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pH homeostasis

Si-Yin Han, Meng-Qiang Wang, Bao-Jie Wang, Mei Liu, Ke-Yong Jiang, Lei Wang
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low pH (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high pH (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-day period. Survival of shrimp, and ROS production, antioxidant responses and oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and midgut were investigated. Consequently, shrimp enhanced MnSOD, GPx, and Hsp70 transcripts as early defense mechanism in the hepatopancreas and midgut to scavenge excessive ROS during short-term (≤7 d) gradual-low and high pH stress...
February 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Judith S Scheller, Gordon W Irvine, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins, found throughout Nature. Their ability to bind a number of different metals with a range of stoichiometric ratios means that this protein family is critically important for essential metal (Zn2+ and Cu+) homeostasis, metal storage, metal donation to nascent metalloenzymes as well as heavy metal detoxification. With its 20 cysteines, metallothionein is also considered to protect cells against oxidative stress. MT has been studied by a large number of researchers over the last 6 decades using a variety of spectroscopic techniques...
February 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Federica Rigo, Nicola De Stefano, Victor Navarro-Tableros, Ezio David, Giorgia Rizza, Giorgia Catalano, Nicholas Gilbo, Francesca Maione, Federica Gonella, Dorotea Roggio, Silvia Martini, Damiano Patrono, Mauro Salizzoni, Giovanni Camussi, Renato Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: The gold standard for organ preservation before transplantation is static cold storage, which is unable to fully protect suboptimal livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury. An emerging alternative is normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which permits organ reconditioning. Here, we aimed to explore the feasibility of a pharmacological intervention on isolated rat livers by using a combination of NMP and human liver stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EV). METHODS: We established an ex vivo murine model of NMP capable to maintain liver function despite an ongoing hypoxic injury induced by hemodilution...
February 9, 2018: Transplantation
Zhang-Dong Xie, Yi-Min Guo, Mei-Juan Ren, Jichun Yang, Shao-Fang Wang, Tong-Hui Xu, Li-Ming Chen, Ying Liu
Uterine fluid contains a high concentration of [Formula: see text] which plays an essential role in sperm capacitation and fertilization. In addition, the [Formula: see text] concentration in uterine fluid changes periodically during the estrous cycle. It is well-known that the endometrial epithelium contains machineries involving the apical SLC26 family anion exchangers for secreting [Formula: see text] into the uterine fluid. In the present study, we find for the first time that the electroneutral Na+/[Formula: see text] cotransporter NBCn1 is expressed at the apical membrane of the endometrial epithelium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Abraham Rimon, Manish Dwivedi, Assaf Friedler, Etana Padan
Na+/H+ antiporters have a crucial role in pH- and Na+ homeostasis in cells. The crystal structure of NhaA, the main antiporter of Escherichia coli, has provided general insights into antiporter mechanisms and revealed a previously unknown structural fold, which has since been identified in several secondary active transporters. This unique structural fold is very delicately electrostatically balanced. Asp133 and Lys 300 have been ascribed essential roles in this balance, and, more generally, in the structure and function of the antiporter...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Daniel B Mills, Warren R Francis, Sergio Vargas, Morten Larsen, Coen Ph Elemans, Donald E Canfield, Gert Wörheide
Animals have a carefully orchestrated relationship with oxygen. When exposed to low environmental oxygen concentrations, and during periods of increased energy expenditure, animals maintain cellular oxygen homeostasis by enhancing internal oxygen delivery, and by enabling the anaerobic production of ATP. These low-oxygen responses are thought to be controlled universally across animals by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We find, however, that sponge and ctenophore genomes lack key components of the HIF pathway...
February 6, 2018: ELife
Qiong Wu, Kang Gao, Shuzhi Zheng, Xin Zhu, Yinwen Liang, Junmin Pan
Calcium has been implicated in the motility, assembly, disassembly, and deflagellation of the eukaryotic flagellum or cilium (exchangeable terms). Calmodulin (CaM) is known to be critical for flagellar motility; however, it is unknown whether and how CaM is involved in other flagella-related activities. We have studied CaM in Chlamydomonas, a widely used organism for ciliary studies. CaM is present in the cell body and the flagellum, with enrichment in the basal body region. Loss of CaM causes shortening of the nucleus basal body connector and impairs flagellar motility and assembly but not flagellar disassembly...
January 29, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dao-Lai Zhang, Yu-Jing Sun, Ming-Liang Ma, Yi-Jing Wang, Hui Lin, Rui-Rui Li, Zong-Lai Liang, Yuan Gao, Zhao Yang, Dong-Fang He, Amy Lin, Hui Mo, Yu-Jing Lu, Meng-Jing Li, Wei Kong, Ka Young Chung, Fan Yi, Jian-Yuan Li, Ying-Ying Qin, Jingxin Li, Alex R B Thomsen, Alem W Kahsai, Zi-Jiang Chen, Zhi-Gang Xu, Mingyao Liu, Dali Li, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2...
February 2, 2018: ELife
Lipeng Feng, Shiyun Chen, Yangbo Hu
During infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) colonizes macrophages or necrotic granulomas, in which low pH is one of the major challenges. The PhoPR two-component regulatory system and the cytosolic redox sensor WhiB3 both play important roles in the response to low pH by Mtb However, whether close association exists between PhoPR and WhiB3 remains unclear. In this study, the positive regulation of whiB3 by PhoPR in mycobacteria was characterized. We observed that the expression patterns of the whiB3 gene under acidic conditions are different among mycobacterial species, suggesting that the regulation of whiB3 differs among mycobacteria...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Philip B Miner
Uroguanylin interacting with intestinal Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C) receptors plays an important role in gastrointestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Plecanatide is the first uroguanylin analog that stimulates GC-C receptors on gastrointestinal mucosa with pH-sensitive receptor binding. Binding to the GC-C receptor activates intracellular conversion of GTP to cGMP resulting in the stimulation of intestinal fluid secretion. Areas covered: Herein, all published research regarding the development of and clinical experience with plecanatide is reviewed...
January 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Silvia V Conde, Joana F Sacramento, Maria P Guarino
The carotid body is currently looked at as a multipurpose sensor for blood gases, blood pH and several hormones. The matter of glucose sensing by the carotid body has been debated for several years in the literature, and nowadays there is a consensus that carotid body activity is modified by metabolic factors that contribute to glucose homeostasis. However, the sensing ability for glucose is still being pondered: are the carotid bodies low glucose sensors or, in contrast, are they overresponsive in high-glucose conditions? Herein, we debate the glucose and insulin sensing capabilities of the carotid body as the key early events in the overactivation of the carotid body that result in insulin resistance culminating in the development of metabolic diseases...
January 26, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Mi Seong Kim, Dong Min Shin, Min Seuk Kim
Gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontitis, is generally considered a consequence of prolonged exposure of the gingiva to periodontal pathogens. On the other hand, several epidemiologic reports have suggested that other etiologic factors such as oral acidification may also increase the susceptibility of the periodontium to destruction. However, the pathologic mechanism underlying the effects of oral acidification on the gingiva is still largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed molecular pathways mediating the influence of the acidic environment on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)...
January 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yun-Ping Mu, Qiu-Hong Huang, Jie-Ling Zhu, Si-Yi Zheng, Fu-Rong Yan, Xiao-Ling Zhuang, James S K Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced vasoreactivity and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction, arising from the aberrant Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. In addition to Ca2+ , magnesium, the most abundant intracellular divalent cation, also plays critical roles in many cellular processes that regulate cardiovascular functions. Recent findings suggested that magnesium regulates vascular functions by altering the vascular responses to vasodilator and vasoactive agonists, and affects endothelial function by modulating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertension...
January 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Yu Tahara, Mayu Yamazaki, Haruna Sukigara, Hiroaki Motohashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yuko Ikeda, Shinji Fukuda, Shigenobu Shibata
Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids produced by the fermentation of non-digestible fibre can communicate from the microbiome to host tissues and modulate homeostasis in mammals. The microbiome has circadian rhythmicity and helps the host circadian clock function. We investigated the effect of SCFA or fibre-containing diets on circadian clock phase adjustment in mouse peripheral tissues (liver, kidney, and submandibular gland). Initially, caecal SCFA concentrations, particularly acetate and butyrate, induced significant day-night differences at high concentrations during the active period, which were correlated with lower caecal pH...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Justyna M Meissner, Jay M Bhatt, Eunjoo Lee, Melanie Styers, Anna A Ivanova, Richard A Kahn, Elizabeth Sztul
ARF GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to support cellular homeostasis. Key to understanding spatio-temporal regulation of ARF signaling is the mechanism of GEF recruitment to membranes. Small GEFs are recruited through phosphoinositide (PIP) binding by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain downstream from the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d). The large GEFs lack PH domains, and their recruitment mechanisms are poorly understood. We probed Golgi recruitment of GBF1, a GEF catalyzing ARF activation required for Golgi homeostasis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Ligang Fan, Lei Zhao, Wei Hu, Weina Li, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Sibu Simon, Jiří Friml, Jinbo Shen, Liwen Jiang, Quan-Sheng Qiu
AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 are endosomal Na+ ,K+ /H+ antiporters that are critical for growth and development in Arabidopsis, but the mechanism behind their action remains unknown. Here, we report that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, functioning as H+ leak, control auxin homeostasis and auxin-mediated development. We found that nhx5 nhx6 exhibited growth variations of auxin-related defects. We further showed that nhx5 nhx6 was affected in auxin homeostasis. Genetic analysis showed that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 were required for the function of the ER-localized auxin transporter PIN5...
January 23, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Romina G Díaz, Luisa F González Arbeláez, Nestor G Perez, Erik Richard Swenson, Susana M Mosca, Bernardo V Alvarez
During ischemia, increased anaerobic glycolysis results in intracellular acidosis. Activation of alkalinizing transport mechanisms associated with carbonic anhydrases (CA) leads to myocardial intracellular Ca2+ increase. We characterize the effects of inhibition of CA with benzolamide (BZ) during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Langendorff perfused isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Other hearts were treated with BZ (5 μM) during the initial 10 min of reperfusion or perfused with acid solution (AR, pH 6...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jorge V Beira, Joana Torres, Renato Paro
In response to stress and injury a coordinated activation of conserved signalling modules, such as JNK and JAK/STAT, is critical to trigger regenerative tissue restoration. While these pathways rebuild homeostasis and promote faithful organ recovery, it is intriguing that they also become activated in various tumour conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how similar pathways can achieve context-dependent functional outputs, likely depending on cellular states. Compromised chromatin regulation, upon removal of the Polycomb group member polyhomeotic, leads to tumour formation with ectopic activation of JNK signalling, mediated by egr/grnd, in addition to JAK/STAT and Notch...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Masayuki Furuya, Junichi Kikuta, Sayumi Fujimori, Shigeto Seno, Hiroki Maeda, Mai Shirazaki, Maki Uenaka, Hiroki Mizuno, Yoriko Iwamoto, Akito Morimoto, Kunihiko Hashimoto, Takeshi Ito, Yukihiro Isogai, Masafumi Kashii, Takashi Kaito, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Alexander C Lichtler, Kazuya Kikuchi, Hideo Matsuda, Hideki Yoshikawa, Masaru Ishii
Bone homeostasis is regulated by communication between bone-forming mature osteoblasts (mOBs) and bone-resorptive mature osteoclasts (mOCs). However, the spatial-temporal relationship and mode of interaction in vivo remain elusive. Here we show, by using an intravital imaging technique, that mOB and mOC functions are regulated via direct cell-cell contact between these cell types. The mOBs and mOCs mainly occupy discrete territories in the steady state, although direct cell-cell contact is detected in spatiotemporally limited areas...
January 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Shengrui Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Qin Wang, Yaogang Zhong, Xiaofeng Yang, Zheng Li, Hua Li
Vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) play fundamental roles in intracellular redox homeostasis and are responsible for many diseases. In this work, we report a far-red fluorescence turn-on probe MCAs for VDPs exploiting the pKa shift of the imine functionality of the probe. MCAs is composed of a merocyanine Schiff base as the fluorescent reporter and a cyclic 1, 3, 2-dithiarsenolane as the specific ligand for VDPs. The imine pKa of MCAs is 4.8, and it exists predominantly in the Schiff base (SB) form at physiological pH...
January 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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