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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905004/gastroenteritis-aggressive-versus-slow-treatment-for-rehydration-gastro-a-pilot-rehydration-study-for-severe-dehydration-who-plan-c-versus-slower-rehydration
#1
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Ayub Mpoya, Nchafatso Obonyo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Margeret Nakuya, Jennifer A Evans, Elizabeth C George, Diana M Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865262/perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-breast-milk-from-korea-time-course-trends-influencing-factors-and-infant-exposure
#2
Sunggyu Lee, Sunmi Kim, Jeongim Park, Hai-Joong Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kyungho Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
Breastfeeding is an important exposure pathway to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for newborn infants. Nevertheless, reports are limited on the occurrence and time-course of PFASs in breast milk, and most studies have focused on the analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, 16 PFASs were analyzed in breast milk samples (n=293) collected from 128 mothers in Korea during various lactation periods to assess maternal exposure levels, contamination profiles, time-course variations, and infant health risks...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863020/validating-the-physiologic-model-hummod-as-a-substitute-for-clinical-trials-involving-acute-normovolemic-hemodilution
#3
Charles R Sims, Luis R Delima, Arthur Calimaran, Robert Hester, W Andrew Pruett
BACKGROUND: Blood conservation strategies and transfusion guidelines remain a heavily debated clinical topic. Previous investigational trials have shown that acute isovolemic hemodilution does not limit adequate oxygen delivery; however, a true critical hemoglobin level has never been investigated or defined due to safety concerns for human volunteers. Validated physiologic modeling may be useful to investigate hemodilution at critical hemoglobin levels without the ethical or safety hazards of clinical trials...
August 31, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860014/feasibility-and-safety-of-intact-cord-resuscitation-in-newborn-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-cdh
#4
Caroline Lefebvre, Thameur Rakza, Nathalie Weslinck, Pascal Vaast, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Sébastien Mur, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Starting resuscitation before clamping the umbilical cord at birth may progressively increase pulmonary blood flow while umbilical venous blood flow is still contributing to maintenance of oxygenation and left ventricle preload. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effects of intact cord resuscitation (ICR) on cardiorespiratory adaptation at birth in newborn infants with CDH. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational, single-center pilot study...
August 30, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857686/natalizumab-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#5
Undine Proschmann, Katja Thomas, Sandra Thiel, Kerstin Hellwig, Tjalf Ziemssen
BACKGROUND: Managing medication during pregnancy and lactation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients needs to balance potential risks to the newborn with the substantial risks of ongoing disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential transfer of natalizumab (NAT) into breast milk and into the serum of newborn babies in women who continued NAT treatment during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: Serum samples of 11 mother-infant pairs and mother milk samples of a further 4 women were analyzed for free NAT using a HL60 cell-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855773/effectiveness-and-safety-of-polygeline-in-patients-with-hypovolemia-due-to-trauma
#6
Ajai Singh, Sabir Ali, Rohita Shetty
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study examined the effectiveness and safety of polygeline in adult patients with hypovolemia due to traumatic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polygeline was administered after evaluating the amount of blood loss and estimating hematological and biochemical parameters. Changes in vital signs, serum electrolytes, arterial pH, and serum lactate were evaluated. The safety was evaluated by recording the adverse events if any. RESULTS: Sixty patients with the mean age 37...
July 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842691/poly-methyl-methacrylate-polyvinyl-alcohol-copolymer-agents-applied-on-diabetic-wound-dressing
#7
Hsiao-Ting Hsieh, Hung-Ming Chang, Wei-Jhih Lin, Yao-Tsung Hsu, Fu-Der Mai
Due to the difficulty of healing chronic wound, in the process of changing dressing, secondary damage on the tissue caused by adhesion should be prevented. In this study, the new dressing of particle hydrogels synthesized with poly-methyl methacrylate and poly-vinyl alcohol precursors were proposed. In addition, cell safety tests, animal's allergic stimulation, and animal's wound healing experiments were conducted for particle hydrogels. On one hand, in L929 cell experiment, the results of particle hydrogels extract 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide tests and lactate dehydrogenase test trial show that there are no safety concerns over particle hydrogels...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841994/use-of-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-to-examine-the-fe-ii-catalyzed-transformation-of-ferrihydrite
#8
Wei Xiao, Adele M Jones, Richard N Collins, Mark W Bligh, T David Waite
The Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of the poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxide mineral, ferrihydrite (Fh), to more crystalline Fe(III) mineral species such as magnetite, goethite, and lepidocrocite has been quantitatively evaluated under various conditions using X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Using the peak height of signature FTIR peaks of sub-micron sized lepidocrocite and goethite references minerals, the FTIR results were comparable to the XAS results within experimental error...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837052/bismuth-subsalicylate-nanoparticles-with-anaerobic-antibacterial-activity-for-dental-applications
#9
Alejandro Luis Vega-Jiménez, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Mariela Flores-Castañeda, Enrique Camps, Marisela Uribe-Ramirez, O Gamaliel Aztatzi-Aguilar, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz
In recent years, nanomaterials have been used in the medical-dental field as new alternative antimicrobial agents. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has been used as an antimicrobial agent, but the effect of BSS in the form of nanoparticles (BSS-nano) as a potential antimicrobial agent has not been tested, in specific against bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of BSS-nano against oral anaerobic bacteria and to assess the safety of BSS-nano by evaluating their cytotoxicity in human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells...
August 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823096/sub-chronic-exposure-to-low-concentration-of-dibutyl-phthalate-affects-anthropometric-parameters-and-markers-of-obesity-in-rats
#10
Khalid Abdul Mjaeed, Habib Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf, Hafsa Zaneb, Imtiaz Rabbani, Sajid Khan Tahir, Muhammad Afzal Rashid
Dibutyl phthalate is an important phthalate ester extensively used in various products like plastics, adhesives, inks, pharmaceuticals, lacquers, varnishes, paper coatings, safety glasses, and cosmetics. The exposure of DBP to "one's health" is therefore inevitable. The present study focuses on elucidating the effect of low doses of DBP on anthropometric parameters and markers of obesity in rats in a 13-week study. A total of 48 rats were divided into three treatment groups as mg DBP/kg body weight per day: (a) 0 mg/kg (control), (b) 10 mg/kg (DBP-10), and (c) 50 mg/kg (DBP-50)...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818851/inotropes-for-preterm-babies-during-the-transition-period-after-birth-friend-or-foe
#11
REVIEW
Heike Rabe, Hector Rojas-Anaya
During the transition to extrauterine life, preterm infants are at high risk of developing circulatory failure. Currently, hypotension is used as major diagnostic criteria for starting treatments such as fluid boluses, inotropes or steroids. Most of these treatment options have not been studied in large randomised controlled trials for efficacy and safety and are under discussions. A wide variety in their use is reported in the literature and clear evidence about which inotrope or other treatment should be preferred is lacking...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814432/minimal-to-no-transfer-of-certolizumab-pegol-into-breast-milk-results-from-cradle-a-prospective-postmarketing-multicentre-pharmacokinetic-study
#12
Megan Eb Clowse, Frauke Förger, Caroline Hwang, John Thorp, Radboud Jem Dolhain, Astrid van Tubergen, Laura Shaughnessy, Jeff Simpson, Marie Teil, Nathalie Toublanc, Maggie Wang, Thomas W Hale
BACKGROUND: Women with chronic inflammatory diseases face uncertainty regarding the safety of biologics during breast feeding. CRADLE was the first industry-sponsored study to evaluate certolizumab pegol (CZP) concentrations in human breast milk and estimate average daily infant dose (ADID) of maternal CZP. METHODS: CRADLE (NCT02154425) was a pharmacokinetic study of lactating mothers receiving CZP. After ≥3 CZP doses, breast milk samples were collected across one dosing period (14 days for 200 mg every 2 weeks [Q2W]; 28 days for 400 mg every 4 weeks [Q4W])...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813523/et-26-hydrochloride-et-26-hcl-has-similar-hemodynamic-stability-to-that-of-etomidate-in-normal-and-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-uhs-rats
#13
Bin Wang, Shouming Chen, Jun Yang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: ET-26 HCl is a promising sedative-hypnotic anesthetic with virtually no effect on adrenocortical steroid synthesis. However, whether or not ET-26 HCl also has a sufficiently wide safety margin and hemodynamic stability similar to that of etomidate and related compounds remains unknown. In this study, the effects of ET-26 HCl, etomidate and propofol on therapeutic index, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise (Dmax/t), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure decline (Dmin/t) were investigated in healthy rats and a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813175/qualitative-analysis-of-registered-nurses-perceptions-of-lactation-assessment-tools-why-and-how-they-are-completed
#14
Joan Esper Kuhnly, Donna J Chapman
BACKGROUND: Although lactation assessment tools are consistently used in clinical practice, there is no evidence describing registered nurses' perspectives regarding the purpose and thought processes involved when conducting a breastfeeding assessment. Research aim: This study aimed to explore registered nurses' perceptions on the purpose of lactation assessment tools and the thought processes involved in completing one. METHODS: Seven focus groups were held from April 2015 through July 2015, in coordination with regional and international lactation and perinatal conferences...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782157/initial-clinical-experiences-with-novel-diagonal-ecls-system-in-pediatric-cardiac-patients
#15
Yildiz Okan, Haydin Sertac, Ozturk Erkut, Kasar Taner, Onan I Selen, Altin H Firat, Cine Nihat, Ayyildiz Pelin, Erkan Halime, Guzeltas Alper
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) provides mechanical support following cardiac surgery when respiratory or cardiac failure occurs. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of the Medos Deltastream diagonal pump (DP3) ECLS system in pediatric cardiac patients. We described the technical considerations and risk factors related to the survival outcomes in 102 pediatric cardiac patients who received ECLS support between March 2011 and April 2016. We switched from the DP2 system, which was used for the initial 25 patients, to the DP3 system after November 2012...
August 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781129/safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-single-doses-of-oxytocin-administered-via-an-inhaled-route-in-healthy-females-randomized-single-blind-phase-1-study
#16
Disala Fernando, Sarah Siederer, Sunita Singh, Ian Schneider, Ashutosh Gupta, Marcy Powell, Duncan Richards, Michelle P McIntosh, Peter Lambert, Susan Fowles
BACKGROUND: The utility of intramuscular (IM) oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings is limited by the requirement for temperature-controlled storage and skilled staff to administer the injection. We evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of a heat-stable, inhaled (IH) oxytocin formulation. METHODS: This phase 1, randomized, single-center, single-blind, dose-escalation, fixed-sequence study (NCT02542813) was conducted in healthy, premenopausal, non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged 18-45years...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753729/safety-evaluation-of-green-tea-polyphenols-consumption-in-middle-aged-ovariectomized-rat-model
#17
Chwan-Li Shen, Gordon Brackee, Xiao Song, Michael D Tomison, VelvetLee Finckbone, Kelly T Mitchell, Lili Tang, Ming-Chien Chyu, Dale M Dunn, Jia-Sheng Wang
This work evaluates chronic safety in middle-aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with different dosages of green tea polyphenols (GTP) in drinking water. The experiment used 6-mo-old sham (n = 39) and ovariectomized (OVX, n = 143) female rats. All sham (n = 39) and 39 of the OVX animals received no GTP treatment and their samples were collected for outcome measures at baseline, 3 mo, and 6 mo (n = 13 per group for each). The remaining OVX animals were randomized into 4 groups receiving 0.15%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723709/delivering-prep-to-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-implementation-science-frontier
#18
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
: HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum periods remains high despite increased access to and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, maternal seroconversion during pregnancy and breastfeeding remains a source of significant paediatric HIV infection in the region. In order to curb vertical HIV transmission, HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation must significantly decline. Biological and behavioural factors contribute to high HIV incidence, including hormonal changes that alter genital mucosal surfaces, and frequent condomless sex with HIV-infected partners or partners of unknown serostatus...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721663/influence-of-direct-or-indirect-contact-for-the-cytotoxicity-and-blood-compatibility-of-spider-silk
#19
J W Kuhbier, V Coger, J Mueller, C Liebsch, F Schlottmann, V Bucan, P M Vogt, S Strauss
Spider silk became one of the most-researched biomaterials in the last years due to its unique mechanical strength and most favourable chemical composition for tissue engineering purposes. However, standardized analysis of cytocompatibility is missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate hemolysis, cytotoxicity of native spider silk as well as influences on the cell culture medium. Changes of cell culture medium composition, osmolarity as well as glucose and lactate content were determined via ELISA measurement...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714610/use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-breastfeeding-women
#20
REVIEW
Nirit Kronenfeld, Maya Berlin, Dotan Shaniv, Matitiahu Berkovitch
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding women who are prescribed with psychotropic medications on a regular basis are often concerned, regarding the possible implications of such treatment on the breastfed infant. A mother's well-being has a direct influence on the well-being of the baby. However, the notorious reputation of psychotropic medications may lead to suboptimal prescribing by the physician and poor adherence by the mother. METHODS: A PubMed search (from 1976 through February 2017) was conducted for commonly used psychotropic drug classes, as well as individual medications commonly prescribed in these classes, along with the MeSH terms "breastfeeding"/"lactation"...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
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