, Nicole Chemaly, Jacques Laschet, Catherine Chiron, Anna Kaminska, Rima Nabbout
OBJECTIVES: To describe the semiology and EEG characteristics of the age-related pattern of sleep/nocturnal (S/N) seizures in patients with Dravet Syndrome (DS). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical and EEG data of DS patients followed at our reference centre for Rare Epilepsies. We included patients aged two years and older who fulfilled clinical and EEG criteria of DS (ILAE 1989). Genetic testing for SCN1A was done in all, followed by PCDH19 if this was negative...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682826/misleading-eeg-lateralization-associated-with-midline-shift
#20
Gena R Ghearing, Sergiu Abramovici, Alexandra Popescu, Maria E Baldwin
Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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