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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091809/a-review-of-penetrating-brain-trauma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-imaging-assessment-complications-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Mona T Vakil, Ajay K Singh
Gunshot injuries are the most common cause of penetrating brain injury (PBI) and carry a high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of PBI has increased over the last decade with an estimated 35,000 civilian deaths annually. Patients that survive to reach the hospital require rapid triage and imaging evaluation. CT findings in conjunction with the Glasgow Coma Scale are typically used to determine which patients are surgical candidates. Radiologists should be familiar with the various injury patterns and imaging findings which are poor prognostic indicators, notably brainstem, bilateral hemispheric, multilobar, or transventricular injuries...
January 14, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/-pseudo-feeders-on-fetal-mri-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#2
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: While vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its two major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain MRI features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively-assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral centre from 2000 to 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074401/adipsic-diabetes-insipidus-in-adult-patients
#3
REVIEW
Martín Cuesta, Mark J Hannon, Christopher J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI...
January 10, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069040/anti-inflammatory-and-immune-regulatory-effects-of-acupuncture-after-craniotomy-study-protocol-for-a-parallel-group-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Seung-Yeon Cho, Seung-Bo Yang, Hee Sup Shin, Seung Hwan Lee, Jun Seok Koh, Seungwon Kwon, Woo-Sang Jung, Sang-Kwan Moon, Jung-Mi Park, Chang-Nam Ko, Seong-Uk Park
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in the medical and surgical fields, complications such as infection, pneumonia, or brain swelling may occur after a craniotomy. In some patients, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis causes adverse effects such as itching, rash, or digestive conditions. Certain patients still develop infections severe enough to require a repeat operation despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Acupuncture has been used to treat inflammatory conditions, and many basic and clinical studies have provided evidence of its anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053848/rapid-development-of-a-mycotic-aneurysm-of-the-intracranial-artery-secondary-to-scedosporium-apiospermum-sinusitis
#5
Yoshihiko Ogawa, Masatoshi Sato, Masato Tashiro, Masayuki Miyazaki, Kiyoshi Nagata, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Kei Kasahara, Koichi Izumikawa, Hisakazu Yano, Keiichi Mikasa
An 85-year-old man complained of a 2-month history of pain on the left side of his face. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography did not clearly show any intracranial abnormality and only showed fluid effusion in his left sphenoid sinus. Filamentous fungi were detected from the left sphenoid sinus specimen. The isolate was Scedosporium apiospermum. He was empirically treated with voriconazole, to which the isolate was susceptible. His consciousness decreased rapidly...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051949/stereological-assessment-of-the-total-number-of-hypoglossal-neurons-after-repeated-crush-injuries-to-the-hypoglossal-nerve-in-adult-rats
#6
Nanae Fukushima, Mika Karasawa, Kumiko Yokouchi, Norimi Sumitomo, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
OBJECTIVE: Retrograde neuronal cell death does not occur in mature motoneurons following the axonal injury of peripheral nerves. However, a previous study suggested that retrograde neuronal cell death does occur in adult rats after the creation of double lesions on the hypoglossal (XII) nerve based on a substantial decrease in the number of XII neurons. Using stereological methods, we examined neuronal apoptosis in XII neurons and the total number of XII neurons following repeated crush injuries to the XII nerve...
February 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048545/we-de-207a-04-advances-in-radiological-neuro-endovascular-interventional-imaging
#7
S Rudin
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048454/we-de-207a-00-advances-in-image-guided-neurointerventions-clinical-pull-and-technology-push
#8
Jeffrey Siewerdsen, Rebecca Fahrig
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047800/we-de-207a-01-parallels-in-the-evolution-of-x-ray-angiographic-systems-and-devices-used-for-minimally-invasive-endovascular-therapy
#9
C Strother
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047144/we-de-207a-02-advances-in-cone-beam-ct-anatomical-and-functional-imaging-in-angio-suite-to-enable-one-stop-shop-stroke-imaging-workflow
#10
G Chen
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046482/we-de-207a-03-recent-advances-in-devices-used-in-neuro-interventions
#11
M Gounis
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043398/col4a1-mutation-in-a-neonate-with-intrauterine-stroke-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis
#12
Shaheen Durrani-Kolarik, Kandamurugu Manickam, Bernadette Chen
BACKGROUND: COL4A1 on chromosome 13q34 encodes the alpha 1 chain of type IV collagen, a component of basal membranes. It is expressed mainly in the brain, muscles, kidneys, and eyes. COL4A1 mutations can remain asymptomatic or cause devastating disease. Neonates and children may present with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage, or hemiparesis, whereas adults tend to develop intracranial aneurysms or retinal arteriolar tortuosities. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a term infant with encephalomalacia, extensive intrauterine stroke and anterior segment dysgenesis with a de novo mutation in COL4A1...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035993/brain-monitoring-in-critically-neurologically-impaired-patients
#13
REVIEW
Salazar Jones, Gary Schwartzbauer, Xiaofeng Jia
Assessment of neurologic injury and the evolution of severe neurologic injury is limited in comatose or critically ill patients that lack a reliable neurologic examination. For common yet severe pathologies such as the comatose state after cardiac arrest, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), critical medical decisions are made on the basis of the neurologic injury. Decisions regarding active intensive care management, need for neurosurgical intervention, and withdrawal of care, depend on a reliable, high-quality assessment of the true state of neurologic injury, and have traditionally relied on limited assessments such as intracranial pressure monitoring and electroencephalogram...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031049/clinical-and-radiological-features-driving-patient-selection-for-antiangiogenic-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#14
Cesare Gridelli, Andrea Camerini, Giovanni Pappagallo, Angelo Pennella, Michele Anzidei, Massimo Bellomi, Roberta Buosi, Rosario Francesco Grasso
BACKGROUND: The use of antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires thorough evaluation of patient characteristics in order to avoid potential safety issues, particularly pulmonary haemorrhage (PH). The aim of this consensus by a panel of experts was to identify important criteria for the selection of patients with NSCLC who would benefit from antiangiogenic therapy. METHODS: Radiologists and oncologists were selected for the expert panel...
December 28, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024974/dual-image-videoangiography-during-intracranial-microvascular-surgery
#15
Alberto Feletti, Xiangdong Wang, Riki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Yamada, Daisuke Suyama, Tsukasa Kawase, Hirotoshi Sano, Yoko Kato
OBJECTIVE: Indocyanine-green videoangiography (ICG-VA) is a precious tool to assess vessels and aneurysm patency during neurovascular surgical procedures. However, ICG-VA highlights vascular structures, which appear white over a black background. Therefore, anatomical relations are sometimes not easy to understand at first glance. The recently developed dual-image videoangiography (DIVA) enables the simultaneous visualization of both light and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence images of ICG-VA...
December 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009242/an-analysis-of-malpractice-litigation-related-to-the-management-of-brain-aneurysms
#16
Raghav Gupta, Christoph J Griessenauer, Justin M Moore, Nimer Adeeb, Apar S Patel, Christopher S Ogilvy, Ajith J Thomas
OBJECTIVE Given the highly complex and demanding clinical environment in which neurosurgeons operate, the probability of facing a medical malpractice claim is high. Recent emphasis on tort reform within the political sphere has brought this issue to the forefront of medical literature. Despite the widespread fear of litigation in the medical community, few studies have provided an analysis of malpractice litigation in the field. Here, the authors attempt to delineate the medicolegal factors that impel plaintiffs to file medical malpractice claims related to the management of brain aneurysms, and to better characterize the nature of these lawsuits...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004212/application-of-actuator-driven-pulsed-water-jet-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-surgery-its-effectiveness-for-dissection-around-ruptured-aneurysmal-walls-and-subarachnoid-clot-removal
#17
Hidenori Endo, Toshiki Endo, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Miki Fujimura, Teiji Tominaga
In clipping surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), critical steps include clot removal and dissection of aneurysms without premature rupture or brain injuries. To pursue this goal, a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system was introduced in this study. This study included 42 patients, who suffered aSAH and underwent clipping surgery. Eleven patients underwent surgery with the assistance of the ADPJ system (ADPJ group). In the other 31 patients, surgery was performed without the ADPJ system (Control group)...
December 22, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000134/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Chun Fai Cheah, Mario Kofler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Gert Klug, Bettina Pfausler, Raimund Helbok
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a well-known complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been rarely described in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Case report and review of literature. RESULTS: Here, we report a 73-year-old woman with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting in cardiogenic shock. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) was diagnosed by repeated echocardiography. Cardiovascular support by inotropic agents led to hemodynamic stabilization after initiation of levosimendan...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000132/biomarkers-of-glycocalyx-injury-are-associated-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-series-supporting-a-new-hypothesis
#19
Josh D Bell, Shawn G Rhind, Alex P Di Battista, R Loch Macdonald, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) contributes to morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, its etiology remains poorly understood. DCI is not only a consequence of angiographic vasospasm, but also involves microthrombosis and neuroinflammation, two events with unexplained phenomenology. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx mediates platelet aggregation and endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and may play an important role in DCI pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a case series in which we conducted multiplex and singlet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of endothelial, glycocalyx, inflammatory, and neuroinjury proteins in both CSF and plasma in three patients during active DCI following SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995510/mechanisms-of-global-cerebral-edema-formation-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Erik G Hayman, Aaron Wessell, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
A growing body of clinical literature emphasizes the impact of cerebral edema in early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Aneurysm rupture itself initiates global cerebral edema in up to two thirds of cases. Although cerebral edema is not a universal feature of aSAH, it portends a poor clinical course, with quantitative analysis revealing a direct correlation between cerebral edema and poor outcome, including mortality and cognitive deficits. Mechanistically, global cerebral edema has been linked to global ischemia at the time of aneurysm rupture, dysfunction of autoregulation, blood breakdown products, neuroinflammation, and hyponatremia/endocrine abnormalities...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
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