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chemical neurotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511137/effects-of-ibuprofen-diclofenac-and-paracetamol-on-hatch-and-motor-behavior-in-developing-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Liang Xia, Liang Zheng, Jun Liang Zhou
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are widely used as pain relief medicines are causing increasing environmental concern due to their incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plant and potential toxicity on endocrine, kidney and reproduction in teleost fish. This study focused on the effects of widely used ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol on the hatch and motor ability of early-stage zebrafish, by exposing embryos to the target chemicals at 5, 50 and 500 μg/L starting from 6 h postfertilization (hpf)...
May 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506248/paraquat-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-protocol-according-to-the-ohat-approach-for-hazard-identification
#2
Carolina Vaccari, Regina El Dib, João Lauro V de Camargo
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that has genetic susceptibility, aging, and exposure to certain chemicals as risk factors. In recent decades, epidemiological and experimental studies have investigated the role of pesticides in the development of PD, in particular that of the herbicide paraquat. Here, we, therefore, aim to systematically review the association between paraquat exposure and PD. METHODS: Observational studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) eligible for this systematic review will enroll any participant who was occupationally and/or environmentally exposed to paraquat...
May 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505196/unveiling-a-novel-transient-druggable-pocket-in-bace-1-through-molecular-simulations-conformational-analysis-and-binding-mode-of-multisite-inhibitors
#3
Ornella Di Pietro, Jordi Juárez-Jiménez, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, Charles A Laughton, F Javier Luque
The critical role of BACE-1 in the formation of neurotoxic ß-amyloid peptides in the brain makes it an attractive target for an efficacious treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the development of clinically useful BACE-1 inhibitors has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study we examine the binding mode of a novel potent inhibitor (compound 1, with IC50 80 nM) designed by synergistic combination of two fragments-huprine and rhein-that individually are endowed with very low activity against BACE-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495519/the-involvement-of-autophagy-and-cytoskeletal-regulation-in-tdcipp-induced-sh-sy5y-cell-differentiation
#4
Ruiwen Li, Peijiang Zhou, Yongyong Guo, Bingsheng Zhou
Exposure and toxicity to organophosphate-based flame retardants are an increasing health concern. Neurons appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these chemicals. For example, in vitro studies have shown that tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) induces apoptosis and autophagy in neural cells. In the present study, we investigated the cell biological mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced neurotoxicity using undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as a model. Interestingly, TDCIPP treatment promoted differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, which displayed various alterations including neurite elongation, an expansion of the numbers of neurite-bearing cells, and an increase in expression of cytoskeletal components normally enriched in neurons...
May 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492309/competitive-inhibition-mechanism-of-acetylcholinesterase-without-catalytic-active-site-interaction-study-on-functionalized-c60-nanoparticles-via-in-vitro-and-in-silico-assays
#5
Yanyan Liu, Bing Yan, David A Winkler, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity regulation by chemical agents or, potentially, nanomaterials is important for both toxicology and pharmacology. Competitive inhibition via direct catalytic active sites (CAS) binding or noncompetitive inhibition through interference with substrate/product entering/exiting has been recognized previously as an AChE inhibition mechanism for bespoke nanomaterials. The competitive inhibition by peripheral anionic site (PAS) interaction without CAS binding remains unexplored. Here we proposed and verified the occurrence of a presumed competitive inhibition of AChE without CAS binding for hydrophobically functionalized C60 nanoparticles (NPs) by employing both experimental and computational methods...
May 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487766/malathion-increases-apoptotic-cell-death-by-inducing-lysosomal-membrane-permeabilization-in-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells-a-model-for-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ramu Venkatesan, Yong Un Park, Eunhee Ji, Eui-Ju Yeo, Sun Yeou Kim
Malathion is an organophosphate with severe neurotoxic effects. Upon acute exposure, malathion initially enhances cholinergic activity by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which is its major pathological mechanism. Malathion also induces non-cholinergic neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative conditions; the associated molecular mechanism is not well-characterized. To investigate the molecular mechanism of malathion-induced cell death, N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells were exposed to malathion and cell death-related parameters were examined...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486423/association-between-pesticide-profiles-used-on-agricultural-fields-near-maternal-residences-during-pregnancy-and-iq-at-age-7-years
#7
Eric Coker, Robert Gunier, Asa Bradman, Kim Harley, Katherine Kogut, John Molitor, Brenda Eskenazi
We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use patterns of multiple pesticides (denoted as "pesticide profiles") applied near maternal residences during pregnancy and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) at 7 years of age. Among a cohort of children residing in California's Salinas Valley, we used Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data to characterize potential exposure from use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy for 15 potentially neurotoxic pesticides from five different chemical classes...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477266/combination-of-multiple-neural-crest-migration-assays-to-identify-environmental-toxicants-from-a-proof-of-concept-chemical-library
#8
Johanna Nyffeler, Xenia Dolde, Alice Krebs, Kevin Pinto-Gil, Manuel Pastor, Mamta Behl, Tanja Waldmann, Marcel Leist
Many in vitro tests have been developed to screen for potential neurotoxicity. However, only few cell function-based tests have been used for comparative screening, and thus experience is scarce on how to confirm and evaluate screening hits. We addressed these questions for the neural crest cell migration test (cMINC). After an initial screen, a hit follow-up strategy was devised. A library of 75 compounds plus internal controls (NTP80-list), assembled by the National Toxicology Program of the USA (NTP) was used...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475149/new-peptides-isolated-from-marine-cyanobacteria-an-overview-over-the-past-decade
#9
REVIEW
Yue Mi, Jinrong Zhang, Shan He, Xiaojun Yan
Marine cyanobacteria are significant sources of structurally diverse marine natural products with broad biological activities. In the past 10 years, excellent progress has been made in the discovery of marine cyanobacteria-derived peptides with diverse chemical structures. Most of these peptides exhibit strong pharmacological activities, such as neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the present review, we summarized peptides isolated from marine cyanobacteria since 2007.
May 5, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472675/toxic-essential-oils-part-v-behaviour-modulating-and-toxic-properties-of-thujones-and-thujone-containing-essential-oils-of-salvia-officinalis-l-artemisia-absinthium-l-thuja-occidentalis-l-and-tanacetum-vulgare-l
#10
Niko S Radulović, Marija S Genčić, Nikola M Stojanović, Pavle J Randjelović, Zorica Z Stojanović-Radić, Nenad I Stojiljković
Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470525/assaying-spontaneous-network-activity-and-cellular-viability-using-multi-well-microelectrode-arrays
#11
Jasmine P Brown, Brittany S Lynch, Itaevia M Curry-Chisolm, Timothy J Shafer, Jenna D Strickland
Microelectrode array (MEA) technology is a neurophysiological method that allows for the spontaneous measure of activity in neural cultures and determination of drug and chemical effects thereon. Recent introduction of multi-well MEA (mwMEA) formats have dramatically increased the throughput of this technology, allowing more efficient compound screening. Rapid characterization of compounds for neuroactivity or neurotoxicity hazard evaluation following acute, chronic, or developmental exposures ideally would also consider compound effects on cell health, and to do so in the same well requires a multiplexed approach...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470517/a-protocol-for-in-vitro-high-throughput-chemical-susceptibility-screening-in-differentiating-nt2-stem-cells
#12
Ann-Katrin Menzner, Daniel F Gilbert
The incidence of neurological diseases including learning and developmental disorders has increased in recent years. Concurrently, the number and volume of worldwide registered and traded chemicals have also increased. There is a broad consensus that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to damage by chemicals and that evaluation of chemicals for developmental toxicity or neurotoxicity is critical to human health. Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NTERA-2 or NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and allow toxicity assessment at different stages of maturation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448044/generation-of-ipsc-derived-human-brain-organoids-to-model-early-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
Elke Gabriel, Jay Gopalakrishnan
The restricted availability of suitable in vitro models that can reliably represent complex human brain development is a significant bottleneck that limits the translation of basic brain research into clinical application. While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have replaced the ethically questionable human embryonic stem cells, iPSC-based neuronal differentiation studies remain descriptive at the cellular level but fail to adequately provide the details that could be derived from a complex, 3D human brain tissue...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412278/disruption-of-glutamate-neurotransmitter-transmission-is-modulated-by-snap-25-in-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-neurotoxic-effects
#14
Kai Yang, Xuejun Jiang, Qiuping Su, Jing Wang, Chunlin Li, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Qizhong Qin, Xianqing Cao, Chengzhi Chen, Baijie Tu
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a ubiquitous chemical contaminant in the environment, is a well-established neurotoxicant to human. However, the molecular mechanisms for B[a]P neurotoxicity are still unclear. In the present study, after treating Sprague-Dawley rats with 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0mg/kg/day B[a]P for 7 weeks [from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND54], our results showed that B[a]P exposure caused a significant deficits in learning and memory function. By using U87 cells as in vitro model, the significant cytotoxicity and the induction of apoptosis caused by B[a]P were further verified...
April 18, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409416/tributyltin-bioaccumulation-and-toxic-effects-in-freshwater-gastropods-pomacea-canaliculata-after-a-chronic-exposure-field-and-laboratory-studies
#15
María L Martínez, María N Piol, Norma Sbarbati Nudelman, Noemí R Verrengia Guerrero
Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L(-1))...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405934/a-brief-review-of-neurotoxicity-induced-by-melamine
#16
REVIEW
Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398261/novel-proteasome-inhibitors-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-progress-in-myeloma-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
Saurabh Chhabra
The unfolded protein response is responsible for the detection of misfolded proteins and the coordination of their disposal and is necessary to maintain the cellular homoeostasis. Multiple myeloma cells secrete large amounts of immunoglobulins, proteins that need to be correctly folded by the chaperone system. If this process fails, the misfolded proteins have to be eliminated by the two main garbage-disposal systems of the cell: proteasome and aggresome. The blockade of either of these systems will result in accumulation of immunoglobulins and other toxic proteins in the cytoplasm and cell death...
April 11, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391993/sodium-azide-suppresses-lps-induced-expression-mcp-1-through-regulating-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-and-stat1-activities-in-macrophages
#18
Cho-Yi Park, Jae-Nyoung Heo, Kyoungho Suk, Won-Ha Lee
Sodium azide (NaN3) is a chemical compound with multiple toxic effects on vascular and neuronal systems, causing hypotension and neurotoxicity, respectively. In order to test its effects on the immune system, human and mouse macrophage-like cell lines were treated with nontoxic doses of NaN3 and the changes in LPS-induced inflammatory activation was measured. Interestingly, the LPS-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was suppressed by NaN3 without affecting the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385489/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-different-pesticides-in-pc-12-cells-in-vitro
#19
Verena Christen, Manuel Rusconi, Pierre Crettaz, Karl Fent
The detection of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of chemicals has high relevance for protection of human health. However, DNT of many pesticides is only little known. Furthermore, validated in vitro systems for assessment of DNT are not well established. Here we employed the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line PC-12 to evaluate DNT of 18 frequently used pesticides of different classes, including neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, organophosphates, organochlorines, as well as quaternary ammonium compounds, the organic compound used in pesticides, piperonyl butoxide, as well as the insect repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET)...
April 3, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382610/the-role-of-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-in-neuropathology-and-neurodegeneration
#20
Che-Hong Chen, Amit U Joshi, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Aldehydes-induced toxicity has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Exposure to reactive aldehydes from (1) alcohol and food metabolism; (2) environmental pollutants, including car, factory exhausts, smog, pesticides, herbicides; (3) metabolism of neurotransmitters, amino acids and (4) lipid peroxidation of biological membrane from excessive ROS, all contribute to 'aldehydic load' that has been linked to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the α, β-unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), DOPAL (MAO product of dopamine), malondialdehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde, all readily form chemical adductions with proteins, DNA and lipids, thus causing neurotoxicity...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
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