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Natural health product regulation

Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Y Ashraf, Muhammad N Tahir, Bilal Zulfiqar, Muhammad Salahuddin, Rana N Shabbir, Muhammad Aslam
Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Margherita Siracusa, Fabio Petrelli
The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Roland Solecki, Andreas Kortenkamp, Åke Bergman, Ibrahim Chahoud, Gisela H Degen, Daniel Dietrich, Helmut Greim, Helen Håkansson, Ulla Hass, Trine Husoy, Miriam Jacobs, Susan Jobling, Alberto Mantovani, Philip Marx-Stoelting, Aldert Piersma, Vera Ritz, Remy Slama, Ralf Stahlmann, Martin van den Berg, R Thomas Zoeller, Alan R Boobis
Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been hampered by what appeared as a lack of consensus among scientists. This publication provides summary information about a consensus reached by a group of world-leading scientists that can serve as the basis for the development of ED criteria in relevant EU legislation...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Renata Rivera-Madrid, Margarita Aguilar-Espinosa, Yair Cárdenas-Conejo, Luz E Garza-Caligaris
Bixa orellana (family Bixaceae) is a neotropical fast growing perennial tree of great agro-industrial value because its seeds have a high carotenoid content, mainly bixin. It has been used since pre-colonial times as a culinary colorant and spice, and for healing purposes. It is currently used as a natural pigment in the food, in pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, and it is commercially known as annatto. Recently, several studies have addressed the biological and medical properties of this natural pigment, both as potential source of new drugs or because its ingestion as a condiment or diet supplement may protect against several diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shi Feng, Laura Reuss, Yu Wang
Obesity is a global health problem characterized as an increase in the mass of adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is one of the key pathways that increases the mass of adipose tissue, by which preadipocytes mature into adipocytes through cell differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the chief regulator of adipogenesis, has been acutely investigated as a molecular target for natural products in the development of anti-obesity treatments. In this review, the regulation of PPARγ expression by natural products through inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), increased expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ubaka Ogbogu, Candace Necyk
BACKGROUND: Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied...
2016: PloS One
Kathleen M Job, Tony K L Kiang, Jonathan E Constance, Catherine M T Sherwin, Elena Yu Enioutina
Similar to other nations North American people used herbs for thousands of years to treat diseases and purify their spirits. By the middle of the 1900s, evidence-based conventional medicine received wide acceptance in Canada and the United States (US). Nowadays, people are going back to their roots and actively using herbal medicines (HMs) and natural health products (NHPs). Areas covered: This article is focusing on use and regulation of the HMs and NHPs in Canada and the US, raises concerns regarding HM and NHP safety and efficacy, offers suggestions on how to overcome these problems...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Panida Loutchanwoot, Tina Vortherms, Hubertus Jarry
AIMS: Previous research has revealed that puerarin, the major phytoestrogen in tuberous roots of Pueraria lobota and Pueraria mirifica, acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator that displays predominantly estrogenic potential for health benefit. However, little is known about the estrogenic potency of puerarin in pituitary, especially in the rat model of postmenopausal females. MAIN METHODS: Plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels as well as mRNA expression levels of pituitary estrogen-regulated genes, such as estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), truncated ER product-1 (TERP-1) and -2 (TERP-2) and gonadotropin alpha subunit, were examined using radioimmunoassay and TaqMan® real-time PCR, respectively...
September 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Heather L Wipfli, Micah Berman, Kacey Hanson, Steven Kelder, Amy Solis, Andrea C Villanti, Carla M P Ribeiro, Helen I Meissner, Roger Anderson
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. METHODS: The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015...
July 14, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Shawn M D Bearson, Bradley L Bearson, Crystal L Loving, Heather K Allen, InSoo Lee, Darin Madson, Marcus E Kehrli
Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host's innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sun Young Park, Mei Ling Jin, Min Jung Ko, Geuntae Park, Young-Whan Choi
AMPK/Nrf2 signaling regulates multiple antioxidative factors and exerts neuroprotective effects. Emodin is one of the main bioactive components extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, a plant possessing important activities for human health and for treating a variety of diseases. This study examined whether emodin can activate AMPK/Nrf2 signaling and induce the expression of genes targeted by this pathway. In addition, the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of emodin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia were examined...
August 19, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Dharambir Kashyap, Ajay Sharma, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Sandeep Punia, Anil K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Plant derived products are not only served as dietary components but also used to treat and prevent the inflammatory associated diseases like cancer. Among the natural products pentacyclic terpenoids including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are considered as the promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. OBJECTIVES: The current review extensively discusses the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of these pentacyclic moieties along with their proposed mechanisms of action...
July 11, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Haya H Al-Ani, Anandita Devi, Helen Eyles, Boyd Swinburn, Stefanie Vandevijvere
Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sofía Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Eric Alejandro Flores Monterrubio, Jennifer L Harris, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Juan A Rivera, Simón Barquera
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports that television food advertisements influence children's food preferences and their consumption. However, few studies have examined the extent and nature of food marketing to children in low and middle income countries. This study aims to assess the nutritional quality of foods and beverages advertised on Mexican TV, applying the Mexican, World Health Organization (WHO) European and United Kingdom (UKNPM) nutrient profile models, before the Mexican regulation on food marketing came into effect...
2016: BMC Public Health
Eoin P Cummins, Ciara E Keogh
What is the topic of this review? This review highlights the transcriptional consequences for decreased cellular O2 levels (hypoxia) and increased cellular CO2 levels (hypercapnia). What advances does it highlight? We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the cellular response to hypoxia and consider the potential cross-talk between O2 - and CO2 -dependent transcriptional regulation. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are the substrate and product of aerobic metabolism, respectively. Thus, the levels of these physiological gases are inextricably linked in physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
August 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Niamh O'Kennedy, Daniel Raederstorff, Asim K Duttaroy
Hyperactive platelets, in addition to their roles in thrombosis, are also important mediators of atherogenesis. Antiplatelet drugs are not suitable for use where risk of a cardiovascular event is relatively low. It is therefore important to find alternative safe antiplatelet inhibitors for the vulnerable population who has hyperactive platelets in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Potent antiplatelet factors were identified in water-soluble tomato extract (Fruitflow(®)), which significantly inhibited platelet aggregation...
July 7, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Guido Durian, Moona Rahikainen, Sara Alegre, Mikael Brosché, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi
Biotic stress factors pose a major threat to plant health and can significantly deteriorate plant productivity by impairing the physiological functions of the plant. To combat the wide range of pathogens and insect herbivores, plants deploy converging signaling pathways, where counteracting activities of protein kinases and phosphatases form a basic mechanism for determining appropriate defensive measures. Recent studies have identified Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a crucial component that controls pathogenesis responses in various plant species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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