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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650648/indian-ocean-dipole-and-cryptosporidiosis-in-australia-short-term-and-nonlinear-associations
#1
Aparna Lal, Masahiro Hashizume, Simon Hales
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a global climate phenomenon that influences the spread of human infectious diseases through climate extremes including droughts and floods. The Dipole Mode Index (DMI), which measures the strength of the IOD, is one of the main indicators of rainfall variability across Australia. Using an ecological, time-series approach we examined the short-term and nonlinear relationship between the DMI and weekly cryptosporidiosis reported from 2001 to 2012 across the temperate, subtropical, and tropical climate zones in Australia, controlling for season, long-term trends, and cryptosporidiosis counts from the past week...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648861/preparing-clinicians-for-re-emerging-arbovirus-infectious-diseases-in-europe
#2
REVIEW
Louise Sigfrid, Chantal Reusken, Isabella Eckerle, Veronique Nussenblatt, Sam Lipworth, Janey Messina, Moritz Kraemer, Onder Ergonul, Anna Papa, Marion Koopmans, Peter Horby
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648091/mediators-go-together-high-production-of-cxcl9-cxcl10-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-ham-tsp
#3
Heytor Victor Pereira da Costa Neco, Vanessa Gabryelle da Silva Teixeira, Ana Carolina Lemos da Trindade, Paula Machado Ribeiro Magalhães, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Lúcio Roberto Cançado Castellano, Joelma Rodrigues de Souza, Luydson Richardson Vasconcelos, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire de Moura, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic demyelinating and disabling syndrome caused by HTLV-1. Although the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to HAM/TSP outcome have not been elucidated, genetic and immunological factors may be involved in the myelopathy occurrence. The present study aimed to compare cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide levels in asymptomatic and HAM/TSP HTLV-1 infected patients. The study group consisted of 21 HAM/TSP and 48 asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients...
June 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646957/whither-vaccines
#4
Charlene M C Rodrigues, Marta V Pinto, Manish Sadarangani, Stanley A Plotkin
Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645459/-hotline-for-zika-virus-experience-of-a-tropical-and-travel-medicine-unit
#5
Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Marta Arsuaga, Elena Trigo, Concepción Ladrón de Guevara, Pablo Barreiro, Clara Crespillo, Mar Lago
The current outbreak of Zika virus has caused great social alarm, generated in part by the lack of information in the general population. In order to provide accurate and verified information, the Tropical and Travel Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid, Spain) established a hotline for Zika virus infection. We present the data concerning the first 6 months of operation of the telephone hotline. The predominant call profile consisted of women seeking information about the risk of acquiring the disease before travelling...
June 20, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644079/a-disseminated-cryptococcus-gattii-vgiia-infection-in-a-citron-crested-cockatoo-cacatua-sulphurea-citrinocristata-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#6
Édouard O Maccolini, Philippe J Dufresne, Sophie Ann Aschenbroich, Brittany McHale, Julie-Hélène Fairbrother, Christian Bédard, Julie A Hébert
Cryptococcus gattii infection in mammals and birds has been confined historically to tropical and subtropical regions in Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Since the early 2000s, numerous reports describe the emergence of C. gattii on the Pacific Coast of North America. We report on a C. gattii infection in an 8-year-old male citron-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata) hatched on the Canadian Pacific Coast and raised in the province of Québec, Canada. The bird developed a slow growing ulcerated, fleshy, crusty, and hemorrhagic mass infiltrating the left lower rhamphotheca...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641558/bis-2-aminoimidazolines-and-bisguanidines-synthetic-approaches-antiparasitic-activity-and-dna-binding-properties
#7
Christophe Dardonville, J Jonathan Nué Martínez
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and Plasmodium cause some of the deadliest and disabling human infections in tropical and subtropical areas. Diphenyl-based bis(2-phenylimino)imidazolidines and bisguanidines are extremely potent antiparasitic agents against Trypanosoma brucei (etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis) and Plasmodium falciparum (etiological agent of severe malaria). Many of these compounds are also curative in mouse models of stage 1 African trypanosomiasis representing promising leads for the development of antitrypanosomal drugs...
June 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638376/first-molecular-detection-of-piroplasm-infection-in-pet-dogs-from-gansu-china
#8
Qingli Niu, Jifei Yang, Zhijie Liu, Shandian Gao, Yuping Pan, Guiquan Guan, Yuefeng Chu, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Babesiosis, the hemolytic disease caused by Babesia, which is a tick-transmitted obligate intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite. This disease is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity rates and enormous economic losses to the livestock industry in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In this study, blood samples were collected from 141 pet dogs from Gansu, China, and analyzed for Babesia or Theileria spp. infection using specific PCR and sequencing based on 18S rRNA gene fragments. The results indicated that 18S rRNA gene sequences from 11 samples were similar to the 18S rRNA gene sequences in Babesia canis vogeli (2) and Theileria sinensis (9)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630831/unusual-presentation-of-mycetoma-of-the-foot-a-rare-case-report
#9
Amit Grover, Prashanth Nagaraj, Vinay M Joseph, Daksh Gadi
INTRODUCTION: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection. It is caused by actinomycetes or fungi. It is common in tropical countries and males. Predisposing conditions include malnutrition, poor hygiene, history of trauma, wounds on barefeet, and systemic infections. Eumycotic mycetoma commonly involves lower extremities whereas actinomycosis affects the cervicofacial, thoracic, and abdominal regions. Mycetoma presents with a chronic indurated ulcerated plague with swelling and yellowish discharge of sulfur granules...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630803/putative-archaeal-viruses-from-the-mesopelagic-ocean
#10
Dean R Vik, Simon Roux, Jennifer R Brum, Ben Bolduc, Joanne B Emerson, Cory C Padilla, Frank J Stewart, Matthew B Sullivan
Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630320/%C3%AE-20-ifitm2-differentially-restricts-x4-and-r5-hiv-1
#11
Wan-Lin Wu, Christopher Robert Grotefend, Ming-Ting Tsai, Yi-Ling Wang, Vladimir Radic, Hyungjin Eoh, I-Chueh Huang
CCR5 (R5)-tropic, but not CXCR4 (X4)-tropic, HIV-1 is associated with primary HIV-1 infection and transmission. Recent studies have shown that IFN-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, including IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, restrict a broad range of viruses. Here, we demonstrate that an IFITM2 isoform (Δ20 IFITM2) lacking 20 amino acids at the N terminus differentially restricts X4 and R5 HIV-1. Δ20 IFITM2 suppresses replication of X4 HIV-1 strains by inhibiting their entry. High levels of Δ20 IFITM2 expression could be detected in CD4(+) T cells and in monocytes...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630200/treatment-of-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-with-single-dose-liposomal-amphotericin-b-pharmacodynamics-and-biodistribution-at-different-stages-of-disease
#12
Andrew A Voak, Andy Harris, Zeeshan Qaiser, Simon L Croft, Karin Seifert
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, which causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Characterising the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-leishmanial drugs in pre-clinical models is important for drug development and use. Here we investigated the pharmacodynamics and drug distribution of AmBisome® in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice at three different dose levels and two different time points after infection. We additionally compared drug levels in plasma, liver and spleen in infected and uninfected BALB/c mice over time...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627852/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-travel
#13
Serge De Vallière
Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem which affects also tropical countries. Travelers to these regions expose themselves to the risk of being colonised and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The region visited, the occurrence of diarrhoea and the use of antibiotics are the principal risk factors leading to colonisation with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which can affect up to 80% of travellers. Colonisation with meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enterococci are often due to contacts with the health care system of the visited country...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624508/epidemiological-profile-of-cutaneous-larva-migrans-in-travelers-returning-to-france-between-2003-and-2015
#15
Doudou Sow, Ferelaha Soro, Emilie Javelle, Fabrice Simon, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is caused by the penetration and migration of canine or feline hookworm larvae into the skin, and frequently affects travelers from high-income countries returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas. Unfortunately, this pathology is neglected due to poor understanding among both physicians and travelers. This study describes the profile of cases reported in Marseille, France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in two specialized hospitals between 2003 and 2015...
June 15, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623550/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-among-campylobacter-isolates-obtained-from-international-travelers-between-2007-and-2014
#16
A Post, D Martiny, N van Waterschoot, M Hallin, U Maniewski, E Bottieau, M Van Esbroeck, E Vlieghe, S Ombelet, O Vandenberg, J Jacobs
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of diarrhea among international travelers. We studied antibiotic resistance patterns among Campylobacter isolates obtained from international travelers according to travel destination. Three collections of isolates obtained from international travelers between 2007 and 2014 (Institute of Tropical Medicine, the "Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles "and the Belgian National Reference Centre for Campylobacter) were used. Isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (E-test macromethod) for fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and meropenem...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620748/diversity-of-the-most-commonly-reported-facultative-symbionts-in-two-closely-related-aphids-with-different-host-ranges
#17
A S Guidolin, F L Cônsoli
Richness and abundance of facultative symbionts vary strongly with aphid species and genotype, symbiont strain, host plant, biogeography, and a number of abiotic factors. Despite indications that aphids in the same ecological niche show similar levels of facultative symbiont richness, existing reports do not consider the potential role of host plants on aphid microbial community. Little is known about how oligophagy and polyphagy may be influenced by secondary symbiont distribution, mainly because studies on secondary symbiont diversity are biased towards polyphagous aphids from the Northern Hemisphere...
June 15, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619684/is-usutu-virus-ready-for-prime-time
#18
EDITORIAL
Jason A Tetro
Although considered a neglected tropical disease, the mosquito-borne Usutu virus has demonstrated signs of emergence from Africa to Europe. While human cases are infrequent, the potential for neuroinvasive infection, even in immunocompetent individuals, suggests a need for increased research into virus biology and pathogenesis, as well as rapid measures for diagnosis and environmental surveillance.
June 12, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619663/captive-wild-birds-as-reservoirs-of-enteropathogenic-e-coli-epec-and-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-stec
#19
Lilian Aparecida Sanches, Marcelo da Silva Gomes, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Mônica Aparecida Midolli Vieira, Tânia Aparecida Tardelli Gomes, Terezinha Knobl
Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes...
June 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619123/chd-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-global-expert-exchange-recommendations
#20
Robert M R Tulloh, Constancio Medrano-Lopez, Paul A Checchia, Claudia Stapper, Naokata Sumitomo, Matthias Gorenflo, Eun Jung Bae, Antonio Juanico, Juan M Gil-Jaurena, Mei-Hwan Wu, Talal Farha, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Rocky Tsang, Gerard Notario, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings. METHODS: An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology...
June 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
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