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omega-3 fatty acids and psychiatric illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860589/detection-and-treatment-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-deficiency-in-psychiatric-practice-rationale-and-implementation
#1
Erik Messamore, Robert K McNamara
A body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and potentially etiology of different psychiatric disorders. Case-control studies have consistently observed low erythrocyte (red blood cell) EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus can be treated with fish oil-based formulations containing preformed EPA + DHA, and extant evidence suggests that fish oil supplementation is safe and well-tolerated and may have therapeutic benefits...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650554/-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Alejandro Szmulewicz, José M Smith, Marina P Valerio
Despite recent findings on the treatment of schizophrenia, it is an illness still associated with high morbidity and incapacity in social and work domains. There is a growing interest in examining the phases prior to the development of the illness so as to make early interventions that would potentially change its devastating course. The attenuated psychosis syndrome was included in the section III of the last version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition in which a patient exhibits mild psychotic symptoms, an intact reality testing and certain degree of social or occupational impairment...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26646031/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-high-eicosapentaenoic-acid-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inositol-as-monotherapy-and-in-combination-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-bipolar-spectrum-disorders-a-pilot-study
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Janet Wozniak, Stephen V Faraone, James Chan, Laura Tarko, Mariely Hernandez, Jacqueline Davis, K Yvonne Woodworth, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in children with bipolar spectrum disorders. METHOD: Participants were children 5-12 years of age meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I or II disorder or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified [NOS]) and displaying mixed, manic, or hypomanic symptoms...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880383/early-psychotic-experiences-interventions-problems-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
S Dimitrakopoulos, C Kollias, N C Stefanis, V Kontaxakis
Psychotic or psychotic-like experiences and symptoms may precede and be indicative of later psychosis emergence. DSM-5 has introduced Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further study, arguing for its clinical validity and the need for identifying sub- threshold psychotic states. Early psychosis intervention has an already established role in reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP), delaying psychosis onset and relieving Ultra High Risk (UHR) individuals from their presenting symptoms...
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25373095/the-potential-for-military-diets-to-reduce-depression-suicide-and-impulsive-aggression-a-review-of-current-evidence-for-omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids
#5
REVIEW
Joseph R Hibbeln, Rachel V Gow
The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated...
November 2014: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24953860/dietary-intake-and-plasma-metabolomic-analysis-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-bipolar-subjects-reveal-dysregulation-of-linoleic-acid-metabolism
#6
Simon J Evans, Rachel N Ringrose, Gloria J Harrington, Peter Mancuso, Charles F Burant, Melvin G McInnis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles associate with risk for mood disorders. This poses the hypothesis of metabolic differences between patients and unaffected healthy controls that relate to the primary illness or are secondary to medication use or dietary intake. However, dietary manipulation or supplementation studies show equivocal results improving mental health outcomes. This study investigates dietary patterns and metabolic profiles relevant to PUFA metabolism, in bipolar I individuals compared to non-psychiatric controls...
October 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24844177/genetic-risk-prediction-and-neurobiological-understanding-of-alcoholism
#7
D F Levey, H Le-Niculescu, J Frank, M Ayalew, N Jain, B Kirlin, R Learman, E Winiger, Z Rodd, A Shekhar, N Schork, F Kiefer, F Kiefe, N Wodarz, B Müller-Myhsok, N Dahmen, M Nöthen, R Sherva, L Farrer, A H Smith, H R Kranzler, M Rietschel, J Gelernter, A B Niculescu
We have used a translational Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to discover genes involved in alcoholism, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a German alcohol dependence cohort with other genetic and gene expression data, from human and animal model studies, similar to our previous work in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value SNPs in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG  (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) was used to generate a genetic  risk prediction score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0...
2014: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24345766/coupling-energy-homeostasis-with-a-mechanism-to-support-plasticity-in-brain-trauma
#8
Rahul Agrawal, Ethika Tyagi, Laurent Vergnes, Karen Reue, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction occurring after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness. In the present study, we utilized an omega-3 diet during early life as a metabolic preconditioning to alter the course of TBI during adulthood. TBI animals under omega-3 deficiency were more prone to alterations in energy homeostasis (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; AMPK phosphorylation and cytochrome C oxidase II; COII levels) and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor A; TFAM)...
April 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23945449/positive-affect-and-survival-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-heart-disease-findings-from-the-heart-and-soul-study
#9
Petra W Hoen, Johan Denollet, Peter de Jonge, Mary A Whooley
OBJECTIVE: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might explain this association. METHOD: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,018 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, and were followed up to June 2011...
July 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23866813/a-randomized-controlled-trial-investigating-the-effects-of-pcso-524-a-patented-oil-extract-of-the-new-zealand-green-lipped-mussel-perna-canaliculus-on-the-behaviour-mood-cognition-and-neurophysiology-of-children-and-adolescents-aged-6-14-years-experiencing
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
James D Kean, David Camfield, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Richard Silberstein, Andrew Scholey, Con Stough
BACKGROUND: The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms...
2013: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23483949/vulnerability-imposed-by-diet-and-brain-trauma-for-anxiety-like-phenotype-implications-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorders
#11
Ethika Tyagi, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Catalina Abad, James A Waschek, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion) is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI) and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD) when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22585900/-n-3-fatty-acids-molecular-role-and-clinical-uses-in-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Pedro Luis Prior, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the newest discoveries of the affected activities by these fats in the cerebral cortex and the efforts that have been made to put them in practice in clinical trials in humans...
May 2012: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22472025/nutraceuticals-in-psychiatric-practice
#13
REVIEW
Matteo Chiappedi, Silvia de Vincenzi, Maurizio Bejor
Nutraceuticals can be defined as food components or active principles present in aliments which have positive effects for health and quality of life, including preventing or treating disorders. Herbal and "natural" food supplements are increasingly used to treat different psychiatric disorders, often as "self-prescribed" therapies. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach...
August 2012: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21940602/the-use-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-mental-illness
#14
REVIEW
Jessica L Gören, Ashley T Tewksbury
PURPOSE: This article will summarize the current evidence on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on prevention and treatment of mental illness. BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids are involved in many physiologic processes. Since they cannot be made de novo in the body, they are considered essential nutrients. As the Western diet evolved, dietary intake of fatty acids has shifted to increased omega-6 fatty acids and decreased omega-3 fatty acids intake. These changes have been correlated with numerous differences in prevalence and course of mental illnesses...
October 2011: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21838664/randomized-placebo-controlled-trials-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#15
REVIEW
Pierluigi Politi, Matteo Rocchetti, Enzo Emanuele, Mariangela Rondanelli, Francesco Barale
A growing body of evidence suggests that omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are clinically useful in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have focused on the potential therapeutic utility of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with mental illnesses. We searched the PubMed database for placebo-controlled clinical trials using the keywords "PUFAs", "omega-3", "eicosapentaenoic acid", and "docosahexaenoic acid" in combination with the following terms: "anxiety disorders", "mood disorders", "autism", "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD), "personality disorders", and "schizophrenia"...
September 2013: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21185973/validation-of-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-to-assess-intake-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-subjects-with-and-without-major-depressive-disorder
#16
M Elizabeth Sublette, C J Segal-Isaacson, Thomas B Cooper, Shiva Fekri, Nora Vanegas, Hanga C Galfalvy, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann
The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in psychiatric illness is a topic of public health importance. This report describes development and biomarker validation of a 21-item, self-report food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) intended for use in psychiatric research to assess intake of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3 [ALA]), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 [DHA]), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 [EPA]). In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2006 to September 2008, sixty-one ethnically diverse adult participants with (n=34) and without (n=27) major depressive disorder completed this n-3 PUFA FFQ and provided a plasma sample...
January 2011: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21115087/increased-breath-ethane-levels-in-medicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-are-unrelated-to-erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acid-abundance
#17
Brian M Ross, Ross Maxwell, Iain Glen
Oxidative stress has been reported to be elevated in mental illness. Preliminary evidence suggests this phenomenon can be assessed non-invasively by determining breath levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation product ethane. This study compares alkane levels in chronic, medicated, patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with those in healthy controls. Both ethane and butane levels were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, although elevated butane levels were likely due to increased ambient gas concentrations...
March 30, 2011: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20500789/fatty-acids-from-fish-the-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca Wall, R Paul Ross, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Catherine Stanton
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of potent lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids, which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFAs (e.g., arachidonic acid) have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFAs [e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have anti-inflammatory properties, traditionally attributed to their ability to inhibit the formation of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids...
May 2010: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20402707/randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-flax-oil-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Barbara L Gracious, Madalina C Chirieac, Stefan Costescu, Teresa L Finucane, Eric A Youngstrom, Joseph R Hibbeln
OBJECTIVES: This clinical trial evaluated whether supplementation with flax oil, containing the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA), safely reduced symptom severity in youth with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 6-17 years with symptomatic bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (n = 51), manic, hypomanic, mixed, or depressed, were randomized to either flax oil capsules containing 550 mg alpha-LNA per 1 gram or an olive oil placebo adjunctively or as monotherapy...
March 2010: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20124114/long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-indicated-prevention-of-psychotic-disorders-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
G Paul Amminger, Miriam R Schäfer, Konstantinos Papageorgiou, Claudia M Klier, Sue M Cotton, Susan M Harrigan, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick D McGorry, Gregor E Berger
CONTEXT: The use of antipsychotic medication for the prevention of psychotic disorders is controversial. Long-chain omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be beneficial in a range of psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Given that omega-3 PUFAs are generally beneficial to health and without clinically relevant adverse effects, their preventive use in psychosis merits investigation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether omega-3 PUFAs reduce the rate of progression to first-episode psychotic disorder in adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 25 years with subthreshold psychosis...
February 2010: Archives of General Psychiatry
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