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tropical infections

Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Zin Zayar Win, Phornpun Phokrai, Zarni Aung, Thein Zaw, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita, Paul J Brett, Tin Maung Hlaing
Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important but under-recognized cause of disease in the tropics. Although first described over a century ago as a septicemic illness associated with morphine addicts in Rangoon, Burma, there is little information regarding the incidence of melioidosis in present-day Myanmar. To address this issue, we used two recently developed and validated serological assays to detect B. pseudomallei -specific antibodies in 124 serum samples obtained from febrile patients in the delta region of Myanmar...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Yury Yzabella da Silva, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia canis is a tick-borne bacterium that causes severe, life-threatening disease in dogs, being more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Randomized studies conducted in Brazil indicate that the prevalence of E. canis infection in dogs ranges from 0.7% to over 50.0%. In a study conducted in northern Brazil, the prevalence was higher in dogs from urban areas, as compared to dogs from rural areas. In the present study, we investigated the exposure to Ehrlichia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) caused by Rickettsia felis is an arthropod-borne zoonosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, primary species and genotype(s) of R. felis infecting fleas from dogs and cats. RESULTS: All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. All rickettsial DNA detected in fleas was identified as being 100% homologous to R. felis URRWXCal2, with positivity within tropical, subtropical and temperate regions noted at 6...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shashi Shekhar Suman, Ajay Amit, Krishn Pratap Singh, Parool Gupta, Asif Equbal, Arti Kumari, Roshan Kamal Topno, Vidyananda Ravidas, Krishna Pandey, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the unicellular protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania. Tryparedoxin (TXN) is a low molecular mass dithiol protein belonging to oxidoreductases super-family; which function in concert with tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) as a system in protozoan parasites including Leishmania. Leishmanial hydroperoxides detoxification cascade uses trypanothione as electron donor to reduce hydroperoxide inside the macrophages during infection. However, the mechanism by which tryparedoxin can contribute in progression of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its impact on host's cellular immune response during infection in Indian VL patient is unknown...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine
Stephane Olindo, Severine Jeannin, Martine Saint-Vil, Aissatou Signate, Mireille Edimonana-Kaptue, Julien Joux, Harold Merle, Pascale Richard, Samuel Granjeaud, Philippe Cabre, Didier Smadja, Raymond Cesaire, Agnes Lezin
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been discovered in 1980 and has been linked to tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in 1985 in Martinique. There is no data on HAM/TSP incidence trends. We report, in the present work, the temporal trends incidence of HAM/TSP in Martinique over 25 years. METHODS: Martinique is a Caribbean French West Indies island deserved by a unique Neurology Department involved in HAM/TSP diagnosis and management. A registry has been set up since 1986 and patients diagnosed for a HAM/TSP were prospectively registered...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chen Avni, Shmuel Stienlauf, Eyal Meltzer, Yechezkel Sidi, Eli Schwartz, Eyal Leshem
We characterized posttravel hospitalizations of citizens returning to Israel by summarizing the returning traveler hospitalization dataset of the national referral Center for Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases at Sheba Medical Center in Israel. Of 722 hospitalizations, 181 (25%) infections were life-threatening; most would have been preventable by chemoprophylaxis and pretravel vaccination.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marcelo Label, Luciana C Karayan, Sybren De Hoog, Javier Afeltra, Togo Bustamante, Roxana G Vitale
Chromoblastomycosis is a mutilating infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Proven cases of the main agent, Fonsecaea pedrosoi are mainly limited to (sub)tropical, humid climates of Latin and Central America and the Caribbean. Fonsecaea monophora has a global distribution along the equator. Cases outside the (sub)tropics have thus far mostly been considered to have been imported, but here we report the first endemic case by F. monophora from Argentina...
June 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Purva V Sharma, Michael Witteman, Swethika Sundaravel, Tulisa Larocca, Yuanming Zhang, Harry Goldsztajn
Adult T cell lymphoma (ATL), is a peripheral T cell neoplasm associated with infection by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). This is a case of a 28-year-old lady who presented with back pain for the past month and recent onset weakness in her lower extremities bilaterally. She has a history of T-cell lymphoma secondary to HTLV-1 under remission since 2014 and systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by lupus nephritis. On physical examination patient had hyper-reflexia in both knees, ankle clonus bilaterally and spasticity in both her lower extremities...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hou Tee Lu, Gunasekaran Ramsamy, Chuey Yan Lee, Syed Rasul G Syed Hamid, Foong Kee Kan, Rusli Bin Nordin
BACKGROUND Melioidosis is a rare tropical bacterial infection caused by the Gram-negative soil saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can mimic a variety of diseases due to its varied presentation, and unless it is treated rapidly, it can be fatal.  A rare case of melioidosis, with pericarditis and pericardial effusion, is described, which demonstrates the value of early diagnosis with echocardiography and pericardiocentesis. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old native (Iban) East Malaysian man presented with shortness of breath and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
José V J Silva, Thaísa R R Lopes, Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Renato A S Oliveira, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Laura H V G Gil
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Carolina de la Guardia, David E Stephens, Hang T Dang, Mario Quijada, Oleg V Larionov, Ricardo Lleonart
Dengue virus causes dengue fever, a debilitating disease with an increasing incidence in many tropical and subtropical territories. So far, there are no effective antivirals licensed to treat this virus. Here we describe the synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of two compounds based on the quinoline scaffold, which has shown potential for the development of molecules with various biological activities. Two of the tested compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of dengue virus serotype 2 in the low and sub micromolar range...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhancheng Tian, Xiaoyue Du, Junzheng Du, Shandian Gao, Ruiming Yu, Muhammad Adeel Hassan, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Tropical theileriosis, caused by Theileria annulata, is distributed worldwide and causes great economic losses in dairy. The reliable diagnostic method is critical for prevention and control of the disease. In this study, a sporozoite and macroschizont gene 2 (spm2) protein from T. annulata was used to develop an indirect ELISA for tropical theileriosis. Specificity test showed that there were no cross-reactions with antibodies raised against other bovine piroplasm species using ELISA or western blotting...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Li Huan-Zhang, Zang Xin-Zhong, Qian Men-Bao, Xue Jing-Bo, Zhou Chang-Hai, Chen Ying-Dan, Tian Tian, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu
Cysticercosis refers to a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium . It is a parasitic zoonosis and listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Cysticercosis is spreading all over the world through globalization and it mainly epidemic in developing countries. In the southwest and minority nationality areas of China, as a result of the low level of medical and health care, and the unchangeable diet custom, there are still many cases of cysticercosis, which is manifested as a local high prevalence...
February 27, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Khansoudaphone Phakhounthong, Pimwadee Chaovalit, Podjanee Jittamala, Stuart D Blacksell, Michael J Carter, Paul Turner, Kheng Chheng, Soeung Sona, Varun Kumar, Nicholas P J Day, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a re-emerging viral disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The clinical features and abnormal laboratory test results of dengue infection are similar to those of other febrile illnesses; hence, its accurate and timely diagnosis for providing appropriate treatment is difficult. Delayed diagnosis may be associated with inappropriate treatment and higher risk of death. Early and correct diagnosis can help improve case management and optimise the use of resources such as hospital staff, beds, and intensive care equipment...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Vijayan Jasna, Angia Sriram Pradeep Ram, Ammini Parvathi, Telesphore Sime-Ngando
Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses...
2018: PloS One
C A Rajabu, G G Kennedy, J Ndunguru, E M Ateka, F Tairo, L Hanley-Bowdoin, J T Ascencio-Ibáñez
Geminiviruses are devastating single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide variety of crops in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Tomato, which is a host for more than 100 geminiviruses, is one of the most affected crops. Developing plant models to study geminivirus-host interaction is important for the design of virus management strategies. In this study, "Florida Lanai" tomato was broadly characterized using three begomoviruses (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV ; Tomato mottle virus, ToMoV; Tomato golden mosaic virus, TGMV) and a curtovirus (Beet curly top virus, BCTV)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Pierre H H Schneeberger, Jean T Coulibaly, Gordana Panic, Claudia Daubenberger, Morgan Gueuning, Jürg E Frey, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease burdening millions of people. One drug, praziquantel, is currently used for treatment and control. Clinically relevant drug resistance has not yet been described, but there is considerable heterogeneity in treatment outcomes, ranging from cure to only moderate egg reduction rates. The objectives of this study are to investigate potential worm-induced dysbacteriosis of the gut microbiota and to assess whether a specific microbiome profile could influence praziquantel response...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui, Ghislain Emmanuel Sopoh, Anita Carolle Wadagni, Roch Christian Johnson, Paulin Aoulou, Inès Elvire Agbo, Jean-Gabin Houezo, Micah Boyer, Mark Nichter
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, commonly known as Buruli ulcer (BU), is a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Its management remains complex and has three main components: antibiotic treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin for 56 days, wound dressings and skin grafts for large ulcerations, and physical therapy to prevent functional limitations after care. In Benin, BU patient care is being integrated into the government health system. In this paper, we report on an innovative pilot program designed to introduce BU decentralization in Ouinhi district, one of Benin's most endemic districts previously served by centralized hospital-based care...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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