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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941874/pneumocephalus-and-seizures-following-epidural-steroid-injection
#1
Joseph Sorber, David Levy, Adam Schwartz
We describe a patient with pneumocephalus following an epidural steroid injection (ESI) who presented with altered mental status, headache, focal neurologic findings and seizures. Pneumocephalus has rarely been described following ESI. A 34-year-old female presented with an altered level of consciousness worsening over approximately 18h following an ESI for lumbar back pain. She had associated headache, right-sided facial twitching and right upper extremity weakness. A brain CT scan revealed pneumocephalus in the right lateral ventricle and quadrigeminal plate cistern...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929415/pediatric-neurocysticercosis
#2
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder...
September 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928561/periprocedural-management-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-patients-an-11-year-experience
#3
Ajay Prasad Hrishi, Karen Ruby Lionel
CONTEXT: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare arteriovenous malformation where a dilated median prosencephalic vein provides a low-resistance conduit for intracerebral blood flow resulting in high-output cardiac failure, severe pulmonary hypertension, with or without central nervous system symptoms secondary to hydrocephalus, in the neonatal and pediatric population. AIM: This study aims to analysis of the anesthetic management of this unique subset of patients with VGAM...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927711/efficacy-tolerability-and-retention-rates-of-zonisamide-in-older-adult-patients-with-focal-onset-epilepsy-experiences-from-two-tertiary-epilepsy-centers
#4
Ebru Apaydın Doğan, Emine Genç, Bülent Oğuz Genç, Çağla Erdoğan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and retention rates for zonisamide (ZNS) in older adult patients with focal-onset epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chart reviews of patients aged 60years and older with focal-onset epilepsy treated with ZNS in two tertiary epilepsy centers were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (41 males, 44 females) aged over 60years (range: 60-81) with focal-onset epilepsy treated with ZNS were identified; 55...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926844/atypical-presentation-of-a-pediatric-cerebellar-ganglioglioma
#5
Richard Bram, Roberta J Seidman, David Chesler
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare central nervous system tumors occurring primarily in the supratentorial compartment with infratentorial instances most often involving the brain stem. Infratentorial GGs typically present with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), cranial nerve deficits, or focal cerebellar findings; rarely, these tumors have been associated with focal seizures. METHODS: In this report, we describe an atypical presentation of a cerebellar GG in a 20-month-old male who initially presented with syncope and emesis in the absence of electrographic evidence of seizures, radiographic evidence of hydrocephalus, or elevated ICP...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926747/ictal-source-imaging-and-electroclinical-correlation-in-self-limited-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#6
Jørgen Alving, Martin Fabricius, Ivana Rosenzweig, Sándor Beniczky
PURPOSE: To elucidate the localization of ictal EEG activity, and correlate it to semiological features in self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (formerly called "benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes"). METHODS: We have performed ictal electric source imaging, and we analysed electroclinical correlations in three patients with self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. RESULTS: The source of the evolving rhythmic ictal activity (9...
September 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924292/hemimegalencephaly-with-intractable-epilepsy-a-case-report
#7
Prem Chand, Muhammad Faraz Raghib, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Fazal Manzoor Arain
Isolated Hemimegalencephaly (iHME) is a rare form of congenital malformation of cortical development.It is characterized by enlargement of all or part of one cerebral hemisphere. It typically presents with intractable seizures, mental retardation, developmental delay, contralateral hemiparesis and hemianopia. The patient was a five and half month's old baby girl who presented first with focal seizures at 10th day of life. No other physical or behavioral abnormality was noted. However, Initial EEG showed excessive sharp EEG transients more over the right hemisphere, repeated EEG showed spikes, polyspikes, sharps and slow wave discharges predominately over right hemisphere...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924012/inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-normalizes-nmda-dependent-neurotransmission-and-reduces-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#8
Ilaria Bertani, Valentina Iori, Massimo Trusel, Mattia Maroso, Claudia Foray, Susanna Mantovani, Raffaella Tonini, Annamaria Vezzani, Roberto Chiesa
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knockout (KO) mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923596/chemically-activated-luminopsins-allow-optogenetic-inhibition-of-distributed-nodes-in-an-epileptic-network-for-non-invasive-and-multi-site-suppression-of-seizure-activity
#9
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit multiple limbic structures of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner to suppress seizure activity in a rat model of epilepsy. In addition to elucidating mechanisms of seizure suppression never directly demonstrated before, this work also illustrates how precise multi-focal control of pathological circuits can be advantageous for the treatment of epilepsy, which may also be applicable to the treatment and understanding of other neurological disorders involving broad neural circuits...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923528/arterial-spin-labeling-hyperperfusion-in-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-is-it-due-to-focal-brain-inflammation-or-a-post-ictal-phenomenon
#10
Savith Kumar, Chinmay P Nagesh, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study evaluated the utility of Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in Rasmussen's Encephalitis (RE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital electronic database was searched using the search words "encephalitis," "autoimmune encephalitis" and "Rasmussen's encephalitis" for the period of 1 Jan 2015 to 31 Jan 2017. Clinically diagnosed cases of RE for which epilepsy protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion imaging (ASL) performed on a 3T scanner were retrieved...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920893/a-functional-genetic-scheme-for-seizure-forecasting-in-canine-epilepsy
#11
E Bou Assi, D K Nguyen, S Rihana, M Sawan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is the development of an accurate seizure forecasting algorithm that considers brain's functional connectivity for electrode selection. METHODS: We start by proposing Kmeans-directed transfer function, an adaptive functional connectivity method intended for seizure onset zone localization in bilateral intracranial EEG recordings. Electrodes identified as seizure activity sources and sinks are then used to implement a seizure-forecasting algorithm on long-term continuous recordings in dogs with naturallyoccurring epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913167/ictal-conduction-aphasia-and-ictal-angular-gyrus-syndrome-as-rare-manifestations-of-epilepsy-the-importance-of-ictal-testing-during-video-eeg-monitoring
#12
Johann Philipp Zöllner, Anja Haag, Anke Hermsen, Sebastian Bauer, Friederike Stahl, Karina Wulf, Katja Menzler, Philipp S Reif, Marlies Wagner, Axel Pagenstecher, Ulrich Sure, Susanne Knake, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
The aim of these two case reports is to demonstrate that a predefined, structured, multimodal clinical bed-side testing during seizures in a long-term video-EEG monitoring setting facilitates diagnosis of complex neuropsychological syndromes. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of conduction aphasia as the sole ictal semiology, and a patient with focal seizures producing an angular gyrus syndrome in the speech dominant hemisphere. The relevance of diagnosing ictal aphasic and angular gyrus syndromes and localizing the symptomatogenic zone is discussed...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912749/functional-connectivity-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-epilepsy-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures
#13
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
The corpus callosum (CC) plays an important role in generalization of seizure activity. We used resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the regional and interregional functional connectivity of CC in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative and secondarily generalized seizures. We measured the multi-regional coherences of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals via rs-fMRI, cortical thickness via high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, and white matter (WM) integrity via diffusion-tensor imaging in 16 epilepsy patients as well as in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#14
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904824/a-case-of-unruptured-aneurysm-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-presenting-as-olfactory-hallucinations
#15
Jiro Akimoto, Norio Ichimasu, Rei Haraoka, Shinjiro Fukami, Michihiro Kohno
BACKGROUND: Olfactory hallucination, a symptom of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, is rarely associated with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. CASE DESCRIPTION: We encountered this situation in a 70-year-old woman with an unruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the internal carotid and posterior communicating artery. We were able to achieve epileptic control by craniotomy clipping and medial temporal lesionectomy. CONCLUSION: According to our knowledge, previous reports are limited to cases of large middle cerebral artery aneurysms compressing the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and this is apparently the first report of a case where olfactory hallucinations occurred from direct stimulation of the entorhinal cortex by an internal carotid and posterior communicating artery bifurcation aneurysm...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899008/phenotypic-analysis-of-303-multiplex-families-with-common-epilepsies
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
(no author information available yet)
Gene identification in epilepsy has mainly been limited to large families segregating genes of major effect and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Many families that present with common non-acquired focal epilepsies and genetic generalized epilepsies remain unexplained. We assembled a cohort of 'genetically enriched' common epilepsies by collecting and phenotyping families containing multiple individuals with unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine if specific clinical epilepsy features aggregate within families, and whether this segregation of phenotypes may constitute distinct 'familial syndromes' that could inform genomic analyses...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898173/utility-of-stereoelectroencephalography-in-children-with-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-and-cortical-malformation
#17
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Jennifer Avery, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled seizures in children can contribute to irreversible cognitive impairment and developmental delay, in addition to placing them at risk for sudden unexplained death in epileptic patients (SUDEP). Since its introduction at Saint Ann Hospital in Paris in the 1960s, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is increasingly being utilized at epilepsy centers in the United States as an invasive tool to help localize the seizure focus in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. INDICATIONS: Children with symptomatic epilepsy, commonly due to cortical dysplasia and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET), may benefit from SEEG investigation...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28896000/-symptomatic-absence-seizures-the-least-known-causation-of-absence-seizures
#18
L Carrera-Garcia, I Malaga-Dieguez, R Blanco-Lago, A Diaz-Baamonde, L Santovena-Gonzalez, J Gonzalez-Rato
INTRODUCTION: According to the 1981 International League Against Epilepsy classification, absence seizures are the paradigm of idiopathic generalised seizures of childhood. Although absences are mainly of an idiopathic origin, there are also symptomatic absences, which account for 10% of all cases of absences. It is thought that a structural pathology can favour the appearance of absences in genetically predisposed individuals. CASE REPORTS: We report the cases of two patients with symptomatic absence seizures of childhood onset...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892425/laparoscopic-resection-of-a-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-tumor-in-a-dog
#19
Janet Kovak Mcclaran, Philippa Pavia, Anthony J Fischetti, Taryn A Donovan
Laparoscopic partial pancreatectomy has been performed in experimental canine studies and has been evaluated in human medicine but has not been reported in a clinical veterinary case. The authors present a 9 yr old field spaniel with weakness and hypoglycemia with insulin levels and Amended Insulin: Glucose Ratio results equivocal for a pancreatic insulinoma. Multiple abdominal ultrasounds did not detect the tumor, yet dual-phase computed tomographic angiography revealed the presence of a focal hypoattenuating nodule in the left lobe of the pancreas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888331/hamartia-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
K L Gawelek, J M Gales, R A Prayson
Hamartia are small collections of rounded glioneuronal cells that are thought to be due to aberrant cell migration. Their presence has been recognized in association with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; their prevalence among cases of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and any potential association with patient demographics and outcomes is unknown. This study examines hamartia in a series of 292 patients with pathologically confirmed HS. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent patient clinical information (follow-up mean 5years)...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
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