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Natural health product regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081361/microbial-transformation-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-by-mycobacterium-vanbaalenii-pyr-1
#1
Yaqi You, Kamol K Das, Huiyuan Guo, Che-Wei Chang, Maria Navas-Moreno, James W Chan, Paul Verburg, Simon R Poulson, Xilong Wang, Baoshan Xing, Yu Yang
Carbonaceous nanomaterials are widely used in industry and consumer products, but concerns have been raised regarding their release into the environment and subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human health. Although many efforts have been devoted to understanding the environmental fate of carbonaceous nanomaterials, information about their microbial transformation is still rare. In this study, we found that within 1 month a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1, was able to degrade both pristine and carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNT and c-MWCNT), as demonstrated by consistent results from high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075542/considering-marijuana-legalization-carefully-insights-for-other-jurisdictions-from-analysis-for-vermont
#2
Jonathan P Caulkins, Beau Kilmer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In 2014 the legislature of Vermont, USA passed a law requiring the Secretary of Administration to report on the consequences of legalizing marijuana. The RAND Corporation was commissioned to write that report. This paper summarizes insights from that analysis that are germane to other jurisdictions. METHOD: Translation of key findings from the RAND Corporation report to the broader policy debate. RESULTS: Marijuana legalization encompasses a wide range of possible regimes, distinguished along at least four dimensions: which organizations are allowed to produce and supply the drug, the regulations under which they operate, the nature of the products that can be distributed and taxes and prices...
December 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073640/pharmaceuticals-in-a-temperate-forest-water-reuse-system
#3
Andrew D McEachran, Damian Shea, Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols
Forest-water reuse systems infiltrate municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters through forest soils to shallow aquifers that ultimately discharge to surface waters. Their ability to mitigate regulated nutrients, metals, and organic chemicals is well known, but the fate of non-regulated chemicals in these systems is largely unstudied. This study quantified 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in soils, groundwaters, and surface waters in a 2000-hectare forest that receives ~1200mm/year of secondary-treated, municipal wastewater in addition to natural rainfall (~1300mm/year)...
January 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060850/a-framework-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-armourstones-on-the-chemical-quality-of-surface-water
#4
Lars Duester, Dierk-Steffen Wahrendorf, Corinna Brinkmann, Anne-Lena Fabricius, Björn Meermann, Juergen Pelzer, Dennis Ecker, Monika Renner, Harald Schmid, Thomas A Ternes, Peter Heininger
Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049902/analysis-of-primary-aromatic-amines-derived-from-azo-colorants-in-textile-products-and-determination-of-their-source-colorant
#5
Naeko Sugaya, Yoshiki Sato, Mitsuko Takahashi, Katsumi Sakurai, Tsuyoshi Kawakami
 Twenty-four primary aromatic amines (PAAs) derived from azo colorants, which are controlled by the Act on Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, aniline and 1,4-phenylendiamine were analyzed in 86 samples of 40 textile products by GC-MS. Even though these PAAs detected in the samples did not exceed the regulation value (30 μg/g), 14 kinds of PAAs were detected that exceeded the limit of quantification. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline, in amounts that exceeded the limit of quantification, was detected in 20 textile samples containing synthesis fiber (16 samples made from polyurethane, two samples made from polyester, and two samples made from acryl); however, it was not detected in natural fiber textile samples...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025943/phenolic-compounds-as-nutraceuticals-or-functional-food-ingredients
#6
Cristina Caleja, Andreia Ribeiro, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the functional foods represent one the most promising, interesting and innovative areas in the food industry. Various components are being added to foods in order to render them functional. METHODS: One example of these components are plant naturally occurring phenolic compounds, which are associated with a high antioxidant capacity and thus with benefits in relation to human health. RESULTS: However, despite the huge number of scientific studies and patents on this topic and their natural presence in foods, namely in the ones from plant origin, there are still few marketable products enriched with these compounds...
December 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011403/cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-ameliorates-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-irs-1-phosphorylation-and-release-of-endothelial-derived-vasoactive-factors
#7
Deborah Fratantonio, Francesco Cimino, Maria Sofia Molonia, Daniela Ferrari, Antonella Saija, Fabio Virgili, Antonio Speciale
Increased plasma levels of free fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), cause insulin resistance in endothelium characterized by a decreased synthesis of insulin-mediated vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and by an increased production of the vasoconstrictor protein, endothelin-1. Several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that anthocyanins, natural phenols commonly present in food and vegetables from Mediterranean Diet, exert significant cardiovascular health-promoting activities. These effects are possibly mediated by a positive regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and activation of cellular antioxidant and cytoprotective genes...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999978/the-linin-promoter-is-highly-effective-in-enhancing-punicic-acid-production-in-arabidopsis
#8
Ziliang Song, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Randall J Weselake
Enhanced levels of punicic acid were produced in the seed oil of Arabidopsis over-expressing pomegranate FATTY ACID CONJUGASE driven by heterologous promoters, among which the linin promoter was the most efficient. Fatty acids with conjugated double bonds play a special role in determining both the nutritional and industrial uses of plant oils. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ), a conjugated fatty acid naturally enriched in the pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds, has gained increasing attention from the biotechnology community toward its production in metabolically engineered oilseed crops because of its significant health benefits...
December 20, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994550/anti-proliferative-and-apoptosis-inducing-effect-of-theabrownin-against-non-small-cell-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells
#9
Feifei Wu, Li Zhou, Wangdong Jin, Weiji Yang, Ying Wang, Bo Yan, Wenlin Du, Qiang Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yonghua Guo, Jin Zhang, Letian Shan, Thomas Efferth
With the highest cancer incidence rate, lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis) has been widely used as a traditional beverage beneficial to human health, including anti-NSCLC activity. Theabrownin (TB) is one major kind of tea pigment responsible for the beneficial effects of tea liquor. However, its effect on NSCLC is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on NSCLC (A549) cells, using MTT assay, morphological observation (DAPI staining), in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and annexin-V/PI flow cytometry...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942991/-effectiveness-of-three-biological-larvicides-and-of-an-insect-growth-regulator-against-anopheles-arabiensis-in-senegal
#10
S M Diédhiou, L Konaté, S Doucouré, B Samb, E A Niang, O Sy, O Thiaw, A Konaté, A N Wotodjo, M Diallo, L Gadiaga, C Sokhna, O Faye
Urban malaria is a major public health problem in Africa. In Senegal, the environmental changes seem to favor the persistence of malaria transmission in Dakar suburbs by creating, throughout the year, potential breeding sites of malaria vectors. In such a situation and in a context of a growing threat of insecticide resistance in anopheline vectors, the larval control making use of products from biological origin or growth regulators could represent an additional tool to the current strategies developed against anophelines...
December 9, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939866/natural-pyrethrins-induces-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocyte-cells-via-bax-and-bcl-2-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#11
Yun Yang, Mimi Zong, Wenping Xu, Yang Zhang, Bo Wang, Mingjun Yang, Liming Tao
Natural pyrethrins have been widely used for pest control in organic farming and for residential indoor pest managements. Although the specific mechanisms underlying their activity are incompletely understood, natural pesticides are considered the safest based on their target specificity and rapid degradation in the environment. Here, we used in vitro bioassays to characterize the cytotoxic effects of natural pyrethrins and attempted to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their cytotoxicity against human hepatocytes...
January 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924868/species-specific-control-of-external-superoxide-levels-by-the-coral-holobiont-during-a-natural-bleaching-event
#12
Julia M Diaz, Colleen M Hansel, Amy Apprill, Caterina Brighi, Tong Zhang, Laura Weber, Sean McNally, Liping Xun
The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2(·-)) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917973/institutional-development-from-legal-pluralism-to-institutional-bricolage-in-west-african-pastoralism
#13
G Fokou, B Bonfoh
Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878235/accelerated-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cell-like-cell-line-caused-by-continuous-exposure-to-asbestos-fibers
#14
Suni Lee, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Megumi Maeda, Shoko Yamamoto, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Tamayo Hatayama, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Asbestos exposure causes malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Based on our hypothesis in which continuous exposure to asbestos of immune cells cause reduction of antitumor immunity, the decrease of natural killer cell killing activity with reduction of NKp46 activating receptor expression, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell clonal expansion, reduced CXCR3 chemokine receptor expression and production of interferon-γ production in CD4+ T cells were reported using cell line models, freshly isolated peripheral blood immune cells from health donors as well as asbestos exposed patients such as pleural plaque and mesothelioma...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868152/effect-of-buffalo-casein-derived-novel-bioactive-peptides-on-osteoblast-differentiation
#15
Srinu Reddi, Venkatesa Perumal Shanmugam, Kemgang Sonfack Tanedjeu, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies show that milk consumption in childhood and during adolescence is related to higher bone mineral density. Milk and milk products prevent the bone loss in pre- and postmenopausal women. Apart from calcium, there are other biologically active compounds in milk such as bioactive peptides which may play a role in promoting bone health. Casein is the major protein in milk which has also been reported to have numerous biological active peptides within it...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#16
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866376/reduction-in-dietary-acrylamide-exposure-impact-of-potatoes-with-low-acrylamide-potential
#17
Nga L Tran, Leila M Barraj, Susan Collinge
Acrylamide forms primarily from a reaction between reducing sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose) and an amino acid (asparagine, Asn) formed naturally in foods, including potatoes. This reaction occurs when carbohydrate-rich foods are heated at temperatures above 120 °C. Multiple potato varieties were transformed with potato genomic DNA that results in down-regulation of the expression of the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1), significantly reducing synthesis of free Asn, and consequently lowering the potential to form acrylamide during cooking...
November 20, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855627/recent-advances-in-obesity-the-role-of-turmeric-tuber-and-its-metabolites-in-the-prophylaxis-and-therapeutical-strategies
#18
Agata Jarząb, Wirginia Kukula-Koch
This contribution reviews current literature on the application of turmeric tuber - a commonly used spice - as an anti-obesity agent. Following an introduction about the biochemical significance of obesity and characteristics of various groups of natural products applied in the therapy of overweight patients, the authors focus on Curcuma secondary metabolites, their pharmacological applications and present a detailed study on the regulatory properties of turmeric towards various biochemical mechanisms of obesity...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852689/female-exposure-to-phthalates-and-time-to-pregnancy-a-first-pregnancy-planner-study
#19
Anne Marie L Thomsen, Anders H Riis, Jørn Olsen, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Niels H Hjollund, Tina Kold Jensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Gunnar Toft
STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male exposure to phthalates is potentially associated with adverse effects on human fecundity in epidemiological studies, but little is known about the potential effects on female reproduction...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836763/weight-gain-by-gut-microbiota-manipulation-in-productive-animals
#20
REVIEW
Emmanouil Angelakis
Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. In the 1940s, use of Streptomyces aureofaciens probiotics resulted in weight gain in animals, which led to the discovery of chlortetracycline. Tetracyclines, macrolides, avoparcin and penicillins have been commonly used in livestock agriculture to promote growth through increased food intake, weight gain, and improved herd health. Prebiotic supplements including oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and galactosyl-lactose improve the growth performance of animals...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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