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chemical neurotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089071/lead-cadmium-and-mercury-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-risk-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-case-control-study
#1
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Jessica Mandrioli, Federica Violi, Annalisa Bargellini, Jennifer Weuve, Nicola Fini, Peter Grill, Bernhard Michalke
Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals such as pesticides, selenium, and heavy metals have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in 38 ALS patients (16 men and 22 females) and 38 hospital-admitted controls by using their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) content as biomarker. We determined CSF heavy metal levels with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry, according to a methodology specifically developed for this biological matrix...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088544/off-site-impacts-of-wildfires-on-aquatic-systems-biomarker-responses-of-the-mosquitofish-gambusia-holbrooki
#2
Bruno Nunes, Vera Silva, Isabel Campos, Joana Luísa Pereira, Patrícia Pereira, Jan Jacob Keizer, Fernando Gonçalves, Nelson Abrantes
The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077650/melanin-or-melanin-like-substance-interacts-with-the-n-terminal-portion-of-prion-protein-and-inhibits-abnormal-prion-protein-formation-in-prion-infected-cells
#3
Taichi Hamanaka, Keiko Nishizawa, Yuji Sakasegawa, Ayumi Oguma, Kenta Teruya, Hiroshi Kurahashi, Hideyuki Hara, Suehiro Sakaguchi, Katsumi Doh-Ura
Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041893/effects-of-methylmercury-on-spinal-cord-afferents-and-efferents-a-review
#4
Alexandra Colón-Rodríguez, Heidi E Hannon, William D Atchison
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxicant of public health concern. It readily accumulates in exposed humans, primarily in neuronal tissue. Exposure to MeHg, either acutely or chronically, causes severe neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system and spinal neurons; dysfunction of susceptible neuronal populations results in neurodegeneration, at least in part through Ca(2+)-mediated pathways. Biochemical and morphologic changes in peripheral neurons precede those in central brain regions, despite the fact that MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier...
December 29, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039330/dissecting-the-influence-of-two-structural-substituents-on-the-differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-mephedrone-on-dopamine-nerve-endings-with-the-use-of-4-methylmethamphetamine-and-methcathinone
#5
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032142/overlooking-relevant-confounders-in-the-assessment-of-pesticides-and-human-health-a-reply-to-mostafalou-and-abdollahi
#6
EDITORIAL
Keith Fluegge
Mostafalou and Abdollahi (Arch Toxicol, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x ) have recently conducted a review exploring human exposure to pesticides and systematically highlighting known toxic mechanisms from these exposures. Their review is extensive and appraises the literature on pesticide toxicity in a number of domains, including neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity. However, as important as it may be to understand the toxicological potential of these chemicals in humans and other species, the role of these chemicals as proxies for other environmental exposures should not be excluded...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031399/neurons-derived-from-different-brain-regions-are-inherently-different-in-vitro-a-novel-multiregional-brain-on-a-chip
#7
Stephanie Dauth, Ben M Maoz, Sean P Sheehy, Matthew A Hemphill, Tara Murty, Mary Kate Macedonia, Angie M Greer, Bogdan Budnik, Kevin Kit Parker
Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: The scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029482/a-chronic-toxicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-52-weeks
#8
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Shotarou Yamano, Masaki Fujioka, Kumiko Tatsumi, Satoko Kawachi, Naomi Ishii, Kenichiro Doi, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of DPAA when administered to rats in their drinking water for 52 weeks. DPAA was administered to groups 1-4 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20ppm in their drinking water for 52 weeks. There were no significant differences in the final body weights between the control groups and the treatment groups in male or female rats...
October 28, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984697/delineating-amyloid-plaque-associated-neuronal-sphingolipids-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-tgarcswe-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#9
Ibrahim Kaya, Dimitri Brinet, Wojciech Michno, Stina Syvänen, Dag Sehlin, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
The major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the progressive aggregation and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein into neurotoxic deposits. Aβ aggregation has been suggested as the critical early inducer, driving the disease progression. However, the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides, and proteins in biological tissue sections...
January 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965358/molecular-mechanisms-of-allosteric-inhibition-of-brain-glycogen-phosphorylase-by-neurotoxic-dithiocarbamate-chemicals
#10
Cecile Mathieu, Linh-Chi Bui, Emile Petit, Iman Haddad, Onnik Agbulut, Joelle Vinh, Jean-Marie Dupret, Fernando Rodrigues Lima
Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are important industrial chemicals that are extensively used as pesticides and in a variety of therapeutic applications. The wide use of DTC has nonetheless raised important issues as they have been associated with neurotoxic effects and in particular with the development of Parkinson-like neuropathy. Although different pathways and enzymes (such as ubiquitin ligases or the proteasome) have been identified as potential targets of DTC in the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurotoxicity remain poorly understood...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960631/exploring-the-binding-mechanism-and-kinetics-of-piperine-with-snake-venom-secretory-phospholipase-a2
#11
Christian Bharathi A, Srinivas Sistla, Syed Ibrahim B
Secreted venom Phospholipase A2 is highly responsible for pharmacological effects like neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, hemolytic, anti-coagulation and platelet aggregation. Neutralization of these pharmacological behaviors is one of the challenges existing for many decades and a potent drug compound for this is very much needed to control local effects of venom sPLA2. In this study, we investigated binding mechanism and kinetics of inhibition of Piperine (major constitute of Piper nigrum) with sPLA2 using DFT, MD simulation, MM-PBSA and SPR method...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936620/integrated-evaluation-concept-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-advanced-wastewater-treatment-processes-for-the-elimination-of-micropollutants-and-pathogens
#12
Thomas A Ternes, Carsten Prasse, Christian Lütke Eversloh, Gregor Knopp, Peter Cornel, Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann, Thomas Schwartz, Johannes Alexander, Wolfram Seitz, Anja Coors, Jörg Oehlmann
A multidisciplinary concept has been developed to compare advanced wastewater treatment processes for their efficacy of eliminating micropollutants and pathogens. The concept is based on (i) the removal/formation of selected indicator substances and their transformation products (TPs), (ii) the assessment of ecotoxicity via in vitro tests, and (iii) the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria. It includes substances passing biological wastewater treatment plants regulated or proposed to be regulated in the European Water Framework Directive, TPs formed in biological processes or during ozonation, agonistic/antagonistic endocrine activities, mutagenic/genotoxic activities, cytotoxic activities, further activities like neurotoxicity as well as antibiotics resistance genes, and taxonomic gene markers for pathogens...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920337/effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#13
Y He, D Tan, Y Mi, B Bai, D Jiang, X Zhou, S Ji
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical intermediate utilized in industry. ACR is also formed during heating of foods containing carbohydrates and amino acids. Therefore, humans are widely exposed to ACR, and ACR neurotoxicity in humans is a significant public health issue attracting wide attention. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic compound in green tea, in PC12 cells treated with ACR. ACR-treated PC12 cells pretreated with various concentrations of EGCG (2...
December 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917428/ftir-imaging-of-the-molecular-burden-around-a%C3%AE-deposits-in-an-early-stage-3-tg-app-psp1-tau-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Artur Dawid Surowka, Michael Pilling, Alex Henderson, Herve Boutin, Lidan Christie, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Peter Gardner
Alzheimer's disease is one of the major causes of dementia in the elderly. The disease is caused by the misfolding of water soluble alpha-helical proteins, which leads to the accumulation of β-sheets in the form of amyloid plaques, which can subsequently affect surrounding tissue areas by oxidative stress neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to design a novel methodology to analyze the extent to the neuronal burden around protein-rich Aβ plaques suspected to affect molecular components by oxidative stress induced by inflammatory states...
December 19, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916676/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-stigmasterol-hexacosanol-is-responsible-for-larvicidal-and-repellent-properties-of-chromolaena-odorata
#15
Sriramya Gade, Maheshwari Rajamanikyam, Varahalarao Vadlapudi, Krishna Madhav Nukala, Rajendar Aluvala, Chandrasekhar Giddigari, Naga Jyothi Karanam, Nabin C Barua, Richa Pandey, Vijaya Saradhi V Upadhyayula, Prabhakar Sripadi, Ramars Amanchy, Suryanarayana Murty Upadhyayula
BACKGROUND: Chromolaena odorata, has been traditionally known for its insect repellent property. Aim of this study was to determine larvicidal tendency of C. odorata on Culex quinquefasciatus and isolate compounds responsible for this activity and to determine the mechanism of action of these compounds. METHODS: C. odorata plant extract was screened for mosquito larvicidal activity. The extract was fractionated using chromatography and the bioactive fraction showing larvicidal activity was identified...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#16
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888371/protective-effect-of-the-sulfated-agaran-isolated-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-aldingensis-against-toxic-effects-of-the-venom-of-the-snake-lachesis-muta
#17
Ana Cláudia Rodrigues da Silva, Luciana Garcia Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Rabello Duarte, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Miguel Daniel Noseda, André Lopes Fuly
Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims...
November 25, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871551/exposure-to-anesthetic-gases-among-operating-room-personnel-and-risk-of-genotoxicity-a-systematic-review-of-the-human-biomonitoring-studies
#18
REVIEW
Serkan Yılmaz, Nazan Çakırer Çalbayram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic gases have been used for a long time. Adverse effects of anesthetic gases to occupationally exposed people have been well documented in the literature. Due to low solubility, these gases are rapidly eliminated from the human body. Nevertheless, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and reproductive toxicological effects have been shown in many of the scientific works. However, there is no detailed systematic bio-monitoring review about genotoxicity risk among occupationally exposed people...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865525/maternal-stress-modifies-the-effect-of-exposure-to-lead-during-pregnancy-and-24-month-old-children-s-neurodevelopment
#19
Marcela Tamayo Y Ortiz, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Lourdes Schnaas, Erika Osorio-Valencia, Brent Coull, David Bellinger, Rosalind J Wright, Robert O Wright
BACKGROUND: Lead and psychosocial stress disrupt similar but not completely overlapping mechanisms. Exposure during the prenatal period to each of these insults singularly has been found to alter normal neurodevelopment; however, longitudinal associations with stress modifying the effect of lead have not been sufficiently analyzed in epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prenatal stress as an effect modifier of gestational lead neurotoxicity. METHODS: We used a structural equations modeling approach with a trivariate response to evaluate cognitive, language and motor scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in 24month-old children (n=360)...
January 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853314/imprinting-of-cerebral-cytochrome-p450s-in-offsprings-prenatally-exposed-to-cypermethrin-augments-toxicity-on-rechallenge
#20
Anshuman Singh, Anita Agrahari, RadhaDutt Singh, Sanjay Yadav, Vikas Srivastava, Devendra Parmar
Epigenetic studies were carried in the rat offsprings, born to dams treated with cypermethrin (orally; 5.0 mg/kg) from gestation day (GD) 5 to 21 and rechallenged with cypermethrin (orally; 10 mg/kg for 6 days), at adulthood (12 weeks) to understand the mechanism underlying the overexpression of cerebral cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in exposed offsprings. The data revealed alterations in histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in promoter regions of CYP1A- and 2B- isoenzymes in the brain isolated from rechallenged animals...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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