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omega-3 fatty acids and psychiatric illness

Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Gustavo Scola, Amelia Versace, Adam H Metherel, Luz A Monsalve-Castro, Mary L Phillips, Richard P Bazinet, Ana C Andreazza
BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism has been shown to play an important role in unipolar and bipolar depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia (BDE) and non-psychiatric controls. METHODS: Levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were assessed in serum of (87) patients with BD (31 euthymic, 22 depressive) or MDD (34) and (31) non-psychiatric controls through GC-FID...
June 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Carlo Agostoni, Maria Nobile, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandra Tesei, Stefano Turolo, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maurizio Pompili, Lucia Longo, Giovanni Dominici, Gianluca Serafini, Dorian A Lamis, Jerome Sarris, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi
Deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and an alteration between the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Recent epidemiological studies have also demonstrated an association between the depletion of PUFAs and suicide. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between PUFAs and suicide; assess whether the depletion of PUFAs may be considered a risk factor for suicidal behavior; in addition to detailing the potential use of PUFAs in clinical practice...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Erik Messamore, Robert K McNamara
A body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and potentially etiology of different psychiatric disorders. Case-control studies have consistently observed low erythrocyte (red blood cell) EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus can be treated with fish oil-based formulations containing preformed EPA + DHA, and extant evidence suggests that fish oil supplementation is safe and well-tolerated and may have therapeutic benefits...
February 10, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Alejandro Szmulewicz, José M Smith, Marina P Valerio
Despite recent findings on the treatment of schizophrenia, it is an illness still associated with high morbidity and incapacity in social and work domains. There is a growing interest in examining the phases prior to the development of the illness so as to make early interventions that would potentially change its devastating course. The attenuated psychosis syndrome was included in the section III of the last version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition in which a patient exhibits mild psychotic symptoms, an intact reality testing and certain degree of social or occupational impairment...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Janet Wozniak, Stephen V Faraone, James Chan, Laura Tarko, Mariely Hernandez, Jacqueline Davis, K Yvonne Woodworth, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in children with bipolar spectrum disorders. METHOD: Participants were children 5-12 years of age meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I or II disorder or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified [NOS]) and displaying mixed, manic, or hypomanic symptoms...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
S Dimitrakopoulos, C Kollias, N C Stefanis, V Kontaxakis
Psychotic or psychotic-like experiences and symptoms may precede and be indicative of later psychosis emergence. DSM-5 has introduced Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further study, arguing for its clinical validity and the need for identifying sub- threshold psychotic states. Early psychosis intervention has an already established role in reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP), delaying psychosis onset and relieving Ultra High Risk (UHR) individuals from their presenting symptoms...
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Joseph R Hibbeln, Rachel V Gow
The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated...
November 2014: Military Medicine
Simon J Evans, Rachel N Ringrose, Gloria J Harrington, Peter Mancuso, Charles F Burant, Melvin G McInnis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles associate with risk for mood disorders. This poses the hypothesis of metabolic differences between patients and unaffected healthy controls that relate to the primary illness or are secondary to medication use or dietary intake. However, dietary manipulation or supplementation studies show equivocal results improving mental health outcomes. This study investigates dietary patterns and metabolic profiles relevant to PUFA metabolism, in bipolar I individuals compared to non-psychiatric controls...
October 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Research
D F Levey, H Le-Niculescu, J Frank, M Ayalew, N Jain, B Kirlin, R Learman, E Winiger, Z Rodd, A Shekhar, N Schork, F Kiefer, F Kiefe, N Wodarz, B Müller-Myhsok, N Dahmen, M Nöthen, R Sherva, L Farrer, A H Smith, H R Kranzler, M Rietschel, J Gelernter, A B Niculescu
We have used a translational Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to discover genes involved in alcoholism, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a German alcohol dependence cohort with other genetic and gene expression data, from human and animal model studies, similar to our previous work in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value SNPs in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG  (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) was used to generate a genetic  risk prediction score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0...
May 20, 2014: Translational Psychiatry
Rahul Agrawal, Ethika Tyagi, Laurent Vergnes, Karen Reue, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction occurring after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness. In the present study, we utilized an omega-3 diet during early life as a metabolic preconditioning to alter the course of TBI during adulthood. TBI animals under omega-3 deficiency were more prone to alterations in energy homeostasis (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; AMPK phosphorylation and cytochrome C oxidase II; COII levels) and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor A; TFAM)...
April 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Petra W Hoen, Johan Denollet, Peter de Jonge, Mary A Whooley
OBJECTIVE: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might explain this association. METHOD: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,018 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, and were followed up to June 2011...
July 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
James D Kean, David Camfield, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Richard Silberstein, Andrew Scholey, Con Stough
BACKGROUND: The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms...
July 16, 2013: Nutrition Journal
Ethika Tyagi, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Catalina Abad, James A Waschek, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion) is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI) and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD) when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI...
2013: PloS One
Pedro Luis Prior, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the newest discoveries of the affected activities by these fats in the cerebral cortex and the efforts that have been made to put them in practice in clinical trials in humans...
May 2012: Advances in Nutrition
Matteo Chiappedi, Silvia de Vincenzi, Maurizio Bejor
Nutraceuticals can be defined as food components or active principles present in aliments which have positive effects for health and quality of life, including preventing or treating disorders. Herbal and "natural" food supplements are increasingly used to treat different psychiatric disorders, often as "self-prescribed" therapies. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach...
August 2012: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
Jessica L Gören, Ashley T Tewksbury
PURPOSE: This article will summarize the current evidence on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on prevention and treatment of mental illness. BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids are involved in many physiologic processes. Since they cannot be made de novo in the body, they are considered essential nutrients. As the Western diet evolved, dietary intake of fatty acids has shifted to increased omega-6 fatty acids and decreased omega-3 fatty acids intake. These changes have been correlated with numerous differences in prevalence and course of mental illnesses...
October 2011: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Pierluigi Politi, Matteo Rocchetti, Enzo Emanuele, Mariangela Rondanelli, Francesco Barale
A growing body of evidence suggests that omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are clinically useful in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have focused on the potential therapeutic utility of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with mental illnesses. We searched the PubMed database for placebo-controlled clinical trials using the keywords "PUFAs", "omega-3", "eicosapentaenoic acid", and "docosahexaenoic acid" in combination with the following terms: "anxiety disorders", "mood disorders", "autism", "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD), "personality disorders", and "schizophrenia"...
September 2013: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
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