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water deficiency and electrolyte imbalance

Carla Bizzarri, Nicole Olivini, Stefania Pedicelli, Romana Marini, Germana Giannone, Paola Cambiaso, Marco Cappa
BACKGROUND: Salt-wasting represents a relatively common cause of emergency admission in infants and may result in life-threatening complications. Neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for infants hospitalized in a single Institution from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2015. The selection criterion was represented by the referral to the Endocrinology Unit for hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mEq/L) of suspected endocrine origin at admission...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Pedro Louro, Lina Ramos, Conceição Robalo, Cândida Cancelinha, Alexandra Dinis, Ricardo Veiga, Raquel Pina, Olinda Rebelo, Ana Pop, Luísa Diogo, Gajja S Salomons, Paula Garcia
Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder reported in only three unrelated families. It is caused by mutations in the ABAT gene, which encodes 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme of GABA catabolism and mitochondrial nucleoside salvage. We report the case of a boy, deceased at 12 months of age, with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, severe psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, lower-limb hyporeflexia, central hypoventilation, and rapid increase in weight and, to a lesser rate, length and head circumference...
September 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Anna Gryglas, Robert Dudkowiak, Robert Smigiel
Tetany is a disorder with a very heterogeneous clinical manifestation. It includes neuromuscular hyperactivity, decreased attention, fatigue, constant anxiety. Attacks of tetany range from mild symptoms, which includes circumoral and distal paresthesias, hyperventilation, accompanied by shortness of breath, palpitation, dizziness, nausea and carpopedal spasm, through more severe symptoms like generalized seizures, loss of consciousness, muscle crumps to life-threatening emergencies like laryngospasm or arrhythmias...
2015: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Wietske M Lambers, Bastiaan Kraaijenbrink, Carl E H Siegert
The refeeding syndrome may occur during reintroduction of carbohydrates in malnourished patients. This syndrome is characterized by reduced plasma electrolyte levels, hypophosphataemia being most prevalent. The symptoms can vary from minor symptoms to severe neurological or cardiac symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanism comprises an increase in insulin levels, resulting in shifts of phosphate, potassium and magnesium into the intracellular environment, as well as fluid retention and relative deficiency of vitamin B1...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Fatima Mansour, Danielle Petersen, Paolo De Coppi, Simon Eaton
BACKGROUND/AIM: Sodium is thought to be critical to growth. Infants who have an ileostomy may suffer from growth faltering, as sodium losses from stomas may be excessive. Urinary sodium measurements may indicate which patients could benefit from sodium supplementation; however, there is no consensus on what level of urinary sodium should be the cutoff for intervention. Our aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between urinary sodium and growth in infants undergoing ileostomy, colostomy and cystostomy...
December 2014: Pediatric Surgery International
Allan P Pessier, Eric J Baitchman, Paul Crump, Brad Wilson, Edgardo Griffith, Heidi Ross
The success of ex situ survival assurance populations as tools for amphibian conservation depends on the health and reproductive success of founder populations. Necropsy examination and histopathology of animals that die in assurance populations are useful for the identification of population-limiting disease problems and can help to direct applied research efforts in areas such as amphibian husbandry and nutrition. This study reviewed postmortem findings in 167 frogs from 13 species that died in a large Panamanian rescue and survival assurance population between 2006 and 2011...
November 2014: Zoo Biology
Ruchika Sharma, Dagmar Stein
Desmopressin (DDAVP) 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin is used in patients with bleeding disorders, including mild factor VIII deficiency, types 1 and 2 von Willebrand disease, and platelet function defects, undergoing surgeries to help control bleeding. We conducted a retrospective chart review of bleeding disorder patients undergoing inpatient surgery at Toledo Children's Hospital, OH, from 2005 to 2009. Our study population included 107 patients aged 2 to 19 years with platelet function defects and von Willebrand disease...
August 2014: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
S Rohrer, J W Dietrich
UNLABELLED: The refeeding syndrome is a dangerous condition, which may even lead to death. The syndrome occurs after re-establishment of adequate nutrition in malnourished and cachectic patients. More specifically its occurrence has been reported during oral, enteral and parenteral feeding. Early diagnosis is crucial for adequate and timely therapy. However, due to a lack of knowledge in the community this is not always achieved. The leading symptom is hypophosphatemia, often accompanied by electrolyte disturbances and vitamin and trace element deficiencies...
June 2014: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Daniel H Madsen, Roman Szabo, Alfredo A Molinolo, Thomas H Bugge
Membrane-anchored serine proteases serve as important regulators of multiple developmental and homoeostatic processes in mammals. TMPRSS13 (transmembrane protease, serine 13; also known as mosaic serine protease large-form, MSPL) is a membrane-anchored serine protease with unknown biological functions. In the present study, we used mice with the Tmprss13 gene disrupted by a β-galactosidase-neomycin fusion gene insertion to study the expression and function of the membrane-anchored serine protease. High levels of Tmprss13 expression were found in the epithelia of the oral cavity, upper digestive tract and skin...
August 1, 2014: Biochemical Journal
Christoph Fusch, Frank Jochum
The sudden disruption of excessive placental supply with fluids and electrolytes is challenging for neonatal physiology during the period of postnatal adaptation. Different from many other nutrients, the body experiences large changes in daily requirements during the first 7-14 postnatal days, and on the other hand does not tolerate conditions of excess and deficiency very well. Imbalances of fluid and electrolytes are common in neonates, which--in addition--might be further aggravated by NICU treatment procedures...
2014: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Jessica Lee Levings, Janelle Peralez Gunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
P Karaca, R Desailloud
Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms...
October 2013: Annales D'endocrinologie
Annelies A van Angelen, Pedro San-Cristobal, Wilco P Pulskens, Joost G Hoenderop, René J Bindels
BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is an essential electrolyte with important physiological functions. Consequently, hypomagnesaemia, an electrolyte disorder frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients, can have life-threatening consequences. The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of the Mg(2+) balance. The present study investigated the molecular consequences of dietary Mg(2+) restriction on renal Mg(2+) transporters. METHODS: Two groups of 10 mice were fed a Mg(2+)-deficient diet or a Mg(2+)-enriched diet for 2 weeks...
December 2013: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Victor Gueutin, Marion Vallet, Maximilien Jayat, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Nicolas Cornière, Françoise Leviel, Fabien Sohet, Carsten A Wagner, Dominique Eladari, Régine Chambrey
Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1-/- mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na(+)-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired...
October 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Weon-Jin Ko, Kwang-Yeol Kim, So-Mi Kim, Seung-Jae Hong, Sang-Hoon Lee, Ran Song, Hyung-In Yang, Yeon-Ah Lee
Type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder with a multisystem involvement, caused by an abnormal expansion of the CTG sequence of the dystrophic myotonia protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DM1 is a variable multisystem disorder with muscular and nonmuscular abnormalities. Increasingly, endocrine abnormalities, such as gonadal, pancreatic, and adrenal dysfunction are being reported. But, Electrolytes imbalance is a very rare condition in patients with DM1 yet. Herein we present a 42-yr-old Korean male of DM1 with abnormally elevated serum sodium and potassium...
July 2013: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Reid Farris, Joan S Roberts, Ofer Yanay, Thomas V Brogan, Jerry J Zimmerman
Thyroid hormone is central to normal development and metabolism. Abnormalities in thyroid function in North America often arise from autoimmune diseases, but they rarely present as critical illness. Severe deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone both represent life-threatening disease, which must be treated expeditiously and thoroughly. Such deficiencies must be considered, because presentation may be nonspecific.
April 2013: Critical Care Clinics
Sawita Khimsuksri, J Michael Wyss, Atcharaporn Thaeomor, Jarin Paphangkorakit, Dusit Jirakulsomchok, Sanya Roysommuti
Perinatal taurine excess or deficiency influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS), or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yuki Sato, Yuriko Yonekura, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Hiroko Kakita, Yuh Tateishi, Toshiyuki Komiya, Satomi Yonemoto, Eri Muso
We report a case of a 59-year old Japanese woman with short bowel syndrome, whose hypokalemia and hypocalcemia were successfully treated with magnesium (Mg) supplementation. Two years previously, she underwent Mile's operation for advanced rectal cancer, which could have been the cause of subsequent extensive resection of the small intestine by strangulation. After serial resection, she gradually developed chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Three weeks before admission, she developed general fatigue and tetany, and was hospitalized at another hospital...
2012: Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
Ayşegül Zümrütdal
Under normal physiological conditions, our body fluids and electrolytes are protected in complete balance in a wonderful, flawless design. Even small deviations occurring in this equilibrium may lead to impairments, which can end in death. Especially in fairly common sodium metabolism disorders, it is the responsibility of the clinician to determine, according to the patient's history and her physical examination of him, whether there is an excess or depletion of volume, and to arrange subsequent treatment...
March 2013: Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi: AKD, the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Jibby E Kurichi, W Bruce Vogel, Pui L Kwong, Dawei Xie, Barbara E Bates, Margaret G Stineman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify patient- and facility-level factors associated with total inpatient costs and length of stay (LOS) among veterans who underwent lower extremity amputation. DESIGN: Patient data for 1536 veterans were compiled from nine databases from the Veterans Health Administration between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2003. Linear mixed models were used to identify the factors associated with the natural logarithm of total inpatient costs and LOS...
March 2013: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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