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Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Chih-Fu Wei, Mei-Huei Chen, Ching-Chun Lin, Yueliang Leon Guo, Shio-Jean Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from biomass burning were associated with neurodevelopmental deceleration, but limited studies concerned about the effect of indoor biomass burning. Incense burning is a common household ritual practice in Taiwan, while past studies mainly focused on birth weight and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the association between incense burning exposure and children's neurodevelopment. METHODS: In Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS), a nationwide representative birth cohort study, children were assessed upon home interview with structured questionnaires upon six and eighteen months old...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Andrea Knöller, Stefan Kilper, Achim Diem, Marc Widenmeyer, Tomce Runcevski, Robert E Dinnebier, Joachim Bill, Zaklina Burghard
The demand to outperform current technologies pushes scientists to develop novel strategies to enable fabricating materials with exceptional properties. Along this line, lightweight structural materials are of great interest due to their versatile applicability as sensors, catalysts, battery electrodes and acoustic or mechanical dampers. Here we report a strategy to design ultralight (ρ = 3 mg/cm3) and hierarchically structured ceramic scaffolds of macroscopic size. Such scaffolds exhibit mechanical reversibility comparable to that of microscopic metamaterials, leading to a macroscopically remarkable dynamic mechanical performance...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Lei Hu, Feiyu Qin, Andrea Sanson, Liang-Feng Huang, Zhao Pan, Qiang Li, Qiang Sun, Lu Wang, Fangming Guo, Umut Aydemir, Yang Ren, Chengjun Sun, Jinxia Deng, Giuliana Aquilanti, James M Rondinelli, Jun Chen, Xianran Xing
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unusual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal ex-pansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an iso-tropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engineered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Konstantinos Daskalakis, Aaro Ilmari Väkeväinen, Jani-Petri Martikainen, Tommi K Hakala, Päivi Törmä
Nanoscale coherent light sources offer potentially ultrafast modulation speeds which could be utilized for novel sensors and optical switches. Plasmonic periodic structures combined with organic gain materials have emerged as promising candidates for such nanolasers. Their plasmonic component provides high intensity and ultrafast nanoscale-confined electric fields, while organic gain materials offer fabrication flexibility and low acquisition cost. Despite reports on lasing in plasmonic arrays, lasing dynamics in these structures has not been experimentally studied yet...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Giulia Avvisati, Claudia Cardoso, Daniele Varsano, Andrea Ferretti, Pierluigi Gargiani, Maria Grazia Betti
We report an advanced organic spin-interface architecture with magnetic remanence at room temperature, constituted by metal phthalocyanine molecules magnetically coupled with Co layer(s), mediated by graphene. Fe- and Cu-phthalocyanines assembled on graphene/Co have identical structural configurations, but FePc couples antiferromagnetically with Co, up to room temperature, while CuPc couples ferromagnetically, with weaker coupling and thermal stability, as deduced by element-selective X-ray magnetic circular dichroic signals...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Ross J Thomson, Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Jose Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Paul E Pfeffer, Alexander J Mackay, Tricia M McKeever, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Charlotte E Bolton, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic individuals without diagnosed respiratory disease. Previous studies have identified relationships between lung function and cardiovascular structure in individuals with pulmonary disease, but the relationships in those free from diagnosed cardiorespiratory disease have not been fully explored. METHODS: UK Biobank is a prospective cohort study of community participants in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Tomoki Tokuda
We propose a novel method to test the existence of community structure in undirected, real-valued, edge-weighted graphs. The method is based on the asymptotic behavior of extreme eigenvalues of a real symmetric edge-weight matrix. We provide a theoretical foundation for this method and report on its performance using synthetic and real data, suggesting that this new method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
2018: PloS One
Stevenson K Chea, Tabitha W Mwangi, Kennedy K Ndirangu, Osman A Abdullahi, Patrick K Munywoki, Amina Abubakar, Amin S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Home delivery, referring to pregnant women giving birth in the absence of a skilled birth attendant, is a significant contributor to maternal mortality, and is encouragingly reported to be on a decline in the general population in resource limited settings. However, much less is known about home delivery amongst HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). We described the prevalence and correlates of home delivery among HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Kilifi, Coastal Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Shufeng Huang, Zhenping Wan, Shuiping Zou
A novel sintered cutting stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SCSSFFC) composed of a stainless-steel fiber skeleton, three-dimensional interconnected porous structure and multiple circular microchannels is developed. SCSSFFC has a jagged and rough surface morphology and possesses a high specific surface area, which is approximately 2.4 times larger than that of the sintered bundle-drawing stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SBDSSFFC) and is expected to enhance adhesive strength...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Flavio Esposito, Rajeev Ranjan, Stefania Campopiano, Agostino Iadicicco
In this work, we report about our recent results concerning the fabrication of Long Period Grating (LPG) sensors in several optical fibers, through the Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the following silica fibers with both different dopants and geometrical structures are considered: standard Ge-doped, photosensitive B/Ge codoped, P-doped, pure-silica core with F-doped cladding, Panda type Polarization-maintaining, and Hollow core Photonic crystal fiber. An adaptive platform was developed and the appropriate "recipe" was identified for each fiber, in terms of both arc discharge parameters and setup arrangement, for manufacturing LPGs with strong and narrow attenuation bands, low insertion losses, and short length...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Yu-Chuan Chiu, Shen-Ing Liu, Chen-Ju Lin, Yu-Shin Huang, Chun-Kai Fang, Fang-Ju Sun, Kai-Liang Kao, Yo-Ping Huang, Shu-I Wu
This study examines the reliability, factor structure, convergent, and construct validities of the Mandarin Chinese version of the Reasons For Living Inventory (RFL) among Taiwanese psychiatric patients. Demographical characteristics of patients who hold these adaptive cognitions and differences on the level of endorsement between suicidal and non-suicidal individuals were also investigated. All adult patients that had visited the psychiatric ambulatory clinic or had been admitted to the psychiatric ward in a general hospital in Taiwan over a 3-month period were consecutively invited to complete an inventory that included background information, the Mandarin Chinese versions of the RFL, the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire- Revised (SBQ-R), and the Beck Hopeless Scale (BHS)...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Laurie Cook, Michelle Tensley, Wm Tod Drost, Christopher Koivisto, Michael Oglesbee
A 4 yr old border collie presenting for mydriasis and decreased mentation and a 7 yr old Boston terrier presenting for obtundation, head tilt, and paraparesis were both evaluated using MRI. Findings in both included mass lesions of the thalamus and brainstem that were hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regions of hypointensity, and robust contrast enhancement and displacement of adjacent structures. Postmortem histopathology findings, tumor location, and a mixed pattern of epithelial cell differentiation were consistent with germ cell tumor in both cases...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Andrew G Geeslin, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Bradley M Kruckeberg, Alex W Brady, Ashley Coggins, Grant J Dornan, Alan M Getgood, Jonathan A Godin, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The individual kinematic roles of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and the distal iliotibial band Kaplan fibers in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency require further clarification. This will improve understanding of their potential contribution to residual anterolateral rotational laxity after ACL reconstruction and may influence selection of an anterolateral extra-articular reconstruction technique, which is currently a matter of debate. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare the role of the ALL and the Kaplan fibers in stabilizing the knee against tibial internal rotation, anterior tibial translation, and the pivot shift in ACL-deficient knees...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
André Luiz Sehnem, Doreen Niether, Simone Wiegand, Antonio Martins Figueiredo Neto
The ionic Soret effect induced by temperature gradients is investigated in organic electrolytes (tetramethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium hydroxides) dispersed in water using a holographic grating experiment. We report the influences of temperature and salt concentrations on the Soret, diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients. Experimental results to the thermal diffusion coefficient are compared with a theoretical description for thermodiffusion of Brownian particles in liquids based in the thermal expansion of the liquid solution...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Catarina S H Jesus, Pedro Fernandes Cruz, Luis G Arnaut, Rui M M Brito, Carlos Serpa
The understanding of fast folding dynamics of single α-helices comes mostly from studies on rationally designed peptides displaying sequences with high helical propensity. The folding/unfolding dynamics and energetics of α-helix conformations in naturally occurring peptides remains largely unexplored. Here we report the study of a protein fragment analogue of the C-peptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease-A, RN80, a 13-amino acid residue peptide that adopts a highly populated helical conformation in aqueous solution...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Malcolm Spain, Joseph K-H Wong, Gayathri Nagalingam, James M Batten, Elinor Hortle, Stefan Oehlers, Xiao Fan Jiang, Hasini E Murage, Jack T Orford, Patrick Crisologo, James A Triccas, Peter J Rutledge, Matthew H Todd
We recently reported the discovery of non-toxic cyclam-derived compounds that are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this paper we report exploration of the structure-activity relationship for this class of compounds, identifying several simpler compounds with comparable activity. The most promising compound identified, possessing significantly improved water solubility, displayed high levels of bacterial clearance in an in vivo zebrafish embryo model, suggesting this compound series has promise for in vivo treatment of tuberculosis...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Caixia Hou, Tapan Biswas, Oleg Tsodikov
Bacterial primase DnaG is an essential nucleic acid polymerase that generates primers for replication of chromosomal DNA. The mechanism of DnaG remains unclear, due to the paucity of structural information on DnaG in complexes with other replisome components. Here we report the first crystal structures of noncovalent DnaG-DNA complexes, obtained with the RNA polymerase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaG and various DNA ligands. One structure, obtained with ds DNA, reveals interactions with DnaG as it slides on ds DNA and suggests how DnaG binds template for primer synthesis...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
William Blenkhorn, Stefan Schulz, Daniel Tanner, Rachel Oliver, Menno J Kappers, Colin J Humphreys, Philip Dawson
In this paper we report on changes in the form of the low temperature (12K) photoluminescence spectra of an InGaN/GaN quantum well structure as a function of excitation photon energy. As the photon energy is progressively reduced we observe at a critical energy a change in the form of the spectra from one which is determined by the occupation of the complete distribution of hole localisation centres to one which is determined by the resonant excitation of specific localisations sites. This change is governed by an effective mobility edge whereby the photo-excited holes remain localised at their initial energy and are prevented from scattering to other localisation sites...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Gurkamaljit Kaur, Bharati Pandey, Arbind Kumar, Naina Garewal, Abhinav Grover, Jagdeep Kaur
The lipolytic protein LipU was conserved in mycobacterium sp. including M. tuberculosis (MTB LipU) and M. leprae (MLP LipU). The MTB LipU was identified in extracellular fraction and was reported to be essential for the survival of mycobacterium. Therefore to address the problem of drug resistance in pathogen, LipU was selected as a drug target and the viability of finding out some FDA approved drugs as LipU inhibitors in both the cases was explored. Three dimensional (3D) model structures of MTB LipU and MLP LipU were generated and stabilized through molecular dynamics (MD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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