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chemical neurotoxicity

Cláudia C Miranda, Tiago G Fernandes, Sandra N Pinto, Manuel Prieto, M Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral
Stem cell's unique properties confer them a multitude of potential applications in the fields of cellular therapy, disease modelling and drug screening fields. In particular, the ability to differentiate neural progenitors (NP) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using chemically-defined conditions provides an opportunity to create a simple and straightforward culture platform for application in these fields. Here, we demonstrated that hiPSCs are capable of undergoing neural commitment inside microwells, forming characteristic neural structures resembling neural rosettes and further give rise to glial and neuronal cells...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Md Jakaria, Duk-Yeon Cho, Md Ezazul Haque, Govindarajan Karthivashan, In-Su Kim, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa and has various pharmacological activities, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and infections. In addition, it might be a potential neuropharmacological agent because it exhibits versatile potential for attenuating neurological impairments. It features greater beneficial effects in toxin-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. In various models of neurological disorders, it demonstrates emergent functions, including safeguarding various neurodegenerative diseases and other neurological diseases, such as stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sheharbano Bhatti, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Touqeer Ahmed, Saadia Zahid
The present study investigates the neuroprotective effects of Foeniculum vulgare seeds in a lead (Pb)-induced brain neurotoxicity mice model. The dried seeds extract of Foeniculum vulgare was prepared with different concentrations of organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, n-hexane). The in vitro antioxidant activity of Foeniculum vulgare seed extracts was assessed through DPPH assay and the chemical composition of the extracts was determined by high-resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The age-matched male Balb/c mice (divided into 9 groups) were administered with 0...
May 9, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yujie He, Sabri Nurul, Heike Schmitt, Nora B Sutton, Tinka A J Murk, Marco H Blokland, Huub H M Rijnaarts, Alette A M Langenhoff
The performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) is generally evaluated on the basis of chemical analysis. In this work, we used a combination of chemical, toxicological, and molecular analyses to assess the attenuation of PhACs, toxic potency and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a field study of three CWs serving as tertiary treatment of wastewater treatment plants. First, 17 PhACs were analysed chemically, of which 14 were detected and seven at concentrations >0...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Medina S Jackson-Browne, George D Papandonatos, Aimin Chen, Antonia M Calafat, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce P Lanphear, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Exposure to triclosan, an endocrine disrupting chemical, may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis and adversely affect neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: Using a longitudinal pregnancy and birth cohort, we investigated associations between triclosan exposures during different time windows, and cognitive test scores at 8 y of age in 198 children from the HOME Study. METHODS: We quantified triclosan in urine samples from mother-child pairs up to nine times between the second trimester of gestation and 8 y of age...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Safa Ben Mimouna, Marouane Chemek, Sana Boughammoura, Zohra Haouas, Imed Messaoudi
The present study was conducted to assess the possible effect of cadmium (Cd) throughout gestation and lactation on the volume of the subregion of the hippocampus as well as the potential protective role of zinc (Zn) against Cd neurotoxicity. For this purpose, female rats received either tap water, Cd, Zn or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation and lactation. At postnatal day 35 (PND35), the male pups were sacrificed, and their brains were taken for histologic, chemical, and biochemical analysis...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Maud Pelletier, Philippe Glorennec, Corinne Mandin, Barbara Le Bot, Olivier Ramalho, Fabien Mercier, Nathalie Bonvallot
BACKGROUND: The toxic effects of environmental exposure to chemicals are increasingly being studied and confirmed, notably for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). These are found in many products and housing materials, from which they are emitted to indoor air, settled dust and other surfaces. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work is to assess the human health risk posed by residential indoor exposure to 32 SVOCs, assessed in previous nationwide studies. METHODS: A chemical-by-chemical risk assessment, using a hazard quotient (HQ) or excess risk (ER) method, was supplemented by a cumulative risk assessment (CRA)...
April 26, 2018: Environment International
Galen W Miller, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Bianca Yaghoobi, Pamela J Lein
Chemical exposures have been implicated as environmental risk factors that interact with genetic susceptibilities to influence individual risk for complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disabilities. Altered patterns of neuronal connectivity represent a convergent mechanism of pathogenesis for these and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and growing evidence suggests that chemicals can interfere with specific signaling pathways that regulate the development of neuronal connections...
April 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Michael Wink
Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Flávia V Soares, Alexandre A de Castro, Ander F Pereira, Daniel H S Leal, Daiana T Mancini, Ondrej Krejcar, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Kamil Kuca
Organophosphorus compounds (OP) are part of a group of compounds that may be hazardous to health. They are called neurotoxic agents because of their action on the nervous system, inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and resulting in a cholinergic crisis. Their high toxicity and rapid action lead to irreversible damage to the nervous system, drawing attention to developing new treatment methods. The diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) enzyme has been considered as a potent biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of toxic OP and has potential for bioremediation of this kind of intoxication...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sunil Kumar, Anja Henning, Mazin Magzoub, Andrew D Hamilton
The processes associated with the conversion of amyloid beta (Aβ) into intractable amyloid fibers are considered to be pivotal events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevailing hypothesis stipulates that the pre-amyloid oligomers of Aβ are the main culprits associated with the onset and progression of AD, which has prompted efforts to search for therapeutic agents with the ability to inhibit Aβ oligomerization and amyloidogenesis. However, the lack of clinical progress is impeded by the limited structural information about the neurotoxic oligomers...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Diego Rocha-Parra, Jorge Chirife, Clara Zamora, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa
Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified...
April 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Mustafa Özkaraca, Atena Ghosi, Emine Toraman, Harun Arslan
The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity effects of frequently used pesticides, involving cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, on the expression of bdnf and c-fos genes in zebrafish brain tissues. Therefore, brain tissues exposed to intoxication was primarily analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Afterwards, the mRNA transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The data of the immunofluorescence assay revealed intensive immunopositivity for bdnf and c-fos genes in the tissues exposed to pesticide intoxication in comparison to the control group (p<0...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Joshua A Harrill, Theresa Freudenrich, Kathleen Wallace, Kenneth Ball, Timothy J Shafer, William R Mundy
Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages...
April 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Julia Kleinteich, Jonathan Puddick, Susanna A Wood, Falk Hildebrand, H Dail Laughinghouse Iv, David A Pearce, Daniel R Dietrich, Annick Wilmotte
Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs) with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of temperate and tropical regions. Cyanobacterial biofilms thriving in the polar regions have recently emerged as a rich source for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites including previously undescribed congeners of microcystin. However, detection and detailed identification of these compounds is difficult due to unusual sample matrices and structural congeners produced...
April 3, 2018: Toxins
Ruiwen Li, Ling Zhang, Qipeng Shi, Yongyong Guo, Wei Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou
Tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), an extensively used organophosphorus flame retardant, is frequently detected in various environmental media and biota, and has been demonstrated as neurotoxic. Autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against toxicant-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of TDCIPP exposure on autophagy, and its role in TDCIPP-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Zebrafish embryos (2-120 h post-fertilization [hpf]) were exposed to TDCIPP (0, 5, 50 and 500 μg/l) and a model neurotoxic chemical, chlorpyrifos (CPF, 100 μg/l)...
March 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Pingping Sun, Jiashan Luo, Yiming Liu, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative compound that has been widely used in various fields of life and industrial productions, because of its special chemical and physical properties. Numerous studies have indicated significant neurotoxic effect of PFOS, especially on neurons and microglia. However, the influence of PFOS on astrocyte physiology remains unclear. In this study, we showed that PFOS triggered reactive astrocytosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. The low-doses of PFOS increased the cell number and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known hallmark of reactive astrocytes, in C6 astrocyte cells...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Anne Zwartsen, Laura Hondebrink, Remco Hs Westerink
While the prevalence and the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing, data on pharmacological, toxicological and clinical effects is limited. Considering the large number of NPS available, there is a clear need for efficient in vitro screening techniques that capture multiple mechanisms of action. Neuronal cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have previously proven suitable for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and (illicit) drugs. We therefore used rat primary cortical cultures grown on mwMEA plates to investigate the effects of eight NPS (PMMA, α-PVP, methylone, MDPV, 2 C-B, 25B-NBOMe, BZP and TFMPP) and two 'classic' illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine) on spontaneous neuronal activity...
March 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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