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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820897/persistent-infection-due-to-a-small-colony-variant-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-leads-to-pd-1-upregulation-on-circulating-immune-cells-and-mononuclear-infiltration-in-viscera-of-experimental-balb-c-mice
#1
Jia-Xiang See, Samudi Chandramathi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Jamuna Vadivelu, Esaki M Shankar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease endemic across South East Asia and Northern Australia. The etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B.pseudomallei), is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium residing in the soil and muddy water across endemic regions of the tropical world. The bacterium is known to cause persistent infections by remaining latent within host cells for prolonged duration. Reactivation of the recrudescent disease often occurs in elders whose immunity wanes...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820707/prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-and-other-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-school-children-in-a-rural-area-of-angola-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
María Luisa Ruíz de Alegría Aznar, Karen Colmenares, Mateu Espasa, Arancha Amor, Isabel Lopez, Arlette Ninda, Joaquina Kanjala, Domingas Guilherme, Elena Sulleiro, Begoña Barriga, Eva Gil, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Bocanegra, Teresa López, Milagros Moreno, Israel Molina
Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820691/field-trial-of-the-carestart-biosensor-analyzer-for-the-determination-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-haiti
#3
Thomas A Weppelmann, Michael E von Fricken, Tara D Wilfong, Elisa Aguenza, Taina T Philippe, Bernard A Okech
Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren (N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820685/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-immigrants
#4
María Pérez-Rueda, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Adela Francés-Urmeneta, Alfonso Angel-Moreno, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Jose-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817634/cross-reactivity-between-apical-membrane-antgen-1-and-rhoptry-neck-protein-2-in-p-vivax-and-p-falciparum-a-structural-and-binding-study
#5
Brigitte Vulliez-Le Normand, Frederick A Saul, Sylviane Hoos, Bart W Faber, Graham A Bentley
Malaria, a disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions, is caused by infection of the erythrocyte by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium. Host-cell invasion is a complex process but two Plasmodium proteins, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) and the Rhoptry Neck protein complex (RON), play a key role. AMA1, present on the surface of the parasite, binds tightly to the RON2 component of the RON protein complex, which is inserted into the erythrocyte membrane during invasion. Blocking the AMA1-RON2 interaction with antibodies or peptides inhibits invasion, underlining its importance in the Plasmodium life cycle and as a target for therapeutic strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814315/incidental-detection-of-two-adult-gravid-filarial-worms-in-breast-a-case-report
#6
Santosh Tummidi, Kanchan Kothari, Roshni Patil, Shruti S Singhal, Pooja Keshan
BACKGROUND: Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the commonest filarial infection. In some lesions, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 year old hindu female presented with lump in upper outer quadrant of left breast. Fine needle aspiration revealed two adult gravid female filarial worms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#7
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#8
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810870/vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-of-dogs-in-north-west-new-south-wales-and-the-northern-territory-australia
#9
Amanda J Shapiro, Graeme Brown, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Debbie J Marriot, Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Richard Malik
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). METHODS: Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810668/mass-drug-administration-in-central-equatoria-south-sudan-results-and-suggestions-for-future-distributions
#10
Giuseppina Ortu, Jamshed Khan, Makoy Samuel Yibi, Ismail Abdu Nimaya
Background: South Sudan has rolled out a neglected tropical disease programme, which envisaged deworming campaigns in states endemic for soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis. Methods: In 2016, two deworming campaigns targeting school-age children were performed in Central Equatoria. Distribution sites were set up in primary schools, Boma Health Initiative headquarters, health centres and markets. Training, radio adverts and community meetings were performed before the campaigns...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808960/the-application-of-humanized-mouse-models-for-the-study-of-human-exclusive-viruses
#11
Fatemeh Vahedi, Elizabeth C Giles, Ali A Ashkar
The symbiosis between humans and viruses has allowed human tropic pathogens to evolve intricate means of modulating the human immune response to ensure its survival among the human population. In doing so, these viruses have developed profound mechanisms that mesh closely with our human biology. The establishment of this intimate relationship has created a species-specific barrier to infection, restricting the virus-associated pathologies to humans. This specificity diminishes the utility of traditional animal models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808370/a-rare-case-of-strongyloides-hyperinfection-from-hypogammaglobulinemia
#12
Paidi Ramakrishna Reddy, Sujith M Thomas, A Rajalakshmi, Deepak Vijayan, Muraleedharan Raman
Strongyloides infection can range from asymptomatic eosinophilia to disseminated disease. Common in tropical and subtropical nations, it can lead to hyperinfection, an autoinfection increasing parasitic burden in immunocompromised. Cell-mediated immunity is important in combating parasite infection. We present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in hypogammaglobulinemia which was refractory to conventional treatment but responded to immunoglobulin administration with complete resolution indicating role of humoral immunity also...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807282/age-of-haemonchus-contortus-third-stage-infective-larvae-is-a-factor-influencing-the-in-vitro-assessment-of-anthelmintic-properties-of-tannin-containing-plant-extracts
#13
G S Castañeda-Ramírez, C Mathieu, G Vilarem, H Hoste, P Mendoza-de-Gives, P G González-Pech, J F J Torres-Acosta, C A Sandoval-Castro
The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L3) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807026/circulating-micrornas-in-malaria-infection-bench-to-bedside
#14
REVIEW
Supat Chamnanchanunt, Suthat Fucharoen, Tsukuru Umemura
Severe malaria has a poor prognosis with a morbidity rate of 80% in tropical areas. The early parasite detection is one of the effective means to prevent severe malaria of which specific treatment strategies are limited. Many clinical characteristics and laboratory testings have been used for the early diagnosis and prediction of severe disease. However, a few of these factors could be applied to clinical practice. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were demonstrated as useful biomarkers in many diseases such as malignant diseases and cardiovascular diseases...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806951/phytochemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-anthelmintic-activity-of-lophira-lanceolata-ochnaceae-on-the-bovine-parasite-onchocerca-ochengi-and-on-drug-resistant-strains-of-the-free-living-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Justin Kalmobé, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Djafsia Boursou, Jacqueline Dikti Vildina, Eva Liebau
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants...
August 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805676/inhibitors-of-deubiquitinating-enzymes-block-hiv-1-replication-and-augment-the-presentation-of-gag-derived-mhc-i-epitopes
#16
Christian Setz, Melanie Friedrich, Pia Rauch, Kirsten Fraedrich, Alina Matthaei, Maximilian Traxdorf, Ulrich Schubert
In recent years it has been well established that two major constituent parts of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-the proteasome holoenzymes and a number of ubiquitin ligases-play a crucial role, not only in virus replication but also in the regulation of the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the role in HIV-1 replication of the third major component, the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), has remained largely unknown. In this study, we show that the DUB-inhibitors (DIs) P22077 and PR-619, specific for the DUBs USP7 and USP47, impair Gag processing and thereby reduce the infectivity of released virions without affecting viral protease activity...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804661/imported-asymptomatic-bancroftian-filariasis-discovered-from-a-plasmodium-vivax-infected-patient-a-case-report-from-singapore
#17
Jean-Marc Chavatte, Roland Jureen
Human lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease mainly caused by the parasitic nematode Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted worldwide within the tropical and subtropical regions. Singapore was once endemic for bancroftian filariasis but recent reports are scarce and the disease is nearly forgotten. The case report presented here reports the incidental hospital laboratory finding of an asymptomatic microfilaremia in a relapsing Plasmodium vivax imported case during a malaria treatment follow-up appointment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803725/schistosomiasis-drugs-used-and-treatment-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Lidiany da Paixão Siqueira, Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontesa, Cindy Siqueira Britto Aguilera, Taysa Renata Ribeiro Timoteo, Matheus Alves Angelos, Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros Silva, Camila Gomes de Melo, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect millions of people in different geographic regions, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. Currently NTDs are prevalent in 149 countries, seventeen of these neglected tropical parasitic diseases are classified as endemic. One of the most important of these diseases is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, a disease caused by the genus Schistosoma. It presents several species, such as S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni, the latter being responsible for parasitosis in Brazil...
August 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#19
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799301/rickettsial-infections-in-goa-not-just-scrub-typhus
#20
Kedareshwar Narvencar, Gurleen Kaur, Savio Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rickettsial infections are an important cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in tropics. While scrub typhus was reported from Goa, other rickettsial infections have not been reported earlier. The present study was planned to identify pattern of rickettsial infections in Goa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with undiagnosed acute febrile illness were recruited over a two-year period. Other causes of febrile illness were ruled out by appropriate tests...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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