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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332596/synthesis-and-characterization-of-thiocarbohydrazones-and-their-inhibitory-potential-against-ignored-disease-leishmaniasis
#1
Nida Ghouri, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Arshia, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic vector-borne disease which is endemic in 88 tropical countries. Infected sand fly is the main cause of this disease while, there are several vectors, parasites, and reservoirs involved in the transmission of this disease. Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi are. common disease causing species, spread through sandflies. It is considered to be a focal disease having scattered foci. Leishmaniasis is a disease with a broad clinical spectrum...
January 14, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332141/cultivable-fungi-present-in-antarctic-soils-taxonomy-phylogeny-diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-antiparasitic-and-herbicidal-metabolites
#2
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326780/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-of-myocardial-involvement-in-leptospirosis
#3
Onkar B Auti, Kanav Kansal, K V Shrikanth, Vimal Raj
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the Leptospira interrogans. Although it is endemic in tropical countries, global incidence has increased in several temperate and developed regions. Here, we present a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) chest features of active systemic leptospiral infection in a 19-year-old male. The MDCT appearances of lungs and CMR appearances of myocardium in icteric leptospirosis are described. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is important to manage the cardiothoracic complications...
October 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#4
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#5
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321330/glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored-anti-hiv-env-single-chain-variable-fragments-interfere-with-hiv-1-env-processing-and-viral-infectivity
#6
Anisha Misra, Emile Gleeson, Weiming Wang, Chaobaihui Ye, Paul Zhou, Jason T Kimata
In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphitidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with infectivity of newly produced virions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321321/functional-analysis-of-the-dengue-virus-genome-using-an-insertional-mutagenesis-screen
#7
Jeffrey W Perry, Yanhua Chen, Elizabeth Speliotes, Andrew W Tai
In the last few decades, dengue virus, an arbovirus, has spread to over 120 countries. Although a vaccine has been approved in some countries, limitations on its effectiveness, and a lack of effective antiviral treatments reinforce the need for additional research. The functions of several viral nonstructural proteins are essentially unknown. To better understand the functions of these proteins and thus dengue virus pathogenesis, we embarked on a genome wide transposon mutagenesis screen with Next Generation Sequencing to determine sites in the viral genome that tolerate 15 nucleotide insertions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321303/infection-and-replication-of-influenza-virus-at-the-ocular-surface
#8
Hannah M Creager, Amrita Kumar, Hui Zeng, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Though influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320544/diversity-patterns-leishmania-dna-detection-and-bloodmeal-identification-of-phlebotominae-sand-flies-in-villages-in-northern-colombia
#9
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318997/screening-of-returned-travelers
#10
Orçun Zorbozan, Ayşegül Ünver, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz
Travel-related health problems have been reported in 22-64% of travelers to developing countries. Approximately 8% of these patients are moderately ill and are referred to health facilities. Post-travel infections are usually symptomatic in the early stages, but they may last for up to months or even years, depending on the incubation period. It has been reported that it is not necessary to have extensive knowledge on tropical diseases to be able to make a clinical evaluation after the trip. All post-travel consultations should be performed by physicians and should include travel-related illness identification, timely medical intervention, and, if necessary, referral to a senior hospital...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318570/confusion-strongly-associated-with-antibiotic-prescribing-due-to-suspected-urinary-tract-infections-in-nursing-homes
#11
Sean Mayne, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Ronny Gunnarsson
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of documented urinary tract infection (UTI), nonspecific symptoms, and antibiotic treatment of suspected UTI in nursing homes (NHs) in the tropics and to describe the typical resident likely to receive antibiotic treatment for suspected UTI and factors associated with the development of confusion, fatigue, and restlessness. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Five far north Queensland NHs in tropical Australia...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318108/an-unusual-cause-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Jaimie Mittal, Wendy A Szymczak, Noah Robbins, Carol Harris, Priya Nori
We present a case of fatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Acinetobacter baumannii, which is rarely reported in the northeastern United States. Previously reported cases originate from tropical and subtropical climates, and infection tends to have an aggressive course with a poor outcome. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial; however, the associated systemic inflammatory response may overwhelm host defenses, especially in patients with certain co-morbidities.
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317800/leishmaniasis-in-humans-drug-or-vaccine-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Masoud Ghorbani, Ramin Farhoudi
Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317100/-practices-in-infectious-pathology-in-france-in-2015-results-of-the-national-survey
#14
Arnault Tauziède-Espariat, Fabrice Chrétien, Grégory Jouvion, Homa Alde-Biassette, Paul Hofman
Pathologists have been, are and will be always implicated in the diagnosis of infectious and tropical diseases. The resurgence of opportunistic infections due to the development of immunosuppressive drugs, the increase of migratory involvements draining tropical infections and the last epidemics spotlight the importance of pathologists in the field of infectious diseases. However, cancer is nowadays the first preoccupation of pathologists, which is constantly subject to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic markers and factors predictive to targeted therapy response or immunotherapy...
January 6, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315671/the-antimalarial-drug-amodiaquine-possesses-anti-zika-virus-activities
#15
Yingshan Han, Thibault Mesplède, Hongtao Xu, Yudong Quan, Mark A Wainberg
Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has emerged as a global health threat, particularly in tropical areas, over the past few years. No antiviral therapy or vaccine is available at present. For these reasons, repurposing clinically approved drugs against ZIKV infection may provide rapid and cost-effective global health benefits. Here we explored this strategy and screened eight FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity against ZIKV using a cell-based assay. Our results show that the antimalarial drug amodiaquine has anti-ZIKV activity with EC50 at low micromolar concentrations in cell culture...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313667/design-and-synthesis-of-broad-spectrum-trypanosomatid-selective-inhibitors
#16
Andrew L Fraser, Stefanie K Menzies, Elizabeth F B King, Lindsay B Tulloch, Eoin R Gould, Marija Zacharova, Terry K Smith, Gordon J Florence
Neglected tropical diseases caused by parasitic infections are an ongoing and increasing concern that have a devastating effect on the developing world due to their burden on human and animal health. In this work, we detail the preparation of a focused library of substituted-tetrahydropyran derivatives and their evaluation as selective chemical tools for trypanosomatid inhibition and the follow-on development of photo-affinity probes capable of labeling target protein(s) in vitro. Several of these functionalised compounds maintain low micromolar activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani...
January 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313474/clinical-bacteriologic-and-geographic-stratification-of-melioidosis-emerges-from-the-sri-lankan-national-surveillance-program
#17
Harindra D Sathkumara, Adam J Merritt, Enoka M Corea, Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Mohan Natesan, Timothy J J Inglis, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed additional associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ2 = 3...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311092/pharmacodynamics-of-flubendazole-for-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-repurposing-and-reformulation-of-an-anti-parasitic-agent-for-a-neglected-fungal-disease
#18
Gemma L Nixon, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Nikki Farrington, Sarah Whalley, Joanne Livermore, Cristien Natal, Gina Washbourn, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil Berry, Jodi Lestner, Megan Truong, Andrew Owen, David Lalloo, Ian Charles, William Hope
Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity, but also have in vitro antifungal activity that includes Cryptococcus neoformans Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311090/investigation-of-multiple-resistance-mechanisms-in-voriconazole-resistant-aspergillus-flavus-clinical-isolates-from-a-chest-hospital-surveillance-in-delhi-india
#19
Cheshta Sharma, Rakesh Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Aradhana Masih, Dinesh Gupta, Anuradha Chowdhary
Invasive and allergic infections by Aspergillus flavus are more common in tropical and subtropical countries. The emergence of voriconazole (VRC) resistance in A. flavus impacts the management of aspergillosis as azoles are used as the first line and empiric therapy. We screened molecularly confirmed 120 A. flavus isolates obtained from respiratory and sino-nasal specimens in a chest hospital in Delhi for azole resistance using CLSI BMD method. Overall, 2.5% (n=3/120) of A. flavus isolates had VRC MICs above epidemiological cutoff values (>1μg/ml)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310974/sepsis-in-tropical-regions-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#20
Steven McGloughlin, Guy A Richards, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Shirish Prayag, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Sepsis and septic shock in the tropics are caused by a wide array of organisms. These infections are encountered mainly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where a lack of infrastructure and medical facilities contribute to the high morbidity and mortality. Published sepsis guidelines are based on studies primarily performed in high income countries and as such recommendations may or may not be relevant to practice in the tropics. Failure to adhere to guidelines, particularly among non-intensive care specialists even in high-income countries, is an area of concern for sepsis management...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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