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chemical neurotoxicity

N Bartsch, M Girard, L Schneider, V Van De Weijgert, A Wilde, O Kappenstein, B Vieth, C Hutzler, A Luch
Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Letícia Silva Cardoso, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Thales Quintão Chagas, Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Denys Ribeiro de Oliveira Costa, Igor Pereira, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Recent studies have shown that cigarette consumption affects much more than human health. Smoked cigarette butt (SCB) disposal into the environment can bring little-known negative biological consequences to mammals, since it contains many organic and inorganic toxic chemical constituents. Thus, we aim at assessing whether the ingestion of water with leached SCB for 60 days by female Swiss mice changes their defensive behavioral response to potential predators (cats and snakes). We worked with the following groups of animals: control (pollutant-free water), water with environmental concentration of SCB (1...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Atsuhiko Taniguchi
 Amyloid proteins and peptides form aggregates which lead to amyloid diseases. For example, Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid β (Aβ) forms oligomers, protofibrils, and amyloid fibrils, which exhibit neurotoxicity. Controlling the aggregation and toxicity of Aβ would be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we have investigated an artificial oxygenative modification (chemical introduction of oxygen atoms) of amyloid proteins using a photocatalyst, which attenuated the aggregation potency and toxicity of these proteins...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Felipe Vidal, Pilar Vásquez, Francisca R Cayumán, Carola Díaz, Jorge Fuentealba, Luis G Aguayo, Gonzalo E Yévenes, Joel Alderete, Leonardo Guzmán
One of the most studied nanocarriers for drug delivery are polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. However, the alterations produced by PAMAM dendrimers in neuronal function have not been thoroughly investigated, and important aspects such as effects on synaptic transmission remain unexplored. We focused on the neuronal activity disruption induced by dendrimers and the possibility to prevent these effects by surface chemical modifications. Therefore, we studied the effects of fourth generation PAMAM with unmodified positively charged surface (G4) in hippocampal neurons, and compared the results with dendrimers functionalized in 25% of their surface groups with folate (PFO25) and polyethylene glycol (PPEG25)...
December 25, 2017: Nanomaterials
Xiana González-Gómez, Noelia Cambeiro-Pérez, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhongyu Wang, Zhiqiang Fu, Qi Yu, Jingwen Chen
Alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have become prevalent as a consequence of restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For risk assessment of these alternatives, knowledge of their metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes is needed. We have previously proved that density functional theory (DFT) is able to predict the metabolism of PBDEs by revealing the molecular mechanisms. In the current study, the reactivity of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane and structurally similar chemicals with the Compound I model representing the active site of P450 enzymes was investigated...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Giovani Valentin Cimbaluk, Wanessa Algarte Ramsdorf, Maiara Carolina Perussolo, Hayanna Karla Felipe Santos, Helena Cristina Da Silva De Assis, Mariane Cristina Schnitzler, Danielle Caroline Schnitzler, Pedro Gontijo Carneiro, Marta Margarete Cestari
Carbon Nanotubes are among the most promising materials for the technology industry. Their unique physical and chemical proprieties may reduce the production costs and improve the efficiency of a large range of products. However, the same characteristics that have made nanomaterials interesting for industry may be responsible for inducing toxic effects on the aquatic organisms. Since the carbon nanotubes toxicity is still a controversial issue, we performed tests of acute and subchronic exposure to a commercial sample of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two fish species, an exotic model (Danio rerio) and a native one (Astyanax altiparanae)...
December 26, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jennifer Ames, Marcella Warner, Paolo Brambilla, Paolo Mocarelli, William A Satariano, Brenda Eskenazi
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is neurotoxic in animals but few studies have investigated its effects on the human brain. Related dioxin-like compounds have been linked to poorer cognitive and motor function in older adults, with effects more pronounced in women, perhaps due to the loss of neuro-protective estrogen in menopause. On 10 July 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, resulted in one of the highest known residential exposures to TCDD. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of the health of the women who were newborn to 40 years old in 1976...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
Narendra Nath Jha, Srivastav Ranganathan, Rakesh Kumar, Surabhi Mehra, Rajlaxmi Panigrahi, Ambuja Navalkar, Dhiman Ghosh, Ashutosh Kumar, Ranjith Padinhateeri, Samir K Maji
Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) into neurotoxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils is suggested to be the pathogenic mechanism for Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have indicated that oligomeric species of α-Syn are more cytotoxic as compared to their mature fibrillar counterparts, which are responsible for dopaminergic neuronal cell death in PD. Therefore, the effective therapeutic strategies to tackle aggregation-associated diseases would be to either prevent aggregation or modulate the aggregation process to minimize the formation of toxic oligomers during aggregation...
December 29, 2017: Biochemistry
Brad Bolon
Regulatory guidances for nonclinical toxicity testing require brain evaluation but do not require a specific analytical strategy. The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) has produced "best practice" recommendations for brain sampling and processing in general toxicity (GT) studies in adult rodents and nonrodents as well as developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies in rodents. This article explains acceptable brain trimming strategies as described in these 2 STP documents. Figures in the DNT and GT "best practices" illustrate coronal brain trimming at specific levels as defined by discrete external and internal anatomic landmarks...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Johannes Delp, Simon Gutbier, Martin Cerff, Christin Zasada, Sebastian Niedenführ, Liang Zhao, Lena Smirnova, Thomas Hartung, Hanna Borlinghaus, Falk Schreiber, Jörg Bergemann, Jochem Gätgens, Martin Beyss, Salah Azzouzi, Tanja Waldmann, Stefan Kempa, Katharina Nöh, Marcel Leist
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) may be induced when chemicals disturb a key neurodevelopmental process, and many tests focus on this type of toxicity. Alternatively, DNT may occur when chemicals are cytotoxic only during a specific neurodevelopmental stage. The toxicant sensitivity is affected by the expression of toxicant targets and by resilience factors. Although cellular metabolism plays an important role, little is known how it changes during human neurogenesis, and how potential alterations affect toxicant sensitivity of mature vs...
December 24, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kristina Attoff, Anda Gliga, Jessica Lundqvist, Ulf Norinder, Anna Forsby
Despite its high relevance, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is one of the least studied forms of toxicity. Current guidelines for DNT testing are based on in vivo testing and they require extensive resources. Transcriptomic approaches using relevant in vitro models have been suggested as a useful tool for identifying possible DNT-generating compounds. In this study, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on the murine progenitor cell line C17.2 following 5 and 10 days of differentiation. We identified 30 genes that are strongly associated with neural differentiation...
2017: PloS One
Daniella de S Moreira, Paula W Figueiró, Cassiana Siebert, Caroline A Prezzi, Francieli Rohden, Fatima C R Guma, Vanusa Manfredini, Angela T S Wyse
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine metabolism. When plasma homocysteine levels exceed 10-15 μM, there is a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia, which occur as a result of an inborn error of methionine metabolism or by non-genetic causes. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acetylsalicylic acid has neuroprotective role on the effect of homocysteine on inflammatory, oxidative/nitrative stress, and morphological parameters in cerebral cortex of rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia...
December 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Jinsong Sun, Xiaoxia Shi, Shuangyue Li, Fengyuan Piao
2,5-Hexanedione (HD) is an important bioactive metabolite of n-hexane and mediates the neurotoxicity of parent compound. Studies show that HD induces apoptotic death of neural progenitor cells. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells with the ability to differentiate into various cell types and have been used as cell model for studying the toxic effects of chemicals on stem cells. In this study, we exposed rat bone marrow MSCs to 0, 10, 20, and 40 mM HD in vitro...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Marta Sobanska, Stefan Scholz, Anna-Maija Nyman, Romanas Cesnaitis, Simon Gutierrez Alonso, Nils KlüVer, Ralph KüHne, Henrik Tyle, Joop De Knecht, Zhichao Dang, Ivar Lundbergh, Claudio Carlon, Wim De Coen
In 2013 the OECD Test Guideline (TG 236) for Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals on embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity (AFT) - however, the potential of FET test to predict AFT, which is required by the REACH Regulation (EC 1907/2006) and CLP (EC 1272/2008), has not yet been fully clarified. In 2015 the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) requested a consultant to perform a scientific analysis on the applicability of FET to predict AFT...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Nicholas Radio, Steven Frank
Neurite outgrowth, one of the underlying cellular processes that defines the development and functionality of the mammalian nervous system, is also a sensitive indicator of neuronal cell health. From screening libraries of putative neurotherapeutic compounds to analyzing the millions of environmental pollutants for which we have inadequate neurotoxicity safety data, the large volume of chemical compounds that require evaluation is a major obstacle for manual imaging and analysis methods. In this context, high-content analysis (HCA) has emerged as a sensitive and accurate method for detecting changes in neuronal cell morphology within a format applicable to screening large chemical libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied...
November 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jinwook Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Sung-Ho Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Miyoung Yang, Changjong Moon
Neurotoxicity induced by stress, radiation, chemicals, or metabolic diseases, is commonly associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The pathological process of neurotoxicity induces neuronal death, interrupts synaptic plasticity in the brain, and is similar to that of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models of neurotoxicity have revealed that clinical symptoms and brain lesions can recover over time via neuroregenerative processes. Specifically, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission are related to both neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Siddhartha Banerjee, Zhiqiang Sun, Eric Y Hayden, David B Teplow, Yuri L Lyubchenko
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers are emerging as potent neurotoxic species in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Detailed characterization of oligomer structure and dynamics are necessary to develop oligomer-specific therapeutic agents. However, oligomers exist transiently, which complicates their structural analysis. One approach to mitigate these problems has been photochemical cross-linking of native oligomers. In these states, the oligomers can be isolated and purified for physical and chemical studies...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Zhangyang Qi, Meihao Wu, Yun Fu, Tengfei Huang, Tingting Wang, Yanjie Sun, Zhibo Feng, Changzheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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