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pH homeostasis

Emi Ono, Hiroyuki Murota, Yuki Mori, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Yuko Nomura, Takichi Munetsugu, Hiroo Yokozeki, Ichiro Katayama
Sweat includes active components and metabolites, which are needed to maintain skin homeostasis. Component changes in sweat derived from atopic dermatitis (AD) have been reported. To investigate the influence of sweat components on the pathogenesis of AD, we performed a multifaceted assessment, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis, and linked these features to clinical features of AD. Distinctive properties of AD sweat are the quite-variation in protein, anti-microbial peptides and glucose concentrations...
2018: PloS One
Roberto Caricato, M Elena Giordano, Trifone Schettino, M Giulia Lionetto
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme, whose functions in animals span from respiration to pH homeostasis, electrolyte transport, calcification, and biosynthetic reactions. CA is sensitive to trace metals in a number of species. In mussels, a previous study demonstrated CA activity and protein expression to be enhanced in digestive gland by cadmium exposure. The aim of the present work was to investigate the functional meaning, if any, of this response. To this end the study addressed the possible involvement of CA in the lysosomal system response of digestive gland cells to metal exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna Fassio, Alessandro Esposito, Mitsuhiro Kato, Hirotomo Saitsu, Davide Mei, Carla Marini, Valerio Conti, Mitsuko Nakashima, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Akgun Olmez Turker, Burcu Albuz, C Nur Semerci Gündüz, Keiko Yanagihara, Elisa Belmonte, Luca Maragliano, Keri Ramsey, Chris Balak, Ashley Siniard, Vinodh Narayanan, Chihiro Ohba, Masaaki Shiina, Kazuhiro Ogata, Naomichi Matsumoto, Fabio Benfenati, Renzo Guerrini
V-type proton (H+) ATPase (v-ATPase) is a multi-subunit proton pump that regulates pH homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells; in neurons, v-ATPase plays additional and unique roles in synapse function. Through whole exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous mutations (p.Pro27Arg, p.Asp100Tyr, p.Asp349Asn, p.Asp371Gly) in ATP6V1A, encoding the A subunit of v-ATPase, in four patients with developmental encephalopathy with epilepsy. Early manifestations, observed in all patients, were developmental delay and febrile seizures, evolving to encephalopathy with profound delay, hypotonic/dyskinetic quadriparesis and intractable multiple seizure types in two patients (p...
April 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ioana M Abbas, Holger Hoffmann, María Montes-Bayón, Michael G Weller
Mass spectrometry-based methods play a crucial role in the quantification of the main iron metabolism regulator hepcidin by singling out the bioactive 25-residue peptide from the other naturally occurring N-truncated isoforms (hepcidin-20, -22, -24), which seem to be inactive in iron homeostasis. However, several difficulties arise in the MS analysis of hepcidin due to the "sticky" character of the peptide and the lack of suitable standards. Here, we propose the use of amino- and fluoro-silanized autosampler vials to reduce hepcidin interaction to laboratory glassware surfaces after testing several types of vials for the preparation of stock solutions and serum samples for isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS)...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Giusi Marrone, Francesco De Chiara, Katrin Böttcher, Ana Levi, Dipok Dhar, Lisa Longato, Giuseppe Mazza, Zhenzhen Zhang, Martina Marrali, Anabel Fernández- Iglesias, Andrew Hall, Tu Vinh Luong, Benoit Viollet, Massimo Pinzani, Krista Rombouts
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are characterized by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which is associated with higher intracellular pH (pHi). The vacuolar H+ adenosine-tri-phosphatase (v-ATPase) multi-subunit complex is a key regulator of intracellular pH homeostasis. The present work was aimed at investigating the functional role of v-ATPase in primary human HSC (hHSC) activation and its modulation by specific AMPK subunits. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of different v-ATPase subunits was increased in in vivo and in vitro activated hHSC, compared to non-activated hHSC...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Marian Y Hu, Etienne Lein, Markus Bleich, Frank Melzner, Meike Stumpp
AIM: Experimental simulation of near-future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans-generational exposure to near-future acidification levels. METHODS: Here we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, in order to study trans-generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints...
April 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jingfang Hao, Pierre Pétriacq, Linda de Bont, Michael Hodges, Bertrand Gakière
The flavoprotein l-aspartate oxidase (LASPO) is the first enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway of NAD+ in plants. Although LASPO is considered pivotal to maintain NAD+ homeostasis, it has not been hitherto characterized in plants. Here, the cDNA encoding the LASPO from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLASPO, At5g14760) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli for subsequent enzyme characterization. The purified AtLASPO enzyme displayed a Km of 0.79 mM for l-aspartate and a kcat of 0...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yun-Ping Mu, Da-Cen Lin, Si-Yi Zheng, Hai-Xia Jiao, James Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, which are attributable to the alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). It is well established that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is augmented in PASMCs during PH and it plays crucial roles in PH development. Our previous studies showed that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) is down-regulated in PASMCs of PH animal models; and activation of TRPM8 causes relaxation of pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Liqiang Zhao, Stefania Milano, Eric O Walliser, Bernd R Schöne
Marine bivalves inhabiting naturally pCO2 -enriched habitats can likely tolerate high levels of acidification. Consequently, elucidating the mechanisms behind such resilience can help to predict the fate of this economically and ecologically important group under near-future scenarios of CO2 -driven ocean acidification. Here, we assess the effects of four environmentally realistic pCO2 levels (900, 1500, 2900 and 6600 μatm) on the shell production rate of Mya arenaria juveniles originating from a periodically pCO2 -enriched habitat (Kiel Fjord, Western Baltic Sea)...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Florian Bourdeaux, Christopher A Hammer, Stephan Vogt, Felix Schweighöfer, Gilbert Nöll, Josef Wachtveitl, Martin Grininger
Dodecins are small flavin binding proteins occurring in archaea and bacteria. They are remarkable for binding dimers of flavins with their functional relevant aromatic isoalloxazine rings deeply covered. Bacterial dodecins are widely spread, and found in a large variety of pathogens, among them Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Ralstonia solanacearum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this work, we seek to understand the function of dodecins from M. tuberculosis dodecin. We describe flavin binding in thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and achieve mechanistic insight in dodecin function by applying spectroscopic and electrochemical methods...
April 2, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Gabriel B Taveira, Érica O Mello, Sávio B Souza, Renan M Monteiro, Alessandro C Ramos, André O Carvalho, Rosana Rodrigues, Lev A Okorokov, Valdirene M Gomes
Ca Thi is a thionin-like peptide isolated from fruits of Capsicum annuum , which has strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, and that induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fungi. ROS are molecules that appear in the early stages of programmed cell death or apoptosis in fungi. Due to this fact, in this work we analyzed some events that may be related to process of apoptosis on yeast induced by Ca Thi. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, presence of active caspases and the ability of Ca Thi to binding to DNA in C...
March 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Georges Jacques Casimir, Nicolas Lefèvre, Francis Corazza, Jean Duchateau, Mustapha Chamekh
In humans, acid-base balance is crucial to cell homeostasis. Acidosis is observed in numerous inflammatory processes, primarily acute conditions such as sepsis, trauma, or acute respiratory distress where females tend to exhibit better prognosis compared with males. The mechanisms underlying these gender-dependent differences are multiple, probably involving hormonal and genetic factors, particularly the X chromosome. Although pH influences multiple immunological functions, gender differences in acid-base balance have been poorly investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ajantha Nadesalingam, Jacky H K Chen, Armin Farahvash, Meraj A Khan
Tonicity of saline (NaCl) is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Xu, Qian Liu, Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
Lactosucrose is a kind of trisaccharide that functions as a significant prebiotic in the maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis for human. In this study, a levansucrase from Brenneria goodwinii was further used for the lactosucrose production. The recombinant levansucrase showed efficiency in the lactosucrose production by transfructosylation from sucrose and lactose, and no other oligosaccharide or polysaccharide was detected in the reaction mixture. The transfructosylation product by this recombinant enzyme was structurally determined to be lactosucrose by FT-IR and NMR...
March 27, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Christos Filis, Ioannis Vasileiadis, Antonia Koutsoukou
Chloride represents-quantitatively-the most prevalent, negatively charged, strong plasma electrolyte. Control of chloride concentration is a probable major mechanism for regulating the body's acid-base balance and for maintaining homeostasis of the entire internal environment. The difference between the concentrations of chloride and sodium constitutes the major contributor to the strong ion difference (SID); SID is the key pH regulator in the body, according to the physicochemical approach. Hyperchloraemia resulting from either underlying diseases or medical interventions is common in intensive care units...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
I Angelova-Fischer, T W Fischer, C Abels, D Zillikens
BACKGROUND: Increased skin surface pH is an important host-related factor for deteriorated barrier function in the aged. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether restoration of the skin pH through topical application of a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion with pH 4 improved the barrier homeostasis in aged skin and compared the effects to an identical galenic formulation with pH 5.8. METHODS: The effects of the test formulations on the barrier recovery were investigated by repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin pH 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after acetone-induced impairment of the barrier function in aged skin...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
M Flinck, S H Kramer, S F Pedersen
Precise spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular pH (pHi ) is a prerequisite for normal cell function, and changes in pHi or pericellular pH (pHe ) exert important signaling functions. It is well established that proliferation of mammalian cells is dependent on a permissive pHi in the slightly alkaline range (7.0-7.2). It is also clear that mitogen signaling in nominal absence of HCO3 - is associated with an intracellular alkalinization (~0.3 pH unit above steady state pHi ), which is secondary to activation of Na+ /H+ exchange...
March 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jiao Zhang, Jianjie Dong, Marcy Martin, Ming He, Brendan Gongol, Traci L Marin, Lili Chen, Xinxing Shi, Yanjun Yin, Fenqing Shang, Yan Wu, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Jin Zhang, Yu Zhang, Jian Kang, Esteban A Moya, Hsien-Da Huang, Frank L Powell, Zhen Chen, Patricia A Thistlethwaite, Zu-Yi Yuan, John Y-J Shyy
RATIONALE: Endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in pulmonary hypertension (PH). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are crucial in endothelial homeostasis. The mechanism by which AMPK regulates ACE2 in the pulmonary endothelium and its protective role in PH remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: We investigate the role of AMPK phosphorylation of ACE2 Ser-680 in ACE2 stability and decipher the functional consequences of this post-translational modification of ACE2 in endothelial homeostasis and PH...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jaehoon Jung, Kwondo Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang, Woori Kwak, Sook Hee Yoon, Hawsun Sohn, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho
Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the widely-used probiotics and there have been a large number of advanced researches on the effectiveness of this species. However, the difference between previously reported plantarum strains, and the source of genomic variation among the strains were not clearly specified. In order to understand further on the molecular basis of L. plantarum on Korean traditional fermentation, we isolated the L. plantarum GB-LP4 from Korean fermented vegetable and conducted whole genome assembly...
2018: Genes & Genomics
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