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Natural health product regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917973/institutional-development-from-legal-pluralism-to-institutional-bricolage-in-west-african-pastoralism
#1
G Fokou, B Bonfoh
Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878235/accelerated-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cell-like-cell-line-caused-by-continuous-exposure-to-asbestos-fibers
#2
Suni Lee, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Megumi Maeda, Shoko Yamamoto, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Tamayo Hatayama, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Asbestos exposure causes malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Based on our hypothesis in which continuous exposure to asbestos of immune cells cause reduction of antitumor immunity, the decrease of natural killer cell killing activity with reduction of NKp46 activating receptor expression, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell clonal expansion, reduced CXCR3 chemokine receptor expression and production of interferon-γ production in CD4+ T cells were reported using cell line models, freshly isolated peripheral blood immune cells from health donors as well as asbestos exposed patients such as pleural plaque and mesothelioma...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868152/effect-of-buffalo-casein-derived-novel-bioactive-peptides-on-osteoblast-differentiation
#3
Srinu Reddi, Venkatesa Perumal Shanmugam, Kemgang Sonfack Tanedjeu, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies show that milk consumption in childhood and during adolescence is related to higher bone mineral density. Milk and milk products prevent the bone loss in pre- and postmenopausal women. Apart from calcium, there are other biologically active compounds in milk such as bioactive peptides which may play a role in promoting bone health. Casein is the major protein in milk which has also been reported to have numerous biological active peptides within it...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#4
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866376/reduction-in-dietary-acrylamide-exposure-impact-of-potatoes-with-low-acrylamide-potential
#5
Nga L Tran, Leila M Barraj, Susan Collinge
Acrylamide forms primarily from a reaction between reducing sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose) and an amino acid (asparagine, Asn) formed naturally in foods, including potatoes. This reaction occurs when carbohydrate-rich foods are heated at temperatures above 120 °C. Multiple potato varieties were transformed with potato genomic DNA that results in down-regulation of the expression of the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1), significantly reducing synthesis of free Asn, and consequently lowering the potential to form acrylamide during cooking...
November 20, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855627/recent-advances-in-obesity-the-role-of-turmeric-tuber-and-its-metabolites-in-the-prophylaxis-and-therapeutical-strategies
#6
Agata Jarząb, Wirginia Kukula-Koch
This contribution reviews current literature on the application of turmeric tuber - a commonly used spice - as an anti-obesity agent. Following an introduction about the biochemical significance of obesity and characteristics of various groups of natural products applied in the therapy of overweight patients, the authors focus on Curcuma secondary metabolites, their pharmacological applications and present a detailed study on the regulatory properties of turmeric towards various biochemical mechanisms of obesity...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852689/female-exposure-to-phthalates-and-time-to-pregnancy-a-first-pregnancy-planner-study
#7
Anne Marie L Thomsen, Anders H Riis, Jørn Olsen, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Niels H Hjollund, Tina Kold Jensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Gunnar Toft
STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male exposure to phthalates is potentially associated with adverse effects on human fecundity in epidemiological studies, but little is known about the potential effects on female reproduction...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836763/weight-gain-by-gut-microbiota-manipulation-in-productive-animals
#8
REVIEW
Emmanouil Angelakis
Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. In the 1940s, use of Streptomyces aureofaciens probiotics resulted in weight gain in animals, which led to the discovery of chlortetracycline. Tetracyclines, macrolides, avoparcin and penicillins have been commonly used in livestock agriculture to promote growth through increased food intake, weight gain, and improved herd health. Prebiotic supplements including oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and galactosyl-lactose improve the growth performance of animals...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796744/molecular-and-therapeutic-targets-of-genistein-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kasi Pandima Devi, Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan, Azadeh Manayi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating brain disorder characterized by an increased level of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide deposition and neuronal cell death leading to an impairment of learning and thinking skills. The Aβ deposition is a key factor in senile plaques of the AD brain which cause the elevation of intracellular calcium ions and the production of formidable free radicals, both of which greatly contribute to the AD-associated cascade, leading to unstoppable neuronal loss in the hippocampal region of the brain...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781948/plant-anti-cancer-agents-and-their-biotechnological-production-in-plant-cell-biofactories
#10
Liliana Lalaleo, Abbas Khojasteh, Mohammad Fattahi, Mercedes Bonfill, Rosa M Cusido, Javier Palazon
BACKGROUND: Bioactive plant secondary metabolites have complex chemical structures, which are specific to each plant species/family, and accumulate in tiny amounts. The growing market demand for many phytochemicals can lead to the over-harvesting of medicinal plants in their natural habitat, endangering species in the process. OBJECTIVE: An ongoing challenge for our society is therefore to develop a bio-sustainable production of phytochemicals, among other natural resources...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776376/single-laboratory-validation-for-the-determination-of-flavonoids-in-hawthorn-leaves-and-finished-products-by-lc-uv
#11
Elizabeth M Mudge, Ying Liu, Jensen A Lund, Paula N Brown
Suitably validated analytical methods that can be used to quantify medicinally active phytochemicals in natural health products are required by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a botanical ingredient in natural health products used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. A method for the quantitation of vitexin-2″-O- rhamnoside, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and hyperoside in hawthorn leaf and flower raw materials and finished products was optimized and validated according to AOAC International guidelines...
November 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775605/tocopherols-and-tocotrienols-in-common-and-emerging-dietary-sources-occurrence-applications-and-health-benefits
#12
Fereidoon Shahidi, Adriano Costa de Camargo
Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744059/effect-of-mixed-bacillus-spp-isolated-from-pustulose-ark-anadara-tuberculosa-on-growth-survival-viral-prevalence-and-immune-related-gene-expression-in-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#14
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729917/selenium-supplementation-affects-physiological-and-biochemical-processes-to-improve-fodder-yield-and-quality-of-maize-zea-mays-l-under-water-deficit-conditions
#15
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Y Ashraf, Muhammad N Tahir, Bilal Zulfiqar, Muhammad Salahuddin, Rana N Shabbir, Muhammad Aslam
Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727254/-trade-of-food-supplement-food-or-drug-supplement
#16
Margherita Siracusa, Fabio Petrelli
The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714423/scientific-principles-for-the-identification-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-a-consensus-statement
#17
Roland Solecki, Andreas Kortenkamp, Åke Bergman, Ibrahim Chahoud, Gisela H Degen, Daniel Dietrich, Helmut Greim, Helen Håkansson, Ulla Hass, Trine Husoy, Miriam Jacobs, Susan Jobling, Alberto Mantovani, Philip Marx-Stoelting, Aldert Piersma, Vera Ritz, Remy Slama, Ralf Stahlmann, Martin van den Berg, R Thomas Zoeller, Alan R Boobis
Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been hampered by what appeared as a lack of consensus among scientists. This publication provides summary information about a consensus reached by a group of world-leading scientists that can serve as the basis for the development of ED criteria in relevant EU legislation...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708658/carotenoid-derivates-in-achiote-bixa-orellana-seeds-synthesis-and-health-promoting-properties
#18
Renata Rivera-Madrid, Margarita Aguilar-Espinosa, Yair Cárdenas-Conejo, Luz E Garza-Caligaris
Bixa orellana (family Bixaceae) is a neotropical fast growing perennial tree of great agro-industrial value because its seeds have a high carotenoid content, mainly bixin. It has been used since pre-colonial times as a culinary colorant and spice, and for healing purposes. It is currently used as a natural pigment in the food, in pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, and it is commercially known as annatto. Recently, several studies have addressed the biological and medical properties of this natural pigment, both as potential source of new drugs or because its ingestion as a condiment or diet supplement may protect against several diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669202/potential-of-natural-products-in-the-inhibition-of-adipogenesis-through-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-or-its-transcriptional-activity
#19
REVIEW
Shi Feng, Laura Reuss, Yu Wang
Obesity is a global health problem characterized as an increase in the mass of adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is one of the key pathways that increases the mass of adipose tissue, by which preadipocytes mature into adipocytes through cell differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the chief regulator of adipogenesis, has been acutely investigated as a molecular target for natural products in the development of anti-obesity treatments. In this review, the regulation of PPARγ expression by natural products through inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), increased expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661618/community-pharmacists-views-and-practices-regarding-natural-health-products-sold-in-community-pharmacies
#20
Ubaka Ogbogu, Candace Necyk
BACKGROUND: Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied...
2016: PloS One
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