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Cardiac function in lvh

Ming Hu, Zhenhui Zhang, Bin Liu, Shuangwei Zhang, Renjie Chai, Xiaohua Chen, Tianyu Kong, Fangcheng Zhang, Jingzhi Zhang, Shiming Liu, Ningning Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major outcome and compensatory response of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic and additional stress responses that ultimately lead to heart failure. Auranofin (Aur) has been used for treating rheumatic arthritis for several decades. Aur is a 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase inhibitor, and inhibition of the proteasome is speculated to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of the deubiquitinases, especially 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, in the regulation of cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Daniela Sorriento, Gaetano Santulli, Michele Ciccarelli, Angela Serena Maione, Maddalena Illario, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
We have recently demonstrated that the amino-terminal domain of G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) type 5, (GRK5-NT) inhibits NFκB activity in cardiac cells leading to a significant amelioration of LVH. Since GRK5-NT is known to bind calmodulin, this study aimed to evaluate the functional role of GRK5-NT in the regulation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent transcription factors. We found that the overexpression of GRK5-NT in cardiomyoblasts significantly reduced the activation and the nuclear translocation of NFAT and its cofactor GATA-4 in response to phenylephrine (PE)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Takeshi Omae, Eiichi Inada
New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is the most common perioperative complication of heart surgery, typically occurring in the perioperative period. NOAF commonly occurs in patients who are elderly, or have left atrial enlargement, or left ventricular hypertrophy. Various factors have been identified as being involved in the development of NOAF, and numerous approaches have been proposed for its prevention and treatment. Risk factors include diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. For prevention of NOAF, β-blockers and amiodarone are particularly effective and are recommended by guidelines...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Wesley Hayes, Fabio Paglialonga
Dysregulation of intravascular fluid leads to chronic volume overload in children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Sequelae include left ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling and impaired cardiac function. As a result, cardiovascular complications are the commonest cause of mortality in the pediatric dialysis population. The clinical need to optimize intravascular volume in children with ESKD is clear; however, its assessment and management is the most challenging aspect of the pediatric dialysis prescription...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Szu-Ying Tsai, Shan-Ying Wang, Yu-Chien Shiau, Yen-Wen Wu
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an often under-diagnosed cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It affects 1/500 of the population, is the most commonly inherited cardiovascular disorder, and can present in apical, concentric, or septal forms. Although most patients are asymptomatic, sudden cardiac death can be the initial presentation of HCM. By retrospectively enrolling patients suspected of having three different types of HCM in the absence of epicardial coronary stenosis, we aimed to examine systolic and diastolic dysfunction and perfusion abnormalities using both Doppler echocardiography and state-of-the-art gated single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera and thallium-201...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Charles Hutchings, Simon George Anderson, Jessica L Caldwell, Andrew W Trafford
Novel cardioprotective agents are needed in both heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction. Increasing evidence from cellular studies and animal models indicate protective effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, drugs usually reserved as treatments of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to improve contractile function in systolic HF, regress left ventricular hypertrophy, reduce myocardial infarct size and suppress ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias...
March 8, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Randall Faull, Nitesh Rao, Matthew Worthley
An effectively functioning arteriovenous fistula is the life line for patients on long-term hemodialysis, and for most an upper limb, native vessel fistula has significant short- and long-term advantages. There are, however, situations where a fistula has deleterious effects, including the relatively uncommon problem of severe heart failure exacerbated in particular by high-flow fistulas. There is also increasing evidence that a fistula can add to the already high burden of cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced kidney disease, including by promoting water and salt retention, and by inducing or worsening left ventricular hypertrophy...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Qian Han, Guihua Li, Mary SiuMan Ip, Yuelin Zhang, Zhe Zhen, Judith ChoiWo Mak, Nuofu Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) is closely associated with cardiovascular diseases. IH confers cardiac injury via accelerating cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas the underlying mechanism has remained largely enigmatic. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms involved in the IH-induced cardiac damage performed with the IH-exposed cell and animal models and to investigate the protective effects of haemin, a potent haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activator, on the cardiac injury induced by IH...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Paul Wijnker, Vasco Sequeira, Diederik Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits...
February 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Gherardo Finocchiaro, Harshil Dhutia, Andrew D'Silva, Aneil Malhotra, Nabeel Sheikh, Rajay Narain, Bode Ensam, Stathis Papatheodorou, Maite Tome, Rajan Sharma, Michael Papadakis, Sanjay Sharma
BACKGROUND: The association between athletic participation and alteration in diastolic function is not well established. The aims of this study were to determine the spectrum of Doppler parameters of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in a large cohort of healthy athletes and to quantify the overlap between physiologic LV hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of indices of LV diastolic function was performed in 1,510 healthy athletes (mean age, 22 ± 5 years; range, 13-33 years; 72% men)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Hamidreza Omrani, Alireza Rai, Zahra Daraei, Masoud Sadeghi
Background: Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of kidney transplantation on the cardiovascular status in ESRD patients. Methods: During 2012 to 2014 and in a cross-sectional study, 181 patients were randomly selected for this study. All patients were followed for periods of 6 and 12 months after kidney transplantation. The patients with ESRD and kidney transplant recipients; the patients with left ventricle ejection fraction<50%, left ventricular hypertrophy, mitral valve regurgitation and tricuspid valve regurgitation were included to study and the patients with kidney transplant rejection, myocardial infarction, high blood pressure with treatment-resistant, high blood pressure and addicted patients were censored...
December 2017: Medical Archives
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Hekma Saad Farghaly, Tahra Sherief
BACKGROUND: Obese children are at increased risk for abnormal cardiac structure and function. Little is known about adrenomedullin (AM), a cytokine produced in various organs and tissues, as a biomarker of cardiac hypertrophy in obese children. This study aimed to assess the plasma AM levels in a cohort of obese children and its relationship to left ventricular (LV) functions. METHODS: The study included 60 obese children and 60 non-obese children matched for age and gender as control group...
February 6, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Kasra Moazzami, Mohammad Reza Ostovaneh, Bharath Ambale Venkatesh, Mohammadali Habibi, Kihei Yoneyama, Colin Wu, Kiang Liu, Isabel Pimenta, Annette Fitzpatrick, Steven Shea, Robyn L McClelland, Susan Heckbert, Rebecca F Gottesman, David A Bluemke, Timothy M Hughes, João A C Lima
Limited information exists on the longitudinal association between the left ventricular (LV) structure and function and future cognitive impairment and dementia in a large population without clinically recognized cardiovascular disease at baseline. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cardiac structure and function and risk of dementia and cognitive impairment in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) cohort. Measures of LV structure and function were determined using magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 4999 participants free of clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease and dementia...
January 29, 2018: Hypertension
Fatih Yalcin, Nagehan Kucukler, Oscar H Cingolani, Blaid Mbiyangandu, Lars Sorensen, Aurelio Pinherio, Roselle Abraham, Theodore P Abraham
LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY (LVH) is an adaptive response to physiologic or pathologic stimuli and distinguishing between the two has obvious clinical implications. However, asymmetric septal hypertrophy and preserved cardiac function are noted in early stages in both cases. We characterized the early anatomic and functional changes in a mouse model of physiologic and pathologic stress using serial echocardiography-based morphometry and tissue velocity imaging. Weight-matched CF-1 male mice were separated into CONTROLS (n=10), treadmill EXERCISE 1 hour daily x 5 days/week (n=7) and transverse aortic constriction (TAC, n=7)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
D M Schwab, L Tilemann, R Bauer, M Heckmann, A Jungmann, M Wagner, J Burgis, C Vettel, H A Katus, A El-Armouche, O J Müller
The downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and decreased cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in failing hearts results in decreased phosphorylation and inactivation of phosphatase-inhibitor-1 (I-1), a distal amplifier element of β-adrenergic signaling, leading to increased protein phosphatase 1 activity and dephosphorylation of key phosphoproteins, including phospholamban. Downregulated and hypophosphorylated I-1 likely contributes to β-AR desensitization; therefore its modulation is a promising approach in heart failure treatment...
January 2018: Gene Therapy
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Priscila Mendes, Raquel Martinho, Sara Leite, Leonardo Maia-Moço, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, André P Lourenço, Mónica Moreira-Rodrigues
Adrenaline-deficient phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase-knockout mice (Pnmt-KO) have concentric heart remodeling and though their resting blood pressure is normal, it becomes higher during acute exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac morphological, functional and molecular alterations after chronic exercise in adrenaline-deficient mice. Genotypes at the Pnmt locus were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear samples of Pnmt-KO and wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were submitted to chronic exercise training during 6weeks...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Hoshang Farhad, Sara B Seidelmann, Davis Vigneault, Siddique A Abbasi, Eunice Yang, Sharlene M Day, Steven D Colan, Mark W Russell, Jeffrey Towbin, Mark V Sherrid, Charles E Canter, Ling Shi, Michael Jerosch-Herold, David A Bluemke, Carolyn Ho, Tomas G Neilan
BACKGROUND: Impaired left atrial (LA) function is an early marker of cardiac dysfunction and predictor of adverse cardiac events. Herein, we assess LA structure and function in hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) sarcomere mutation carriers with and without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHOD: Seventy-three participants of the HCMNet study who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging were studied, including mutation carriers with overt HCM (n = 34), preclinical mutation carriers without HCM (n = 24) and healthy, familial controls (n = 15)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Lorenzo A DiCarlo, Imad Libbus, H Uday Kumar, Sanjay Mittal, Rajendra K Premchand, Badri Amurthur, Bruce H KenKnight, Jeffrey L Ardell, Inder S Anand
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of the patients presenting with new-onset heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF). These patients have neurohormonal activation like that of HF with reduced ejection fraction; however, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have not been shown to improve their outcomes, and current treatment for these patients is symptom based and empiric...
December 28, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
Olivier Huttin, Christine Selton-Suty, Clément Venner, Jean-Baptiste Vilain, Pierre Rochecongar, Etienne Aliot
BACKGROUND: High-level physical training induces cardiac structural and functional changes, including 12-lead electrocardiogram modifications. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this cross-sectional longitudinal study was to establish a quantitative electrocardiographic profile in highly trained football players. Initial and serial annual electrocardiogram monitoring over subsequent years allowed us to investigate the long-term effects of exercise on cardiac conduction and electrophysiological remodelling...
December 21, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
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