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pH homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239490/proteomic-changes-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle-in-response-to-chronic-heat-stress
#1
Yanjun Cui, Yue Hao, Jielei Li, Yanli Gao, Xianhong Gu
BACKGROUND: Heat stress (HS) has an adverse effect on meat quality; yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms altering meat quality due to muscle responses to stress remain unclear. Sixteen castrated male crossbreeds between Landrace × Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars (79.00 ± 1.50 kg body weight) were exposed to either thermal neutral (22 °C, n=8) or heat stress (30 °C, n=8) conditions for 3 weeks. Subsequently, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of all pigs was assayed for meat quality parameters and proteome analysis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238329/relative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brucella-abortus-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-to-multiple-environmental-stresses
#2
Xiaodong Zai, Qiaoling Yang, Ying Yin, Ruihua Li, Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Ling Fu, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231785/the-role-of-endomembrane-localized-vha-c-in-plant-growth
#3
Aimin Zhou, Tetsuo Takano, Shenkui Liu
In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a large multisubunit endomembrane proton pump, plays an important role in acidification of subcellular organelles, pH and ion homeostasis, and endocytic and secretory trafficking. V-ATPase subunit c (VHA-c) is essential for V-ATPase assembly, and is directly responsible for binding and transmembrane transport of protons. In previous studies, we identified a PutVHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora, and investigated its function in plant growth. Subcellular localization revealed that PutVHA-c is mainly localized in endosomal compartments...
December 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225077/structural-insights-into-the-ph-dependent-conformational-change-and-collagen-recognition-of-the-human-mannose-receptor
#4
Zhenzheng Hu, Xiangyi Shi, Bowen Yu, Na Li, Ying Huang, Yongning He
Mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is an endocytic receptor on microphages and dendritic cells. It recognizes multiple ligands and plays important roles in regulating immune responses and maintaining glycoprotein homeostasis. However, the structure and functional mechanism of MR remain unclear. Here we determine the crystal structures of the N-terminal fragments of MR and reveal the potential binding mode of collagen on the fibronectin II domain. The SAXS and other biophysical data suggest that MR adopts an extended conformation at physiological pH and undergoes conformational changes as pH decreases, resulting in a compact conformation in an acidic environment...
December 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224352/functional-characterization-of-human-peptide-histidine-transporter-1-in-stably-transfected-mdck-cells
#5
Feifeng Song, Yongjun Hu, Yuqing Wang, David E Smith, Huidi Jiang
The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PHT1 (SLC15A4), which facilitates cross-membrane transport of histidine and small peptides from inside the endosomes or lysosomes to cytosol, plays an important role in intracellular peptide homeostasis and innate immune response. However, it remains a challenge to elucidate functional properties of the PHT1 transporter because of its subcellular localization. The purpose of this study was to re-sort hPHT1 protein from the subcellular to outer cell membrane of MDCK cells stably transfected with human PHT1 mutants, and to characterize its functional activity in these cells...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222395/extracellular-adenosine-stimulates-vacuolar-atpase-dependent-proton-secretion-in-medullary-intercalated-cells
#6
Maria A Battistone, Anil V Nair, Claire R Barton, Rachel N Liberman, Maria A Peralta, Diane E Capen, Dennis Brown, Sylvie Breton
Acidosis is an important complication of AKI and CKD. Renal intercalated cells (ICs) express the proton pumping vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and are extensively involved in acid-base homeostasis. H+ secretion in type A intercalated cells (A-ICs) is regulated by apical vesicle recycling and stimulated by cAMP. In other cell types, cAMP is increased by extracellular agonists, including adenosine, through purinergic receptors. Adenosine is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, but very little is known about the effect of adenosine on IC function...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221953/antitumor-action-of-3-bromopyruvate-implicates-reorganized-tumor-growth-regulatory-components-of-tumor-milieu-cell-cycle-arrest-and-induction-of-mitochondria-dependent-tumor-cell-death
#7
Saveg Yadav, Praveen Kumar Kujur, Shrish Kumar Pandey, Yugal Goel, Babu Nandan Maurya, Ashish Verma, Ajay Kumar, Rana Pratap Singh, Sukh Mahendra Singh
Evidences demonstrate that metabolic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) exerts a potent antitumor action against a wide range of malignancies. However, the effect of 3-BP on progression of the tumors of thymic origin remains unexplored. Although, constituents of tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in regulation of tumor progression, it remains unclear if 3-BP can alter the composition of the crucial tumor growth regulatory components of the external surrounding of tumor cells. Thus, the present investigation attempts to understand the effect of 3-BP administration to a host bearing a progressively growing tumor of thymic origin on tumor growth regulatory soluble, cellular and biophysical components of tumor milieu vis-à-vis understanding its association with tumor progression, accompanying cell cycle events and mode of cell death...
December 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218630/differential-reactivity-of-closely-related-zinc-ii-binding-metallothioneins-from-the-plant-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Hasan T Imam, Claudia A Blindauer
The dynamics of metal binding to and transfer from metalloproteins involved in metal homeostasis are important for understanding cellular distribution of metal ions. The dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two type 4 seed-specific metallothionein homologues, MT4a and MT4b, with likely roles in zinc(II) homeostasis. These two metallothioneins are 84% identical, with full conservation of all metal-binding cysteine and histidine residues. Yet, differences in their spatial and temporal expression patterns suggested divergence in their biological roles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218041/mrp-antiporters-have-important-roles-in-diverse-bacteria-and-archaea
#9
REVIEW
Masahiro Ito, Masato Morino, Terry A Krulwich
Mrp (Multiple resistance and pH) antiporter was identified as a gene complementing an alkaline-sensitive mutant strain of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans C-125 in 1990. At that time, there was no example of a multi-subunit type Na+/H+ antiporter comprising six or seven hydrophobic proteins, and it was newly designated as the monovalent cation: proton antiporter-3 (CPA3) family in the classification of transporters. The Mrp antiporter is broadly distributed among bacteria and archaea, not only in alkaliphiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212301/convergence-of-cancer-metabolism-and-immunity-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Chi Van Dang, Jung-Whan Kim
Cancer metabolism as a field of research was founded almost 100 years ago by Otto Warburg, who described the propensity for cancers to convert glucose to lactate despite the presence of oxygen, which in yeast diminishes glycolytic metabolism known as the Pasteur effect. In the past 20 years, the resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism provided significant insights into processes involved in maintenance metabolism of non-proliferating cells and proliferative metabolism, which is regulated by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors in normal proliferating cells...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210984/insight-into-the-mode-of-action-of-celangulin-v-on-the-transmembrane-potential-of-midgut-cells-in-lepidopteran-larvae
#11
Yingying Wang, Jiwen Zhang, Mingxing Feng, Wenjun Wu, Zhaonong Hu
Celangulin V (CV) is the main insecticidal constituent of Celastrus angulatus. The V-ATPase H subunit of the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae is the putative target protein of CV. Here, we compared the effects of CV on the midgut membrane potentials of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae with those of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and with those of inactive CV-MIA, a synthetic derivative of CV. We investigated the changes in the apical membrane potentials (Vam) and basolateral membrane potentials (Vbm) of the midguts of sixth-instar larvae force-fed with the test toxins...
December 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210575/phase-separation-behavior-of-supercharged-proteins-and-polyelectrolytes
#12
Chad S Cummings, Allie C Obermeyer
Membraneless organelles, like membrane-bound organelles, are essential to cell homeostasis and provide discrete cellular sub-compartments. Unlike classical organelles, membraneless organelles possess no physical barrier, but rather arise by phase separation of the organelle components from the surrounding cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. Complex coacervation, the liquid-liquid phase separation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, is one of several phenomena that is hypothesized to drive the formation and regulation of some membraneless organelles...
December 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209224/na-h-exchanger-3-is-expressed-in-two-distinct-types-of-ionocyte-and-probably-augments-ammonia-excretion-in-one-of-them-in-the-gills-of-the-climbing-perch-exposed-to-seawater
#13
Xiu L Chen, Biyan Zhang, You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Shit F Chew, Wai P Wong, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
The freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an euryhaline teleost and an obligate air-breather with the ability to actively excrete ammonia. Members of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family help maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and ionic balance through the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+. This study aimed to obtain, from the gills of A. testudineus, the full cDNA coding sequence of nhe3, and to determine the effects of exposure to seawater or 100 mmol l-1 of NH4Cl in fresh water on its mRNA and protein expression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196502/identifying-the-localization-and-exploring-a-functional-role-for-gprc5c-in-the-kidney
#14
Premraj Rajkumar, Boyoung Cha, Jianyi Yin, Lois J Arend, Teodor G Păunescu, Yoshio Hirabayashi, Mark Donowitz, Jennifer L Pluznick
The investigation of orphan GPCRs (GPRs) has the potential to uncover novel insights into whole animal physiology. In this study, our goal was to determine the renal localization of Gprc5c, a receptor that we previously reported to be highly expressed in murine whole kidney, and to examine physiologic parameters in Gprc5c knockout (KO) mice to gain insight into function. Gprc5c localized to the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules (PTs) in mice, rats, and humans. With the comparison of Gprc5c wild-type (WT) and KO mice, we found that Gprc5c KO mice have altered acid-base homeostasis...
December 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186492/mechanisms-of-acid-base-regulation-in-peritoneal-dialysis
#15
Amadou Sow, Johann Morelle, Nicolas Hautem, Carla Bettoni, Carsten A Wagner, Olivier Devuyst
Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) contributes to restore acid-base homeostasis in patients with end-stage renal disease. The transport pathways for buffers and carbon dioxide (CO2) across the peritoneal membrane remain poorly understood. Methods: Combining well-established PD protocols, whole-body plethysmography and renal function studies in mice, we investigated molecular mechanisms of acid-base regulation in PD, including the potential role of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1)...
November 22, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180238/glucose-homeostasis-in-the-euryhaline-crab-cytograpsus-angulatus-effects-of-the-salinity-in-the-amylase-maltase-and-sucrase-activities-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-in-the-carbohydrate-reserves-in-different-tissues
#16
Antonela Asaro, Roberto Alejandro Paggi, Juana Cristina Del Valle, Alejandra Antonia López Mañanes
We studied the existence, biochemical characteristics and response to different environmental salinities of amylase, maltase and sucrase activity in the intertidal euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana, 1852) along with the response to distinct salinities of glycogen and free glucose content in storage organs. Amylase, maltase and sucrase activities were kept over a broad range of pH and temperature and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Zymography showed the existence of two amylase forms in crabs exposed to 35 (osmoconformation) and low (6-10psu; hyper-regulation) or high (40psu) (hypo-regulation) salinities...
November 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176758/early-optimal-parenteral-nutrition-and-metabolic-acidosis-in-very-preterm-infants
#17
Francesco Bonsante, Jean-Bernard Gouyon, Pierre-Yves Robillard, Béatrice Gouyon, Silvia Iacobelli
BACKGROUND: It is currently recognized that an optimized nutritional approach, consisting of an early and substantial supply of protein and energy by parenteral route, may be beneficial for very low birth weight infants and recent guidelines endorse this strategy. However, the impact of the enhanced parenteral nutrition (PN) on acid-basic balance has never been investigated. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of nutrient intake on acid-base homeostasis in a large population of preterm infants on PN...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168553/probing-the-activity-of-a-recombinant-zn2-transporting-p-type-atpase
#18
H Ravishankar, A Barth, M Andersson
P-type ATPase proteins maintain cellular homeostasis and uphold critical concentration gradients by ATP-driven ion transport across biological membranes. Characterization of single-cycle dynamics by time-resolved X-ray scattering techniques in solution could resolve structural intermediates not amendable to for example crystallization or cryo-electron microscopy sample preparation. To pave way for such time-resolved experiments, we used biochemical activity measurements, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and time-dependent Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify optimal conditions for activating a Zn2+ -transporting Type-I ATPase from Shigella sonnei (ssZntA) at high protein concentration using caged ATP...
November 23, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168167/interdependent-feedback-regulation-of-breathing-by-the-carotid-bodies-and-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus
#19
Patrice G Guyenet, Douglas A Bayliss, Ruth L Stornetta, Roy Kanbar, Yingtang Shi, Benjamin B Holloway, George M P R Souza, Tyler M Basting, Stephen B G Abbott, Ian C Wenker
The retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN, regulates breathing in a CO2 and state-dependent manner. RTN neurons are glutamatergic and innervate principally the respiratory pattern generator; they regulate multiple aspects of breathing, including active expiration, and maintain breathing automaticity during non-REM sleep. RTN neurons encode arterial PCO2 /pH via cell-autonomous and paracrine mechanisms, and via input from other CO2 -responsive neurons. In short, RTN neurons are a pivotal structure for breathing automaticity and arterial PCO2 homeostasis...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167428/low-ph-induced-conformational-change-and-dimerization-of-sortilin-triggers-endocytosed-ligand-release
#20
Nadia Leloup, Philip Lössl, Dimphna H Meijer, Martha Brennich, Albert J R Heck, Dominique M E Thies-Weesie, Bert J C Janssen
Low pH-induced ligand release and receptor recycling are important steps for endocytosis. The transmembrane protein sortilin, a β-propeller containing endocytosis receptor, internalizes a diverse set of ligands with roles in cell differentiation and homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms of pH-mediated ligand release and sortilin recycling are unresolved. Here we present crystal structures that show the sortilin luminal segment (s-sortilin) undergoes a conformational change and dimerizes at low pH. The conformational change, within all three sortilin luminal domains, provides an altered surface and the dimers sterically shield a large interface while bringing the two s-sortilin C-termini into close proximity...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
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