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pH homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913677/phlpping-through-history-a-decade-in-the-life-of-phlpp-phosphatases
#1
REVIEW
Agnieszka T Grzechnik, Alexandra C Newton
In the decade since their discovery, the PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPP) have emerged as critical regulators of cellular homeostasis, and their dysregulation is associated with various pathophysiologies, ranging from cancer to degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. The two PHLPP isozymes, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, were identified in a search for phosphatases that dephosphorylate Akt, and thus suppress growth factor signaling. However, given that there are over 200 000 phosphorylated residues in a single cell, and fewer than 50 Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, it is not surprising that PHLPP has many other cellular functions yet to be discovered, including a recently identified role in regulating the epigenome...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904267/application-of-topical-acids-improves-atopic-dermatitis-in-murine-model-by-enhancement-of-skin-barrier-functions-regardless-of-the-origin-of-acids
#2
Noo Ri Lee, Hae-Jin Lee, Na Young Yoon, Donghye Kim, Minyoung Jung, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: The acidic pH of the stratum corneum (SC) is important for epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. Acidification of the skin surface has been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We performed an animal study to evaluate the usefulness of acidification of SC for inhibition of AD lesions and to find out if the therapeutic effect of vinegar is attributable to its herbal contents, rather than its acidity...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903630/genetic-causes-of-phenotypic-adaptation-to-the-second-fermentation-of-sparkling-wines-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Maria Martí-Raga, Emilien Peltier, Albert Mas, Gemma Beltran, Philippe Marullo
Hybridization is known to improve complex traits due to heterosis and phenotypic robustness. However, these phenomena have been rarely explained at the molecular level. Here, the genetic determinism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation performance was investigated using a QTL-mapping approach on an F1-progeny population. Three main QTLs were detected, with positive alleles coming from both parental strains. The heterosis effect found in the hybrid was partially explained by three loci showing pseudo-overdominance and dominance effect...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895051/metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-larval-chironomid-tanytarsus-minutipalpus-adjustments-to-diel-variations-in-the-extreme-conditions-of-lake-magadi
#4
Lucas F Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Harold L Bergman, Ora E Johannsson, Pierre Laurent, Claudine Chevalier, Mosiany L Kisipan, Geraldine D Kavembe, Michael B Papah, Kevin V Brix, Gudrun De Boeck, John N Maina, Rodi O Ojoo, Adalto Bianchini
Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894244/umbelliferone-decreases-intracellular-ph-and-sensitizes-melanoma-cell-line-a375-to-dacarbazin-comparison-with-acetazolamide
#5
Clémentine Puech, Morgane Chatard, Delphine Felder-Flesch, Nathalie Prevot, Nathalie Perek
The high degree of malignancy of tumour cells is linked to alterations of many physiological parameters like the intracellular pH (pHi). The pHi in cancer cell line is regulated by the anhydrase carbonique IX (CA IX). The main enzymatic function of the CA IX protein is to catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions and protons. Inhibiton of transmembrane tumor associated isozyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) with specific inhibitors is a promising and expanding field as CA IX is involved in tumor progression...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894055/indirect-effects-of-climate-changes-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-biological-effects-in-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#6
Alessandro Nardi, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli
Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO2, this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO2 (8...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890727/synthetic-tambjamine-analogues-induce-mitochondrial-swelling-and-lysosomal-dysfunction-leading-to-autophagy-blockade-and-necrotic-cell-death-in-lung-cancer
#7
Ananda M Rodilla, Luís Korrodi-Gregório, Elsa Hernando, Pilar Manuel-Manresa, Roberto Quesada, Ricardo Pérez-Tomás, Vanessa Soto-Cerrato
Current pharmacological treatments for lung cancer show very poor clinical outcomes, therefore, the development of novel anticancer agents with innovative mechanisms of action is urgently needed. Cancer cells have a reversed pH gradient compared to normal cells, which favours cancer progression by promoting proliferation, metabolic adaptation and evasion of apoptosis. In this regard, the use of ionophores to modulate intracellular pH appears as a promising new therapeutic strategy. Indeed, there is a growing body of evidence supporting ionophores as novel antitumour drugs...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889560/microrna-let-7g-inhibited-hypoxia-induced-proliferation-of-pasmcs-via-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-by-targeting-c-myc
#8
Wei-Fang Zhang, You-Wen Xiong, Tian-Tian Zhu, Ai-Zhen Xiong, Hui-Hui Bao, Xiao-Shu Cheng
AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a proliferative disorder characterized by enhanced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of intrapulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Recently, network-based bioinformatics have identified let-7 family, a tumor suppressive microRNA, regulate multiple interacting targets relevant to PH. However, the role of let-7 in vascular homeostasis in PH remains unknown. Thus, we wanted to investigate the role of let-7 in hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and the underlying mechanism in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH)...
November 23, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881304/mitochondrial-sirtuin-network-reveals-dynamic-sirt3-dependent-deacetylation-in-response-to-membrane-depolarization
#9
Wen Yang, Koji Nagasawa, Christian Münch, Yingjie Xu, Kyle Satterstrom, Seungmin Jeong, Sebastian D Hayes, Mark P Jedrychowski, F Sejal Vyas, Elma Zaganjor, Virginia Guarani, Alison E Ringel, Steven P Gygi, J Wade Harper, Marcia C Haigis
Mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT3-5, are NAD(+)-dependent deacylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases that are critical for stress responses. However, a comprehensive understanding of sirtuin targets, regulation of sirtuin activity, and the relationships between sirtuins remains a key challenge in mitochondrial physiology. Here, we employ systematic interaction proteomics to elucidate the mitochondrial sirtuin protein interaction landscape. This work reveals sirtuin interactions with numerous functional modules within mitochondria, identifies candidate sirtuin substrates, and uncovers a fundamental role for sequestration of SIRT3 by ATP synthase in mitochondrial homeostasis...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875766/augmentation-of-bacterial-homeostasis-by-regulating-in-situ-buffer-capacity-significance-of-total-dissolved-salts-over-acidogenic-metabolism
#10
S Venkata Mohan, S Srikanth, G N Nikhil
During anaerobic fermentation, consequent accumulation of acidic fermented products leads to the failure of pH homeostasis. The present study aimed to comprehend the changes in buffering capacity with addition of sodium salts of hydroxide, bicarbonate and phosphate. The results showed notable augmentation in buffer capacity and cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) compared to control. The influential factor is the amount of undissociated volatile fatty acids released that affected the cell metabolism and consequently biohydrogen generation...
November 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869756/a-review-of-temperature-ph-and-other-factors-that-influence-the-survival-of-salmonella-in-mayonnaise-and-other-raw-egg-products
#11
REVIEW
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Kirstin Ross, Howard Fallowfield, Harriet Whiley
Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp...
November 18, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867765/charge-neutralization-as-the-major-factor-for-the-assembly-of-nucleocapsid-like-particles-from-c-terminal-truncated-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein
#12
Theo Luiz Ferraz de Souza, Sheila Maria Barbosa de Lima, Vanessa L de Azevedo Braga, David S Peabody, Davis Fernandes Ferreira, M Lucia Bianconi, Andre Marco de Oliveira Gomes, Jerson Lima Silva, Andréa Cheble de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, in addition to its structural role to form the nucleocapsid assembly, plays a critical role in HCV pathogenesis by interfering in several cellular processes, including microRNA and mRNA homeostasis. The C-terminal truncated HCV core protein (C124) is intrinsically unstructured in solution and is able to interact with unspecific nucleic acids, in the micromolar range, and to assemble into nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in vitro. The specificity and propensity of C124 to the assembly and its implications on HCV pathogenesis are not well understood...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866273/omeprazole-suppressed-plasma-magnesium-level-and-duodenal-magnesium-absorption-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Narongrit Thongon, Jirawat Penguy, Sasikan Kulwong, Kanyanat Khongmueang, Matthana Thongma
Hypomagnesemia is the most concerned side effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in chronic users. However, the mechanism of PPIs-induced systemic Mg(2+) deficit is currently unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the direct effect of short-term and long-term PPIs administrations on whole body Mg(2+) homeostasis and duodenal Mg(2+) absorption in rats. Mg(2+) homeostasis was studied by determining the serum Mg(2+) level, urine and fecal Mg(2+) excretions, and bone and muscle Mg(2+) contents. Duodenal Mg(2+) absorption as well as paracellular charge selectivity were studied...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865089/the-novel-class-of-seven-transmembrane-segment-inverted-repeat-carriers
#14
Yung-Ning Chang, Eric R Geertsma
Solute carriers from the SLC4, SLC23, and SLC26 families are involved in pH regulation, vitamin C transport, and ion homeostasis. While these families do not share any obvious sequence relationship, they are united by their unique and novel architecture. Each member of this structural class is organized into two structurally related halves of seven transmembrane segments each. These halves span the membrane with opposite orientations and form an intricately intertwined structure of two inverted repeats. This review highlights the general design principles of this fold and reveals the diversity between the different families...
November 19, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846716/-mechanisms-of-protein-homeostasis-regulation-in-cancer-development
#15
F Trčka, P Müller, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The proteome of eukaryotic cells represents a complex system. Its components are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. Therefore, the function of the cellular proteome is dependent on the existence of compensatory mechanisms balancing the inner protein homeostasis - proteostasis. These mechanisms involve the network of molecular chaperones and transcriptional program regulating their expression. The process of cancerogenesis is accompanied by significant changes in the intracellular milieu of cancer cells - temperature, pH, availability of nutrients...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823823/sodium-provides-unique-insights-into-transgenerational-effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-bivalve-shell-formation
#16
Liqiang Zhao, Bernd R Schöne, Regina Mertz-Kraus, Feng Yang
Ocean acidification is likely to have profound impacts on marine bivalves, especially on their early life stages. Therefore, it is imperative to know whether and to what extent bivalves will be able to acclimate or adapt to an acidifying ocean over multiple generations. Here, we show that reduced seawater pH projected for the end of this century (i.e., pH7.7) led to a significant decrease of shell production of newly settled juvenile Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum. However, juveniles from parents exposed to low pH grew significantly faster than those from parents grown at ambient pH, exhibiting a rapid transgenerational acclimation to an acidic environment...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821726/keratin-mediates-the-recognition-of-apoptotic-and-necrotic-cells-through-dendritic-cell-receptor-dec205-cd205
#17
Longxing Cao, Haishuang Chang, Xiangyi Shi, Chao Peng, Yongning He
Clearance of dead cells is critical for maintaining homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity and inflammation. When cells undergo apoptosis and necrosis, specific markers are exposed and recognized by the receptors on phagocytes. DEC205 (CD205) is an endocytotic receptor on dendritic cells with antigen presentation function and has been widely used in immune therapies for vaccine generation. It has been shown that human DEC205 recognizes apoptotic and necrotic cells in a pH-dependent fashion. However, the natural ligand(s) of DEC205 remains unknown...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821589/electrogenic-cation-binding-in-the-electroneutral-na-h-antiporter-of-pyrococcus-abyssi
#18
Octavian Călinescu, Mark Linder, David Wöhlert, Özkan Yildiz, Werner Kühlbrandt, Klaus Fendler
Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the CPA1 branch of the cation proton antiporter family drive the electroneutral exchange of H(+) against Na(+) ions and ensure pH homeostasis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although their transport cycle is overall electroneutral, specific partial reactions are electrogenic. Here, we present an electrophysiological study of the PaNhaP Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from Pyrococcus abyssi reconstituted into liposomes. Positive transient currents were recorded upon addition of Na(+) to PaNhaP proteoliposomes, indicating a reaction where positive charge is rapidly displaced into the proteoliposomes with a rate constant of k > 200 s(-1) We attribute the recorded currents to an electrogenic reaction that includes Na(+) binding and possibly occlusion...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816051/molecular-features-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-an-nhe-inhibitor-evidence-of-mitochondrial-alterations-ros-overproduction-and-dna-damage
#19
Francesca Aredia, Sebastian Czaplinski, Simone Fulda, A Ivana Scovassi
BACKGROUND: NH exchangers (NHEs) play a crucial role in regulating intra/extracellular pH, which is altered in cancer cells, and are therefore suitable targets to alter cancer cell metabolism in order to inhibit cell survival and proliferation. Among NHE inhibitors, amiloride family members are commonly used in clinical practice as diuretics; we focused on the amiloride HMA, reporting a net cytotoxic effect on a panel of human cancer cell lines; now we aim to provide new insights into the molecular events leading to cell death by HMA...
November 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815883/simultaneous-analysis-of-multiple-lumenal-parameters-of-individual-phagosomes-using-high-content-imaging
#20
Samuel Cheung, Catherine Greene, Robin M Yates
The biochemical processes within the phagosomes of macrophages and dendritic cells are essential to immunity and homeostasis. Measurable properties of the phagosomal lumen include: assessment of various hydrolytic activities, reduction and oxidation events, pH, ion concentrations, and electrochemical gradients. These often-interdependent phagosomal features are commonly evaluated individually, hindering the analysis of the biochemical relationship between these factors within the same phagosome. In addition, the ability of phagosomes within the same cell to behave autonomously is becoming more evident, thus highlighting the need for a technique capable of multiplex analyses of phagosomal lumenal chemistries at the single phagosome level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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