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pH homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440551/alternating-ph-landscapes-shape-epithelial-cancer-initiation-and-progression-focus-on-pancreatic-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Stine F Pedersen, Ivana Novak, Frauke Alves, Albrecht Schwab, Luis A Pardo
We present here the hypothesis that the unique microenvironmental pH landscape of acid-base transporting epithelia is an important factor in development of epithelial cancers, by rendering the epithelial and stromal cells pre-adapted to the heterogeneous extracellular pH (pHe ) in the tumor microenvironment. Cells residing in organs with net acid-base transporting epithelia such as the pancreatic ductal and gastric epithelia are exposed to very different, temporally highly variable pHe values apically and basolaterally...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433571/antitumor-and-chemosensitizing-action-of-3-bromopyruvate-implication-of-deregulated-metabolism
#2
Saveg Yadav, Shrish Kumar Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kujur, Rana Pratap Singh, Sukh Mahendra Singh
3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), brominated derivative of pyruvate, possesses strong antitumor potential, owing to its ability to inhibit multiple target molecules crucial for survival of neoplastic cells. Although, 3-BP displays cytotoxicity against a wide variety of tumors, there is no report with respect to malignancies of thymic origin. Therefore, we investigated its antineoplastic action in vitro against tumor cells of a murine transplantable lymphoma of thymoma origin, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). 3-BP treatment of tumor cells inhibited metabolism and survival with augmented induction of apoptosis and necrosis...
April 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#3
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414453/global-proteome-profiling-of-a-marine-copepod-and-the-mitigating-effect-of-ocean-acidification-on-mercury-toxicity-after-multigenerational-exposure
#5
Minghua Wang, Jae-Seong Lee, Yan Li
Previously, we found that ocean acidification (OA) mitigates mercury (Hg) toxicity to marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus under multigenerational exposure (four generations, F0-F3). To determine the response mechanisms of T. japonicus against long-term exposure to OA and Hg pollution, we investigated the proteome of F3 copepods after multigenerational exposure to four conditions: pCO2 400 μatm + control; pCO2 1000 μatm + control; pCO2 400 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg; and pCO2 1000 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that OA enhanced the copepod's energy production mainly by increasing protein assimilation and proteolysis as a compensatory strategy, which explained its physiological resilience to reduced pH...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409461/determination-of-peroxisomal-ph-in-living-mammalian-cells-using-phred
#6
Luis F Godinho, Michael Schrader
Organelle pH homeostasis is crucial for maintaining proper cellular function. The nature of the peroxisomal pH remains somewhat controversial, with several studies reporting conflicting results. Here, we describe in detail a rapid and accurate method for the measurement of peroxisomal pH, using the pHRed sensor protein and confocal microscopy of living mammalian cells. pHRed, a ratiometric sensor of pH, is targeted to the peroxisomes by virtue of a C-terminal targeting sequence. The probe has a maximum fluorescence emission at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm, allowing for ratiometric imaging and determination of intracellular pH in live cell microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409346/development-and-diseases-of-the-collecting-duct-system
#7
Lihe Chen, Paul J Higgins, Wenzheng Zhang
The collecting duct of the mammalian kidney is important for the regulation of extracellular volume, osmolarity, and pH. There are two major structurally and functionally distinct cell types: principal cells and intercalated cells. The former regulates Na(+) and water homeostasis, while the latter participates in acid-base homeostasis. In vivo lineage tracing using Cre recombinase or its derivatives such as CreGFP and CreER(T2) is a powerful new technique to identify stem/progenitor cells in their native environment and to decipher the origins of the tissue that they give rise to...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406019/honey-extracted-polyphenolics-reduce-experimental-hypoxia-in-human-keratinocytes-culture
#8
Amrita Chaudhary, Swarnendu Bag, Provas Banerjee, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Hypoxic assault affects fundamental cellular processes and generates oxidative stress on healthy cells/molecules. Honey extracted polyphenolics (HEP) as a natural antioxidant reduced hypoxic cytotoxicity in this study. Different honey samples were physicochemically characterized to identify preferred (jamun) honey [pH 3.55 ± 0.04, conductivity (μs/cm) = 6.66 ± 0.14, water content % (w/w) = 14.70 ± 0.35, total solid content % (w/w) = 85.30 ± 0.35, phenol content (mg GAE/100 g) = 403.55 ± 0.35, flavonoid content (mg QE/100 g) = 276...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403826/erratum-to-multidrug-resistance-protein-mdtm-adds-to-the-repertoire-of-antiporters-involved-in-alkaline-ph-homeostasis-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Scarlett R Holdsworth, Christopher J Law
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388636/characterization-and-mutational-analysis-of-a-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-deamidase-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-showing-high-thermal-stability-and-catalytic-efficiency
#10
Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino, Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Antonio Ginés García-Saura, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Among the enzymes involved in its recycling, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase is one of the key players in the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of NMN into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which is later converted to NAD+ in the Preiss-Handler pathway. The biochemical characteristics of bacterial NMN deamidases have been poorly studied, although they have been investigated in some firmicutes, gamma-proteobacteria and actinobacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385813/acidosis-increases-the-susceptibility-of-respiratory-epithelial-cells-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-cytotoxicity
#12
Iviana M Torres, Sally Demirdjian, Jennifer Vargas, Britton C Goodale, Brent L Berwin
Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment. While this is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. In this report we test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings support that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385297/renal-tubular-nhe3-is-required-in-the-maintenance-of-water-and-sodium-chloride-homeostasis
#13
Robert A Fenton, Søren B Poulsen, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Manoocher Soleimani, Jessica A Dominguez Rieg, Timo Rieg
The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower...
April 3, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384412/second-era-of-omics-in-caries-research-moving-past-the-phase-of-disillusionment
#14
M M Nascimento, E Zaura, A Mira, N Takahashi, J M Ten Cate
Novel approaches using OMICS techniques enable a collective assessment of multiple related biological units, including genes, gene expression, proteins, and metabolites. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing ( NGS) technologies were improved by longer sequence reads and the development of genome databases and user-friendly pipelines for data analysis, all accessible at lower cost. This has generated an outburst of high-throughput data. The application of OMICS has provided more depth to existing hypotheses as well as new insights in the etiology of dental caries...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382973/acidic-ph-environment-induces-autophagy-in-osteoblasts
#15
Zhichao Zhang, Qingguo Lai, Yanan Li, Chao Xu, Xiaopeng Tang, Jiangbo Ci, Shaolong Sun, Bingbing Xu, Yan Li
Osteoblasts (OBs) play an important role in bone fracture healing, yet the extreme adverse microenvironment in fracture sites has a negative impact on the survival of OBs. Therefore, it is important to study how OBs behave in the complex fracture microenvironment. Studies have shown that autophagy plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and defending the cell against adverse microenvironments. In this study we found the induction of autophagy in OBs at femoral bone fracture sites, which may be a result of ischemia, oxidative stress and hypoxia within the local area...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382025/starter-feeding-supplementation-alters-colonic-mucosal-bacterial-communities-and-modulates-mucosal-immune-homeostasis-in-newborn-lambs
#16
Junhua Liu, Gaorui Bian, Daming Sun, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
This study aims to investigate the effect of starter feeding supplementation on colonic mucosal bacterial communities and on mucosal immune homeostasis in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed breast milk (M, n = 8), while the other was fed breast milk plus starter (M+S, n = 8). The lambs were sacrificed at 56 days age. Colonic content was collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate. The colonic mucosa was harvested to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLR) using quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373845/perfused-gills-reveal-fundamental-principles-of-ph-regulation-and-ammonia-homeostasis-in-the-cephalopod-octopus-vulgaris
#17
Marian Y Hu, Po-Hsuan Sung, Ying-Jey Guh, Jay-Ron Lee, Pung-Pung Hwang, Dirk Weihrauch, Yung-Che Tseng
In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood [Formula: see text] concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete [Formula: see text] via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/[Formula: see text] homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373552/phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding-protein-atph1-controls-the-localization-of-the-metal-transporter-nramp1-in-arabidopsis
#18
Astrid Agorio, Jérôme Giraudat, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Jessica Marion, Christelle Espagne, Loren Castaings, Françoise Lelièvre, Catherine Curie, Sébastien Thomine, Sylvain Merlot
"Too much of a good thing" perfectly describes the dilemma that living organisms face with metals. The tight control of metal homeostasis in cells depends on the trafficking of metal transporters between membranes of different compartments. However, the mechanisms regulating the location of transport proteins are still largely unknown. Developing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings require the natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP3 and NRAMP4) transporters to remobilize iron from seed vacuolar stores and thereby acquire photosynthetic competence...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370530/noninvasive-evaluation-of-renal-ph-homeostasis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-cest-mri
#19
Dario Livio Longo, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Filippo Michelotti, Pietro Irrera, Silvio Aime
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice caused by sustained ischemia followed by reperfusion is associated with acute tubular necrosis and renal dysfunctional blood flow. Although the principal role of the kidney is the maintenance of acid-base balance, current imaging approaches are unable to assess this important parameter, and clinical biomarkers are not robust enough in evaluating the severity of kidney damage. Therefore, novel noninvasive imaging approaches are needed to assess the acid-base homeostasis in vivo...
March 29, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369514/determination-of-glucose-deficiency-induced-cell-death-by-mitochondrial-atp-generation-driven-proton-homeostasis
#20
Yanfen Cui, Yuanyuan Wang, Miao Liu, Li Qiu, Pan Xing, Xin Wang, Guoguang Ying, Binghui Li
Glucose is one of major nutrients and its catabolism provides energy and/or building bricks for cell proliferation. Glucose deficiency results in cell death. However, the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. By using our recently developed method to monitor real-time cellular apoptosis and necrosis, we show that glucose deprivation can directly elicit necrosis, which is promoted by mitochondrial impairment, depending on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation instead of ATP depletion. We demonstrate that glucose metabolism is the major source to produce protons...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
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