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Osama Mosa, Milan Skitek, Ales Jerin
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still a headache for clinicians and scientists as a possible reason for increased death among intensive care unit (ICU) patients after invasive cardiac surgery. Furthermore, the diagnostic process for AKI using conventional biomarkers is not sufficient to ensure early warning of this condition because of the morbid influence of non-renal factors that definitively delay the time for the prognosis. These imposed limitations have led to significant amounts of research targeted towards identifying novel biomarkers for AKI with a sustained degree of sensitivity and specificity...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
T Sheveleva, V Bejenar, E Komlichenko, A Dedul, A Malushko
Endometriosis is a chronic, progressive, relapsing estrogen-dependent disorder characterized by the growth of tissue structure and function similar to the endometrium outside the normal mucosa of the uterine cavity localization. Endometriosis is found in 10-15% of women in reproductive age and it is one of the main causes of pelvic pain syndrome and infertility. Mechanisms of the development of endometriosis and related pathological pain impulses are still poorly understood and therapeutic approaches do not always have a sufficient effect; in this connection, the study of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated pain currently is perspective...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Evangelia Gavgiotaki, George Filippidis, Haris Markomanolaki, George Kenanakis, Sofia Agelaki, Vassilis Georgoulias, Irene Athanassakis
Third Harmonic Generation (THG) microscopy as a non-invasive, label free imaging methodology, allows linkage of lipid profiles with various breast cancer cells. The collected THG signal arise mostly from the lipid droplets and the membrane lipid bilayer. Quantification of THG signal can accurately distinguish HER2-positive cells. Further analysis using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveals cancer-specific profiles, correlating lipid raft-corresponding spectra to THG signal, associating thus THG to chemical information...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Christian Schäfer, Tobias Paprotka, Ellen Heitzer, Mark Eccleston, Johannes Noe, Stefan Holdenrieder, Frank Diehl, Alain Thierry
Researchers working in industrial laboratories as well as in academic laboratories discussed topics related to the use of extracellular nucleic acids in different fields. These included areas like non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, the application of different methods for the analysis and characterization of patients with benign and malignant diseases and technical aspects associated with extracellular nucleic acids. In addition, the possibilities and chances for a cooperation of researchers working in different worlds, i...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hideharu Kimura, Shingo Nishikawa, Hayato Koba, Taro Yoneda, Takashi Sone, Kazuo Kasahara
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors' (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aims of this study are to develop a blood-based, non-invasive approach to detecting the EGFR T790M mutation in advanced NSCLC patients, using PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit which is a novel method for selective amplification of genotype specific sequences.Pairs of blood samples and tumor tissues were collected from NSCLC patients with an EGFR activating mutation and who were resistant to EGFR-TKI treatment...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Janine Aucamp, Piet J Pretorius
In recent years, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis has received increasing amounts of attention as a potential non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of genetic aberrations and a wide variety of diseases, especially cancer. However, except for some prenatal tests and BEAMing, a technique used to detect mutations in various genes of cancer patients, cfDNA analysis is not yet routinely applied in clinical practice. Although some confusing biological factors inherent to the in vivo setting play a key part, it is becoming increasingly clear that this struggle is mainly due to the lack of an analytical consensus, especially as regards quantitative analyses of cfDNA...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jelena Belic, Marina Koch, Peter Ulz, Martina Auer, Teresa Gerhalter, Sumitra Mohan, Katja Fischereder, Edgar Petru, Thomas Bauernhofer, Jochen B Geigl, Michael R Speicher, Ellen Heitzer
Recent progress in the analysis of cell-free DNA fragments (cell-free circulating tumor DNA, ctDNA) now allows monitoring of tumor genomes by non-invasive means. However, previous studies with plasma DNA from patients with cancer demonstrated highly variable allele frequencies of ctDNA. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of tumor genomes is greatly facilitated when plasma DNA has increased amounts of ctDNA. In order to develop a fast and cost-effective pre-screening method for the identification of plasma samples suitable for further extensive qualitative analysis, we adapted the recently described FAST-SeqS method...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hada C Macher, G Suárez-Artacho, Pilar Jiménez-Arriscado, S Álvarez-Gómez, N García-Fernández, Juan M Guerrero, Patrocini Molinero, Elena Trujillo-Arribas, M A Gómez-Bravo, Amalia Rubio
The evaluation of the transplanted liver health by non-invasive approaches may offer an improvement in early clinical intervention. As transplanted organs have genomes that are distinct from the host's genome, the quantification of the specific DNA of the donated liver in the patient serum will allow us to obtain information about its damage. We evaluated the state of transplanted liver health by monitoring the RH gene in serum circulating DNA (cirDNA) from 17 recipient and donor mismatched for this gene. cirDNA RH gene was quantified by RT- PCR before, at the moment of transplantation (day 0) and during the stay at the intensive care unit...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Suzanne Drury, Sarah Mason, Fiona McKay, Kitty Lo, Christopher Boustred, Lucy Jenkins, Lyn S Chitty
Our UK National Health Service regional genetics laboratory offers NIPD for autosomal dominant and de novo conditions (achondroplasia, thanataphoric dysplasia, Apert syndrome), paternal mutation exclusion for cystic fibrosis and a range of bespoke tests. NIPD avoids the risks associated with invasive testing, making prenatal diagnosis more accessible to families at high genetic risk. However, the challenge remains in offering definitive diagnosis for autosomal recessive diseases, which is complicated by the predominance of the maternal mutant allele in the cell-free DNA sample and thus requires a variety of different approaches...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marta Ferro, Hada C Macher, Pilar Noguerol, Pilar Jimenez-Arriscado, Patrocinio Molinero, Juan M Guerrero, Amalia Rubio
Fetal and Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a condition which could occur when pregnant women develop an alloimmunization against paternally inherited antigens of the fetal platelets. Approximately 80 % of FNAIT cases are caused by anti-HPA-1a, about 15 % by anti-HPA-5b and 5 % by other HPA antibodies. Only 2 % of the total population is HPA-1a negative (HPA-1b1b). The HPA-1a allele differs by one single nucleotide from HPA-1b allele, yet it represents around 27 % of total severe thrombocytopenias...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fiona Taylor, James Bradford, Penella J Woll, Dawn Teare, Angela Cox
Molecular profiling using low coverage whole genome sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-targeted approach to identify multiple somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) across different lung cancer subtypes. We aim to establish that SCNA can be detected in cfDNA of lung cancer cases.Standard protocols were followed to process matched cfDNA, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour and lymphocyte DNA. Copy number profiles for cfDNA or FFPE DNA were normalised to profiles from matched lymphocyte DNA with the software CNAnorm...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Johannes F Wentzel, Janine Aucamp, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
Non-invasive screening that utilizes cell-free DNA (cfDNA) offers remarkable potential as a method for the early detection of genetic disorders and a wide variety of cancers. Unfortunately, one of the most prominent elements delaying the translation of cfDNA analyses to clinical practice is the lack of knowledge regarding its origin and composition. The elucidation of the origin of cfDNA is complicated by the apparently arbitrary variability of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cfDNA in the blood of healthy as well as diseased individuals...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhen-Yao Chen, Xin Chen, Zhao-Xia Wang
MicroRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that have emerged as regulators of various biological processes, especially carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Recent evidence has shown that microRNA-196a (miR-196a) is upregulated in most types of tumors and involved in multiple biological processes via translational inhibition and mRNA cleavage, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, mostly functioning as an oncogene. Dysregulation of miR-196a promotes oncogenesis and tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the upstream regulators, target genes, signaling pathways, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of miR-196a, which collectively affect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
October 18, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Zhongyan Hua, Xiao Gu, Yudi Dong, Fei Tan, Zhihui Liu, Carol J Thiele, Zhijie Li
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB) patients. Our previous studies indicated that BDNF activation of TrkB induces chemo-resistance through activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF/TrkB on metastasis in NB. A tetracycline-regulated TrkB-expressing NB cell line (TB3) was used. Scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber migration, and invasion assays were performed to study the migration and invasion of TB3 cells...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yoshiki Asayama, Akihiro Nishie, Kousei Ishigami, Yasuhiro Ushijima, Yukihisa Takayama, Daisuke Okamoto, Nobuhiro Fujita, Takao Ohtsuka, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Shinichi Aishima, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroshi Honda
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether washout characteristics of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) could predict survival in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC). METHODS: This study collected 46 resected cases. All cases were examined by dynamic contrast study on multidetector-row CT. Region-of-interest measurements were obtained at the non-enhanced, portal venous phase and delayed phase in the tumour and were used to calculate the washout ratio as follows: [(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at delayed enhanced CT)/(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at unenhanced CT)] × 100...
October 17, 2016: European Radiology
P Meimoun, J Clerc, D Ardourel, U Djou, S Martis, T Botoro, F Elmkies, H Zemir, A Luycx-Bore, J Boulanger
To test the usefulness of non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography by comparison to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity (IS) and stable coronary artery disease. 94 consecutive patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years) with angiographic LAD stenosis of IS (50-70 % diameter stenosis), were prospectively studied...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Ching-Hao Li, Chen-Wei Liu, Chi-Hao Tsai, Yi-Jen Peng, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Po-Lin Liao, Chen-Chen Lee, Yu-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Jou Kang
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been studied extensively in carcinogenesis through the genomic pathway. In recent years, AHR has also been reported to exert positive or negative effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the crucial step in tumor malignant progression. However, the detailed mechanism remains controversial. Analysis of AHR-expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues revealed an inverse correlation between AHR protein levels and tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Yan Zhang, Stephanie E Simon, Jeff A Johnson, Michael S Allen
Gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. Non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. However, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract, and measures obtained from the cloaca may not actually represent the diversity present elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Eun Woo Lee, Woo Yong Lee, Ho-Seok Koo
PURPOSE: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is the best prognostic indicator in non-distant metastatic advanced gastric cancer. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of various clinicopathologic factors in node-negative advanced gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 254 patients with primary node-negative stage T2~4 gastric cancer. These patients were selected from a pool of 1,890 patients who underwent radical resection at Memorial Jin-Pok Kim Korea Gastric Cancer Center, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital between 1998 and 2008...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Jun Hwa Lee, Byong Chul Yoo, Yun Hwan Kim, Sun-A Ahn, Seung-Gu Yeo, Jae Youl Cho, Kyung-Hee Kim, Seung Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: A low-mass-ion discriminant equation (LOME) was constructed to investigate whether systematic low-mass-ion (LMI) profiling could be applied to ovarian cancer (OVC) screening. RESULTS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was performed to obtain mass spectral data on metabolites detected as LMIs up to a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2500 for 1184 serum samples collected from healthy individuals and patients with OVC, other types of cancer, or several types of benign tumor...
2016: BioData Mining
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