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Cerebral ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150867/near-infrared-diffuse-reflectance-signals-for-monitoring-spreading-depolarizations-and-progression-of-the-lesion-in-a-male-rat-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#1
Satoko Kawauchi, Izumi Nishidate, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato
In ischemic stroke research, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and development of neuroprotection methods are crucial, for which in vivo imaging to monitor spreading depolarizations (SDs) and evolution of tissue damage is desired. Since these events are accompanied by cellular morphological changes, light-scattering signals, which are sensitive to cellular and subcellular morphology, can be used for monitoring them. In this study, we performed transcranial imaging of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance at ∼800 nm, which sensitively reflects light-scattering change, and examined how NIR reflectance is correlated with simultaneously measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) for a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150777/glibenclamide-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-have-comparable-effect-on-attenuating-global-cerebral-edema-following-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#2
Shin Nakayama, Noriko Taguchi, Yumi Isaka, Takako Nakamura, Makoto Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema is one of the major causes of mortality following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A subunit of the sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential M4 (Sur1-TRPM4) channel has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-evoked cerebral edema. In this study, we examined whether glibenclamide (GBC), a Sur1-TRPM4 channel inhibitor, attenuates cerebral edema following CA/CPR and further examined the efficacy of GBC combined with therapeutic hypothermia...
November 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150648/shedding-light-on-the-neonatal-brain-probing-cerebral-hemodynamics-by-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-methods
#3
Parisa Farzam, Erin M Buckley, Pei-Yi Lin, Katherine Hagan, P Ellen Grant, Terrie Eleanor Inder, Stefan A Carp, Maria Angela Franceschini
Investigating the cerebral physiology of healthy term newborns' brains is important for better understanding perinatal brain injuries, of which the most common etiologies are hypoxia and ischemia. Hence, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation are important biomarkers of brain health. In this study, we employed a hybrid diffuse optical system consisting of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) to measure hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and indices of cerebral blood flow and metabolism...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148909/inhibition-of-gaba-transporters-fails-to-afford-significant-protection-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Maria Ek Lie, Emma K Gowing, Rasmus P Clausen, Petrine Wellendorph, Andrew N Clarkson
Brain ischemia triggers excitotoxicity and cell death, yet no neuroprotective drugs have made it to the clinic. While enhancing GABAergic signaling to counterbalance excitotoxicity has shown promise in animal models, clinical studies have failed. Blockade of GABA transporters (GATs) offers an indirect approach to increase GABA inhibition to lower the excitation threshold of neurons. Among the GATs, GAT1 is known to promote neuroprotection, while the protective role of the extrasynaptic transporters GAT3 and BGT1 is elusive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147910/therapeutic-activities-of-dj-1-and-its-binding-compounds-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
Masatoshi Inden, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Masanori Hijioka, Hiroyoshi Ariga, Yoshihisa Kitamura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is primarily characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding PARK7/DJ-1 were identified in familial PD. Wild-type DJ-1 acts as an oxidative stress sensor in neural cells. Previously, we identified binding compounds of DJ-1, including UCP0045037/compound A, UCP0054278/compound B, and compound-23 (comp-23), by in silico virtual screening. These compounds prevented oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic neuronal death and restored locomotion defects in animal models of PD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146874/imaging-characteristics-of-venous-parenchymal-abnormalities
#6
Audrey Arnoux, Aude Triquenot-Bagan, Daniela Andriuta, David Wallon, Evelyne Guegan-Massardier, Claire Leclercq, Olivier Martinaud, Mélody Castier-Amouyel, Olivier Godefroy, Jean-Marc Bugnicourt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. METHODS: We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146480/neuroprotection-by-chotosan-a-kampo-formula-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity-involves-the-inhibition-of-glun2b-but-not-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptor-mediated-responses-in-primary-cultured-cortical-neurons
#7
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Azusa Suzuki, Emi Sanai, Kinzo Matsumoto, Jun-Ichiro Oka
Chotosan (CTS), a traditional herbal formula called Kampo medicine, was shown to be effective in the treatment of vascular dementia in a clinical study, and exerted protective effects against transient cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of CTS using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. CTS (250-1000 μg/mL) inhibited neuronal death induced by 100 μM glutamate. This glutamate-induced neuronal death was blocked by a GluN2B-, but not GluN2A-containing NMDA receptor antagonist...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143147/-esc-guidelines-2017-on-peripheral-arterial-diseases-summary-of-the-most-important-recommendations-and-innovations
#8
C Espinola-Klein
The current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on peripheral arterial diseases include recommendations on diagnostics and treatment of atherosclerotic manifestations in peripheral arteries. Because of the high coincidence of atherosclerosis in different arterial territories, screening for other atherosclerotic lesions is necessary in patients with clinical symptoms in one vascular bed. Consistent treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is important in all patients with peripheral atherosclerosis...
November 15, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142624/significances-and-outcomes-of-mechanical-thrombectomy-for-acute-infarction-in-very-elderly-patients-a-single-center-experience
#9
Dong Hun Kim, Sang Uk Kim, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Ho Jun Yi, Sang Won Lee
Objective: Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly being used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The population over 80 years of age is growing, and many of these patients have acute infarction; however, these patients are often excluded from clinical trials, so the aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and complication rates in very elderly patients (age ≥80 years) and aged patients (60-79 years) treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: Between January 2010 and June 2015, we retrospectively reviewed 113 senior patients (over 60 years old) treated at our institution for acute ischemic stroke with mechanical thrombectomy...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142240/robust-segmentation-of-the-full-cerebral-vasculature-in-4d-ct-of-suspected-stroke-patients
#10
Midas Meijs, Ajay Patel, Sil C van de Leemput, Mathias Prokop, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Frederick J A Meijer, Bram van Ginneken, Rashindra Manniesing
A robust method is presented for the segmentation of the full cerebral vasculature in 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT). The method consists of candidate vessel selection, feature extraction, random forest classification and postprocessing. Image features include among others the weighted temporal variance image and parameters, including entropy, of an intensity histogram in a local region at different scales. These histogram parameters revealed to be a strong feature in the detection of vessels regardless of shape and size...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138854/ng25-an-inhibitor-of-transforming-growth-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-activated-kinase-1-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neonatal-hypoxic%C3%A2-ischemic-rats
#11
Hua Wang, Zhong Chen, Yu Li, Qiaoyun Ji
Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β‑activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was found to be activated by TGF‑β and acts as a central regulator of cell death in various types of disease. However, the expression and function of TAK1 in the neonatal brain following hypoxia‑ischemia (HI) remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting and immunofluorescence were employed to determine the expression and distribution of TAK1 in the brain cortex of a perinatal HI rat model. In addition, the specific inhibitor of TAK1, NG25 was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, prior to insult of the neonatal rat brains, for neuroprotection...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138801/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-influences-the-erk-pathway-and-protects-against-neurological-deficits-and-neuronal-death
#12
Jie Yuan, Xin Guo, Zhengang Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Yan Feng, Sixin Song, Changmeng Cui, Pei Jiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that global cerebral ischemia (GCI) causes neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Calcitriol, a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its endocrinological influence via nuclear vitamin D receptor. It is being assessed as an emerging therapeutic strategy in models of various medical conditions, including acute brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol on GCI and further refine the potential underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137683/tanshinone-i-alleviates-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-the-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#13
Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu, Zhifang Dong
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135346/cerebral-artery-myogenic-reactivity-the-next-frontier-in-developing-effective-interventions-for-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Darcy Lidington, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating cerebral event that kills or debilitates the majority of those afflicted. The blood that spills into the subarachnoid space stimulates profound cerebral artery vasoconstriction and consequently, cerebral ischemia. Thus, once the initial bleeding in SAH is appropriately managed, the clinical focus shifts to maintaining/improving cerebral perfusion. However, current therapeutic interventions largely fail to improve clinical outcome, because they do not effectively restore normal cerebral artery function...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134540/acute-connexin43-temporal-and-spatial-expression-in-response-to-ischemic-stroke
#15
Moises Freitas-Andrade, Jennifer She, John Bechberger, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions expressed in astrocytes can significantly impact neuronal survival in stroke. However, little is known regarding Cx43 spatial and temporal expression during the initial stages of brain ischemia. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, we examined Cx43 spatial and temporal expression as a function of neuronal injury within the first 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in Cx43 protein expression in the core ischemic area at 2 and 3 h after pMCAO...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133510/single-cell-immuno-laser-microdissection-coupled-to-label-free-proteomics-to-reveal-the-proteotypes-of-human-brain-cells-after-ischemia
#16
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132058/clinical-significance-of-the-coexistence-of-carotid-artery-plaque-and-white-matter-disease-in-patients-with-symptomatic-cerebral-infarction
#17
Mami Ishikawa, Hitoshi Sugawara, Toshiyuki Tsuji, Mutsumi Nagai, Gen Kusaka, Heiji Naritaka
OBJECTIVES: Symptomatic cerebral infarction (CI) can occur in patients without main cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion. This study investigated the unique features of carotid artery plaque and white matter disease (WMD) in patients with symptomatic CI and transient ischemic attack (TIA) but without stenosis or occlusion of a main cerebral artery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 647 patients who underwent both carotid ultrasound examination and brain magnetic resonance images...
December 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130945/maternally-expressed-gene-3-meg3-enhances-pc12-cell-hypoxia-injury-by-targeting-mir-147
#18
Lili Han, Zhiling Dong, Ningning Liu, Fei Xie, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia often leads to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and vasogenic edema. It remains to be established whether MEG3 is responsible for the hypoxic damage in neural cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of MEG3 in the hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells. METHODS: The PC12 cells were seeded and cultured under hypoxia and normoxia culture conditions. The cell viability determined by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis using propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V staining, cell-migration using a modified two-chamber migration assay with a pore size of 8 µM and invasion using 24-well Millicell Hanging Cell Culture inserts with 8 µM PET membranes...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129468/inhibition-of-rac1-ameliorates-neuronal-oxidative-stress-damage-via-reducing-bcl-2-rac1-complex-formation-in-mitochondria-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#19
Yundan Pan, Na Wang, Pingping Xia, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128627/inhibition-of-jak1-by-microrna-708-promotes-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cell-survival-after-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation
#20
Chao Huang, Haitao Zhou, Xiangyang Ren, Junfang Teng
MicroRNAs mediates gene expression in various diseases. Studies have shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs affected cerebral protection. In this study, we have investigated the effects of microRNA-708 (miR-708) on cell survival of oxygen and glucose-deprived reoxygenation (OGD/R) human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and explored whether miR-708 inhibited neuronal death by targeting JAK1. In vitro model of ischemia was used to investigate the neuroprotective functions of miR-708. MiR-708 mimics/siJAK1 transfected SH-SY5Y cells were treated with OGD...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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