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Natural health product regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750783/engineering-bacterial-motility-towards-hydrogen-peroxide
#1
Chelsea Virgile, Pricila Hauk, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740438/the-nkg2d-nkg2dl-axis-in-the-crosstalk-between-lymphoid-and-myeloid-cells-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ana Stojanovic, Margareta P Correia, Adelheid Cerwenka
Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor is a type II transmembrane protein expressed by both innate and adaptive immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, invariant NKT cells, γδ T cells, and some CD4+ T cells under certain pathological conditions. NKG2D is an activating NK receptor that induces cytotoxicity and production of cytokines by effector cells and supports their proliferation and survival upon engagement with its ligands. In both innate and T cell populations, NKG2D can costimulate responses induced by other receptors, such as TCR in T cells or NKp46 in NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719469/the-skin-protective-effects-of-compound-k-a-metabolite-of-ginsenoside-rb1-from-panax-ginseng
#3
Eunji Kim, Donghyun Kim, Sulgi Yoo, Yo Han Hong, Sang Yun Han, Seonggu Jeong, Deok Jeong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Junseong Park
Background: Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng . There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting...
April 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703135/spectrophotometric-determination-of-ammonia-levels-in-tobacco-fillers-of-and-sidestream-smoke-from-different-cigarette-brands-in-japan
#4
Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
BACKGROUND: The ammonia contained in tobacco fillers and mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers. Ammonia has been included in the non-exhaustive priority list of 39 tobacco components and emissions of cigarette published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. The development of a simple ammonia detection method will contribute to the establishment of tobacco product regulation under tobacco control policies and allow surveys to be conducted, even by laboratories with small research budgets...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688561/integrative-transcriptional-and-metabolic-analyses-provide-insights-into-cold-spell-response-mechanisms-in-young-shoots-of-the-tea-plant
#5
Xinyuan Hao, Hu Tang, Bo Wang, Chuan Yue, Lu Wang, Jianming Zeng, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Green tea has attracted an increasing number of consumers worldwide due to its multiple health benefits. With the increase in global warming, more frequent cold spells in the spring often cause more serious damage to green tea production because of the young leaves used. We recorded the changes in climatic conditions during a typical cold spell and the damage symptoms caused by the cold spell in different tea cultivars and breeding lines. By simulating the low temperature of a cold spell under controlled conditions, comparative transcriptome and metabolic analyses were performed with sprouting shoots...
April 23, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685968/impact-of-dietary-gut-microbial-metabolites-on-the-epigenome
#6
REVIEW
Clarissa Gerhauser
Within the past decade, epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by natural products have gained increasing interest. Dietary bioactive compounds from various sources, including green tea, soya, fruit and berries, cruciferous vegetables, whole grain foods, fish and others, have been shown to target enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases and demethylases in vitro and in cell culture. Also, many dietary agents were shown to alter miRNA expression...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678911/food-spoilage-associated-leuconostoc-lactococcus-and-lactobacillus-species-display-different-survival-strategies-in-response-to-competition
#7
Margarita Andreevskaya, Elina Jääskeläinen, Per Johansson, Anne Ylinen, Lars Paulin, Johanna Björkroth, Petri Auvinen
Psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the prevailing spoilage organisms in packaged cold-stored meat products. Species composition and metabolic activities of such LAB spoilage communities are determined by the nature of meat product, storage condition and interspecies interactions. Our knowledge of systems-level responses of LAB during such interactions is very limited. To expand it, we studied interactions between three common psychrotrophic spoilage LAB ( Leuconostoc gelidum , Lactococcus piscium and Lactobacillus oligofermentans ) by comparing their time-course transcriptome profiles obtained during their growth in individual, pairwise and triple cultures...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673137/herb-induced-liver-injuries-in-developing-nations-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations...
April 17, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670040/pectin-and-pectin-based-composite-materials-beyond-food-texture
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Lara-Espinoza, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millán, René Balandrán-Quintana, Yolanda López-Franco, Agustín Rascón-Chu
Pectins are plant cell wall natural heteropolysaccharides composed mainly of α-1-4 d-galacturonic acid units, which may or may not be methyl esterified, possesses neutral sugars branching that harbor functional moieties. Physicochemical features as pH, temperature, ions concentration, and cosolute presence, affect directly the extraction yield and gelling capacity of pectins. The chemical and structural features of this polysaccharide enables its interaction with a wide range of molecules, a property that scientists profit from to form new composite matrices for target/controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules, genes or cells...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659689/perspective-total-added-or-free-what-kind-of-sugars-should-we-be-talking-about
#10
David J Mela, Elizabeth M Woolner
There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for "free" sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on "added" sugars, and globally most food labeling states "total" sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655560/selected-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-of-mastitis-milk-reveals-pathogen-specific-regulation-of-bovine-host-response-proteins
#11
Ulrike Kusebauch, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Stine L Bislev, Robert L Moritz, Christine M Røntved, Emøke Bendixen
Mastitis is a major challenge to bovine health. The detection of sensitive markers for mastitis in dairy herds is of great demand. Suitable biomarkers should be measurable in milk and should report pathogen-specific changes at an early stage to support earlier diagnosis and more efficient treatment. However, the identification of sensitive biomarkers in milk has remained a challenge, in part due to their relatively low concentration in milk. In the present study, we used a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry approach, which allowed the absolute quantitation of 13 host response proteins in milk for the first time...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628291/citri-reticulatae-pericarpium-chenpi-botany-ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-a-frequently-used-traditional-chinese-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Shuang Sun, Yuyan Guo, Yan Liu, Dayu Yang, Guoyu Li, Shaowa Lü
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623826/targeting-ampk-in-diabetes-and-diabetic-complications-energy-homeostasis-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-health
#13
Y V Madhavi, Nikhil Gaikwad, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Srinivas Nanduri, Ashutosh Kumar
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzymatic protein involved in linking the energy sensing to the metabolic manipulation. It is a serine/threonine kinase activated by several upstream kinases. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP allosterically. AMPK is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of the living system such as heart, kidney, liver, brain and skeletal muscles. Thus malfunctioning of AMPK is expected to harbor several human pathologies especially diseases associated with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603113/fucoxanthin-elicits-epigenetic-modifications-nrf2-activation-and-blocking-transformation-in-mouse-skin-jb6-p-cells
#14
Yuqing Yang, Irene Yang, Mingnan Cao, Zheng-Yuan Su, Renyi Wu, Yue Guo, Mingzhu Fang, Ah-Ng Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2) is a master regulator of the anti-oxidative stress response, which is involved in the defense against many oxidative stress/inflammation-mediated diseases, including anticancer effects elicited by an increasing number of natural products. Our previous studies showed that the epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene plays a key role in restoring the expression of Nrf2. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Nrf2 by astaxanthin (AST) and fucoxanthin (FX), carotenoids which are abundant in microalgae and seaweeds, in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells...
February 20, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588538/campylobacter-jejuni-transcriptional-and-genetic-adaptation-during-human-infection
#15
Alexander A Crofts, Frédéric M Poly, Cheryl P Ewing, Janelle M Kuroiwa, Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Chad K Porter, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renée M Laird, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, David R Tribble, Mark S Riddle, Amritha Ramakrishnan, Andrea J McCoy, Bryan W Davies, Patricia Guerry, M Stephen Trent
Campylobacter jejuni infections are a leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illness worldwide, and Campylobacter infections in children are associated with stunted growth and therefore long-term deficits into adulthood. Despite this global impact on health and human capital, how zoonotic C. jejuni responds to the human host remains unclear. Unlike other intestinal pathogens, C. jejuni does not harbour pathogen-defining toxins that explicitly contribute to disease in humans. This makes understanding Campylobacter pathogenesis challenging and supports a broad examination of bacterial factors that contribute to C...
April 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523941/development-and-in-house-validation-of-a-rapid-and-simple-to-use-elisa-for-the-detection-and-measurement-of-the-mycotoxin-sterigmatocystin
#16
Michalina Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Claudine Reiring, Nermin Sajic, Willem Haasnoot, Catherine Brabet, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Martin Salden
Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a highly toxic secondary fungal metabolite structurally closely related to the well-known carcinogenic aflatoxins. Its presence has been reported in grains and grain-based products as well as in other foodstuffs like nuts, green coffee beans, spices, beer and cheese. Due to the lack of suitable data on the occurrence of STG, in 2013, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) could not characterise its risk for human health and recommended that more data on STG in food and feed needed to be collected...
May 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522834/transferrin-targeted-resveratrol-loaded-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma
#17
Aditi Jhaveri, Pranali Deshpande, Bhushan Pattni, Vladimir Torchilin
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a very grim prognosis even after multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents frequently lead to drug resistance and result in severe toxicities to non-cancerous tissues. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol with pleiotropic health benefits, has proven chemopreventive effects in all the stages of cancer including initiation, promotion and progression. However, the poor physico-chemical properties of RES severely limit its use as a free drug...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497114/echinacoside-increases-sperm-quantity-in-rats-by-targeting-the-hypothalamic-androgen-receptor
#18
Zhihui Jiang, Bo Zhou, Xinping Li, Gordon M Kirby, Xiaoying Zhang
Male infertility is a major health issue with an estimated prevalence of 4.2% of male infertility worldwide. Our early work demonstrated that Cistanche extracts protect against sperm damage in mice and that echinacoside (ECH) is one of the major active components. Here we report an essential role for ECH, a natural product that reverses or protects against oligoasthenospermia in rats. ECH was assayed by HPLC, the quantity and quality of sperm was evaluated and hormone levels were determined by radioimmunosorbent assay...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486977/panchgavya-and-cow-products-a-trail-for-the-holy-grail
#19
Ashwinikumar A Raut, Ashok D B Vaidya
For millennia, cow has been central to Indian economy, life and culture. There are innumerable references-Vedic and subsequent to the sacred significance of cow. The benefits of cow have been described at length in relation to agriculture, environment, health, economy and spiritual progress. However, the socio-political issues surrounding cow as a sacred animal have raised acrimonious debates. In Ayurveda also, there is a long tradition of using cow products for positive health, pharmaceutical processes and in therapeutics...
January 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484988/separate-toxin-antidote-stabilization-system-in-two-plasmids-for-recombinant-protein-production
#20
Saad Aboualkasem, Debbie S Retnoningrum, Aldila Refiani, Catur Riani
BACKGROUND: Expression vector is an important component in the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. Most of the commercialized expression vectors apply antibiotic-based selection system. Meanwhile, World Health Organization highly recommends for the alternative system due to its potentials to cause spreading of resistance gene and hypersensitivity to some people. METHODS: In current work, we developed an expression system for Escherichia coli using the toxinantidote system in two separated plasmids...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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