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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649046/transgenerational-endocrine-disruption-and-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish-larvae-after-parental-exposure-to-binary-mixtures-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-and-lead
#1
Lianguo Chen, Xianfeng Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Paul K S Lam, Yongyong Guo, James C W Lam, Bingsheng Zhou
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals are two key groups of electric and electronic equipment contaminants. Despite their co-occurrence in aquatic environments, their combined effects remain largely unknown, particularly under a chronic exposure regime. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of BDE-209 and lead (Pb), or their binary mixtures, for 3 months. After chronic parental exposure, increased transfer of BDE-209 and Pb to the offspring eggs was activated in the coexposure groups, with BDE-197 being the predominant PBDE congener, indicating the dynamic metabolism of BDE-209 in parental zebrafish...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637008/cytotoxic-profiling-of-artesunic-and-betulinic-acids-and-their-synthetic-hybrid-compound-on-neurons-and-gliomas
#3
Annemarie Ackermann, Aysun Çapcı Karagöz, Ali Ghoochani, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Eyüpoglu, Svetlana B Tsogoeva, Nicolai Savaskan
Gliomas are brain-born tumors with devastating impact on their brain microenvironment. Novel approaches employ multiple combinations of chemical compounds in synthetic hybrid molecules to target malignant tumors. Here, we report on the chemical hybridization approach exemplified by artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene betulinic acid (BETA). Artemisinin derived semisynthetic compound artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene BETA were used to synthetically couple to the hybrid compound termed 212A...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629112/european-demonstration-program-on-the-effect-based-and-chemical-identification-and-monitoring-of-organic-pollutants-in-european-surface-waters
#4
Zuzana Tousova, Peter Oswald, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Ludek Blaha, Melis Muz, Meng Hu, Werner Brack, Martin Krauss, Carolina Di Paolo, Zsolt Tarcai, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert, Sanja Koprivica, Marijan Ahel, Jennifer E Schollée, Juliane Hollender, Marc J-F Suter, Anita O Hidasi, Kristin Schirmer, Manoj Sonavane, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Francois Brion, Jean Froment, Ana Catarina Almeida, Kevin Thomas, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Sara Tufi, Xiyu Ouyang, Pim Leonards, Marja Lamoree, Victoria Osorio Torrens, Annemieke Kolkman, Merijn Schriks, Petra Spirhanzlova, Andrew Tindall, Tobias Schulze
Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624627/histopathological-and-proteomic-responses-in-male-chinese-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus-indicate-hepatotoxicity-following-benzotriazole-exposure
#5
Xuefang Liang, Jinmiao Zha, Christopher J Martyniuk, Zijian Wang, Ji Zhao
Benzotriazole (BT) and its associated derivatives are used ubiquitously in industrial processes, and can be detected in indoor temperature coolants and in chemicals designed to inhibit corrosion. This chemical has been widely detected in aquatic environments and shows some degree of environmental persistence. Evidence has shown that BT exposure can negatively affect endocrine systems and can result in neurotoxicity in fish. However, no study has examined whether this chemical exhibits hepatotoxicity in fish, and if so, what are the underlying mechanism associated with the damage...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614773/assessment-of-neurotoxicity-of-pharmacological-compounds-during-early-neural-development-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#6
H Y Kang, E J Hong, H S Kang, C Ahn, E B Jeung
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with the potential for differentiation, have been used to evaluate the embryotoxicity of various compounds. The effects of pharmacological compounds (cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, indomethacin, and dexamethasone) on neurogenesis of hESCs over 28 days were examined based on cytotoxicity (half-maximal inhibitory concentration of viability, IC50) and expression of neural markers. Cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea showed strong cytotoxicity (IC50 < 10 μM), whereas indomethacin and dexamethasone had weaker cytotoxic effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610994/manganese-induced-sex-specific-gut-microbiome-perturbations-in-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) leads to toxic effects, such as promoting the development of Parkinson's-like neurological disorders. The gut microbiome is deeply involved in immune development, host metabolism, and xenobiotics biotransformation, and significantly influences central nervous system (CNS) via the gut-brain axis, i.e. the biochemical signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the CNS. However, it remains unclear whether Mn can affect the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions, particularly those linked to neurotoxicity...
June 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608236/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-against-nicotine-induced-neurotoxicity-is-mediated-by-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#8
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Fahimeh Faraji, Shiva Mozaffari
Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605704/4-5-dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one-dcoit-modifies-synaptic-transmission-in-hippocampal-ca3-neurons-of-rats
#9
Masahito Wakita, Kiyomitsu Shoudai, Yasuo Oyama, Norio Akaike
4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) is an alternative to organotin antifoulants, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin. Since DCOIT is found in harbors, bays, and coastal areas worldwide, this chemical compound may have some impacts on ecosystems. To determine whether DCOIT possesses neurotoxic activity by modifying synaptic transmission, we examined the effects of DCOIT on synaptic transmission in a 'synaptic bouton' preparation of rat brain. DCOIT at concentrations of 0.03-1 μM increased the amplitudes of evoked synaptic currents mediated by GABA and glutamate, while it reduced the amplitudes of these currents at 3-10 μM...
May 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599595/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-flame-retardants-in-mother-infant-pairs-in-the-southeastern-u-s
#10
Paul Terry, Craig V Towers, Liang-Ying Liu, Angela A Peverly, Jiangang Chen, Amina Salamova
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used flame retardants in foams, building material, electronics, and textiles. These chemicals leach into the environment, where they persist, and are found today in virtually every population worldwide. Several studies in recent years have detected the presence of PBDEs in maternal and infant samples. However, few of these studies were conducted in the U.S., and few examined paired or matched mother blood-cord blood samples. We analyzed serum from 10 mother-infant pairs for the presence of PBDEs in a patient population in the Southeastern U...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598384/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-constituents-from-the-peels-of-citrus-grandis
#11
Ping-Chung Kuo, Yu-Ren Liao, Hsin-Yi Hung, Chia-Wei Chuang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Shiow-Chyn Huang, Young-Ji Shiao, Daih-Huang Kuo, Tian-Shung Wu
A series of chromatographic separations performed on the ethanol extracts of the peels of Citrus grandis has led to the characterization of forty compounds, including seventeen coumarins, eight flavonoids, two triterpenoids, four benzenoids, two steroids, one lignan, one amide, and five other compounds, respectively. The chemical structures of the purified constituents were identified on the basis of spectroscopic elucidation, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectrometric analysis. Most of the isolated compounds were examined for their inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598268/effects-of-pulmonary-exposure-to-chemically-distinct-welding-fumes-on-neuroendocrine-markers-of-toxicity
#12
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597570/pharmaco-toxicological-effects-of-the-novel-third-generation-fluorinate-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adbinaca-ab-fubinaca-and-sts-135-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#13
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Adolfo Gregori, Fabiana Di Rosa, Federica Nigro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Matteo Marti
INTRODUCTION: 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 are 3 novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids that are illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. METHODS: The present study aims at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in male CD-1 mice, comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9) -THC and JWH-018...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594109/a-cell-free-testing-platform-to-screen-chemicals-of-potential-neurotoxic-concern-across-twenty-vertebrate-species
#14
Adeline Arini, Krittika Mittal, Peter Dornbos, Jessica Head, Jennifer Rutkiewicz, Niladri Basu
There is global demand for new in vitro testing tools for ecological risk assessment. The objective of this study was to apply a set of cell-free neurochemical assays to screen many chemicals across many species in a relatively high-throughput manner. The platform assessed seven receptors and enzymes that mediate neurotransmission of GABA, dopamine, glutamate, and acetylcholine. Each assay was optimized to work across 20 vertebrate species (5 fish, 5 birds, 7 mammalian wildlife, 3 biomedical species including humans)...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583171/comparison-of-neurons-derived-from-mouse-p19-rat-pc12-and-human-sh-sy5y-cells-in-the-assessment-of-chemical-and-toxin-induced-neurotoxicity
#15
Dina Popova, Jessica Karlsson, Stig O P Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells for their ability to detect toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), okadaic acid and acrylamide...
June 5, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561817/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-attenuates-cerebral-cortex-damage-and-promotes-brain-regeneration-in-acrylamide-treated-rats
#16
Yin He, Dehong Tan, Yan Mi, Qian Zhou, Shujuan Ji
Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxic industrial chemical intermediate, which is also present in food and water. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, on ACR-treated rat brain. Rats were pre-treated with EGCG for 4 d and then administered ACR and EGCG for 14 d. EGCG increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the rate of Nissl-positive cells in ACR-treated rats. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining indicated that EGCG attenuated ACR-induced senescence...
May 31, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558975/critical-review-of-the-current-literature-on-the-safety-of-sucralose
#17
REVIEW
Bernadene A Magnuson, Ashley Roberts, Earle R Nestmann
Sucralose is a non-caloric high intensity sweetener that is approved globally for use in foods and beverages. This review provides an updated summary of the literature addressing the safety of use of sucralose. Studies reviewed include chemical characterization and stability, toxicokinetics in animals and humans, assessment of genotoxicity, and animal and human feeding studies. Endpoints evaluated include effects on growth, development, reproduction, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity and overall health status...
May 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552054/neurotoxicity-of-insecticides
#18
Julien Cassereau, Marc Ferré, Arnaud Chevrollier, Philippe Codron, Christophe Verny, Chadi Homedan, Guy Lenaers, Vincent Procaccio, Pascale May-Panloup, Pascal Reynier
BACKGROUND: Human exposure to insecticides raises serious public health concerns worldwide. Insecticides constitute a wide-ranging heterogeneous group of chemicals, most of which target the nervous system and disrupt neurometabolism and/or neurotransmission. Although the acute effects of insecticide poisoning in humans are well documented, the chronic and long-term effects remain difficult to investigate. OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: We sought to review the present state-of-knowledge of acute, chronic, neurodevelopmental and neurological consequences of human exposure to insecticides...
May 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529144/toxicant-induced-behavioural-aberrations-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dependent-on-minor-methodological-alterations
#19
Thomas W K Fraser, Abdolrahman Khezri, Juan G H Jusdado, Anna M Lewandowska-Sabat, Theodore Henry, Erik Ropstad
Alterations in zebrafish motility are used to identify neurotoxic compounds, but few have reported how methodology may affect results. To investigate this, we exposed embryos to bisphenol A (BPA) or tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) before assessing larval motility. Embryos were maintained on a day/night cycle (DN) or in constant darkness, were reared in 96 or 24 well plates (BPA only), and behavioural tests were carried out at 96, 100, or 118 (BPA only) hours post fertilisation (hpf). We found that the prior photo-regime, larval age, and/or arena size influence behavioural outcomes in response to toxicant exposure...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529068/adverse-outcome-pathways-application-to-enhance-mechanistic-understanding-of-neurotoxicity
#20
REVIEW
Anna Bal-Price, M E Bette Meek
Recent developments have prompted the transition of empirically based testing of late stage toxicity in animals for a range of different endpoints including neurotoxicity to more efficient and predictive mechanistically based approaches with greater emphasis on measurable key events early in the progression of disease. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) has been proposed as a simplified organizational construct to contribute to this transition by linking molecular initiating events and earlier (more predictive) key events at lower levels of biological organization to disease outcomes...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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