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Cerebral ischemia

Qian Li, Shuhao Wang, Weibin Xiao, Chunqian Huang, Hua Li, Manji Sun
Neurotransmitters are the key factors in ameliorating the symptoms of nervous system diseases. Stroke/cerebral ischemia has been proven to be caused by the excess release of excitatory amino acid glutamate in the brain, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is considered to be the best choice to counteract the action of glutamate. Here, we show that GABA conjugated to a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (YGRRARRRRRR) by means of custom chemical synthesis could penetrate through the blood-brain barrier, increasing the GABA level in the plasma of rats and mice, which, as a result, display a state of calmness and somnolence...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Salma A El-Marasy, Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Reham M Abd-Elsalam
Stroke is the leading cause of death worldwide. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of anti-diabetic drugs for treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent of its anti-diabetic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO...
July 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Peng Zhang, Jin Xu, Wei Hu, Dong Yu, Xiaolu Bai
BACKGROUND Cardiac infarction frequently leads to arrhythmia and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) aggravates cardiac injury. Pinocembrin can resist cerebral ischemia and decrease cardiac infarction area. This study thus generated a rat myocardial I/R model to assess the effect on ventricular rhythm and expression of gap junction connexin (Cx43). MATERIAL AND METHODS Male SD rats were randomly assigned into sham, model, and pinocembrin (30 mg/kg) pretreatment groups (N=15 each). The I/R model was generated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min...
July 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hongxue Sun, Di Zhong, Cheng Wang, Yilei Sun, Jiaying Zhao, Guozhong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigated the role of the microRNA miR-298 and its target Act1 in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry, and mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The regulatory relationship between miR-298 and Act1 was evaluated with the luciferase assay...
July 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Silun Wang, Yonggang Li, Ramesh Paudyal, Byron D Ford, Xiaodong Zhang
Stroke is a devastating neurovascular disorder that results in damage to neurons and white matter tracts. It has been previously demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) protects neurons from ischemic injury following stroke. Here, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was utilized to characterize the effects of NRG-1 treatment on cererbral infarction and integrity of white matter after ischemic insult using a permanent middle celebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) rat model. In the present study, sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent pMCAo surgery and received either a single intra-arterial bolus (20 μg/kg) dose of NRG-1 or saline immediately prior to pMCAo...
July 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Paolo Gritti, Ferdinando L Lorini, Luigi A Lanterna, Federico Bilotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anesthesiologists and intensivists may be involved in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients at various stages of care. This article will review the recent advances in the periprocedural management of aSAH patients. RECENT FINDINGS: New scoring systems to assess gravity and prognosis of aSAH patients have been evaluated and proposed. Rebleeding still remains, with early aneurysmal treatment, a major challenge in the first hours of aSAH management...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Brunelli da Ros Peruch, Brenna Lepaus Monteiro, Rafaela Aires, Cristina Martins E Silva, Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimaraes, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Breno Valentim Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of severe and long-term disability in adult individuals. Treatment of this disease is limited by the narrow therapeutic window in which intervention is crucial. An alternative therapy for stroke could be cellular growth factors, which participate in several pathways that mediate neuronal cell death. METHODS: We evaluated the neuroprotective ability of different doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg/day) in the mouse model of global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 80 minutes...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Christopher Elnan Kvistad, Vojtech Novotny, Halvor Næss, Guri Hagberg, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Lars Thomassen, Nicola Logallo
Background Stroke mimics are frequently treated with thrombolysis in clinical practice and thrombolytic trials. Although alteplase in stroke mimics has proven to be safe, safety of tenecteplase in stroke mimics has not been assessed in an ischemic stroke study setting. We aimed to assess clinical characteristics and safety of stroke mimics treated with thrombolysis in the Norwegian Tenecteplase Stroke Trial. We also aimed to identify possible predictors of stroke mimics as compared to patients with acute cerebral ischemia...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Yanhua Qin, Weiming Hu, Yang Yang, Zhiying Hu, Weiyun Li, Marong Fang
Aberrant production of nitric oxide following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been implicated in cell death and contributes to ischemic brain injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of NOS activity. Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Rui Lan, Yong Zhang, Tao Wu, Yun-Zhi Ma, Bao-Qi Wang, Hai-Zhong Zheng, Ya-Na Li, Yan Wang, Chun-Qing Gu, Ji-Tao Wu
We investigated whether Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction reduced mitophagy activation and kept mitochondrial function in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, ischemia and reperfusion (IR), IR plus XXMD (60 g/kg/day) (XXMD60), IR plus cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg/day) (CsA), and IR plus vehicle (Vehicle). Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion models were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral infarct areas were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
John O Orgah, Jiahui Yu, Tiechan Zhao, Lingyan Wang, Mingzhu Yang, Yan Zhang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Ischemic brain injury impacts cardiac dysfunction depending on the part of the brain affected, with a manifestation of irregular blood pressure, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Generally called brain-heart syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine, few mechanistic understanding and treatment options are available at present. We hypothesize that considering the established efficacy for both ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI), Danhong injection (DHI), a multicomponent Chinese patent medicine, may have a dual pharmacological potential for treating the brain-heart syndrome caused by cerebral ischemic stroke through its multi-targeted mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nan Li, Lingling Feng, Yujun Tan, Yan Xiang, Ruoqi Zhang, Ming Yang
The dry root of Scutellaria baicalensis , has traditionally been applied in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Chinese clinics. Baicalin (BA) is considered the key ingredient in it for the brain protection effects. The bioavailability of BA is very low because of its poor lipid and water solubility, which limits the therapeutic effects and clinical application. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel BA-loaded liposome (BA-LP) formulation to improve the drug lipophilicity and further to enhance the drug-concentration in the brain tissues...
July 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anil Kumar Rana, Damanpreet Singh
Cerebral stroke is a leading cause of early death and physical disability in adults throughout the world. Oxidative stress and inflammation plays an important role in the pathological process associated with the stroke. The available reperfusion therapy itself enhances the oxidative stress by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from the neurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, thus further worsens the condition. Excessive ROS and RNS production contributes to the brain injury during or after the stroke by activating inflammatory processes...
July 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Zhong-Xin Xu, Lei Xu, Jiao-Qi Wang, Jing Mang, Le Yang, Jin-Ting He
Ischemic stroke is caused by obstructed blood supply to the brain. It is a common as well as a serious health problem worldwide, which is often linked to disability and mortality. Here we studied, under the conditions of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), the expression of Notch signaling pathway proteins in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were stimulated and converted into neuron-like cells by nerve growth factor. Exposure to OGD was used as an in vitro model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Our findings demonstrate that, after 3 h of OGD exposure, the expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Hes5 significantly increased, on both mRNA and protein levels...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mai-Lan Ho
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging perfusion technique that enables quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the use of intravenous gadolinium contrast. An understanding of the technical basis of ASL and physiologic variations in perfusion are important for recognizing normal variants and artifacts. Pathologic variations in perfusion can be seen in a number of disorders including acute and chronic ischemia, vasculopathy, vascular malformations, tumors, trauma, infection/inflammation, epilepsy, and dementia...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Jiang Yuan, Lei Zeng, Yanpeng Sun, Na Wang, Qiang Sun, Zhaohui Cheng, Yunfu Wang
Apoptosis acts as the primary pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Prior studies have revealed the effects of src homology 2 (SH2)B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) in myocardial infarction; however, involvement of SH2B1 in cerebral I/R injury and the underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. In the present study, neural‑like PC12 cells underwent 6 h of oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 24 h of reoxygenation (OGD/R). PC12 cells were pre‑transfected with an adenovirus encoding for SH2B1 or GFP prior to exposure to OGD/R...
July 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Thibaud Crespy, Magali Heintzelmann, Celia Chiron, Marc Vinclair, Florence Tahon, Gilles Francony, Jean-François Payen
BACKGROUND: Milrinone has emerged as an option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, substantial variation exists in the administration of this drug. We retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of 2 protocols in patients with angiographically proven cerebral vasospasm. METHODS: During 2 successive periods, milrinone was administered using either a combination of intra-arterial milrinone infusion followed by intravenous administration until day 14 after initial bleeding (IA+IV protocol), or a continuous intravenous milrinone infusion for at least 7 days (IV protocol)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Pengfei Xu, Qian Liu, Yi Xie, Xiaolei Shi, Yunzi Li, Mengna Peng, Hongquan Quo, Rui Sun, Juanji Li, Ye Hong, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
Cellular oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathological process of neural damage in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The breast cancer susceptibility protein 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor, can modulate cellular antioxidant response and DNA repair. Yet the role of BRCA1 in cerebral I/R injury has not been explored. In this study, we observed that BRCA1 was mainly expressed in neurons and was up-regulated in response to I/R insult. Overexpression of BRCA1 attenuated reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation...
July 7, 2018: Redox Biology
Daniel Bereczki, Jozsef Balla, Daniel Bereczki
Stroke is the second-leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide, with an icreasing global burden due to the growing and aging population. However, strict eligibility criteria for current treatment opportunities make novel therapeutic apporaches desirable. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role during cerebral ischemia, eventually leading to neuronal injury and cell death. The significant correlation between redox imbalance and ischemic stroke has led to various treatment strategies targeting the endogenous antioxidant system in order to ameliorate the adverse prognosis in patients with cerebral infarction...
July 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy E Sutherland, Shanti Gurung, Madison Paton, Courtney McDonald, Abhilasha Tiwari, Yen Pham, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
INTRODUCTION: Preterm infants are at high risk for white matter injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory actions and are of interest for neural repair in adults and newborns. This study examined the neuroprotective effects of allogeneic MSC, derived from preterm umbilical cord blood (UCB), in a preterm sheep model of white matter injury. METHODS: Quad-lineage differentiation, clonogenicity and self-renewal ability of UCB-derived MSC were confirmed...
July 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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