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metastatic testicular cancer

Qingqiang Gao, Jianhuai Chen, Yutian Dai
BACKGROUND: In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Constantinos Roufas, Dimitrios Chasiotis, Anestis Makris, Christodoulos Efstathiades, Christos Dimopoulos, Apostolos Zaravinos
Background: Recently, immune-checkpoint blockade has shown striking clinical results in different cancer patients. However, a significant inter-individual and inter-tumor variability exists among different cancers. The expression of the toxins granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin 1 (PRF1), secreted by effector cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, were recently used as a denominator of the intratumoral immune cytolytic activity (CYT). These levels are significantly elevated upon CD8+ T-cell activation as well as during a productive clinical response against immune-checkpoint blockade therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Brian Hu, Siamak Daneshmand
Reducing the long-term morbidity in testicular cancer survivors represents a major area of interest. External beam radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy are established treatments for seminoma; however, they are associated with late toxicities such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and secondary malignancy. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is a standard treatment for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) that has minimal long-term morbidity. Given the efficacy of RPLND in management of NSGCT, interest has developed in this surgery as a front-line treatment for seminoma with isolated lymph node metastasis to the retroperitoneum...
2018: Advances in Urology
Christian Daniel Fankhauser, Sophia Sander, Lisa Roth, Oliver Gross, Daniel Eberli, Tullio Sulser, Burkhardt Seifert, Joerg Beyer, Thomas Hermanns
BACKGROUND: The prognostic utility of systemic inflammatory markers has so far not been investigated in patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs). METHODS: International Germ Cell Cancer Cooperative Group (IGCCCG) risk groups and blood-based systemic inflammatory markers (haemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets (P), neutrophils (N), lymphocytes (L), C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin) of 146 patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy for GCT were retrieved...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Ricardo Leão, Madhur Nayan, Nahid Punjani, Michael A S Jewett, Kamel Fadaak, Juan Garisto, Jeremy Lewin, Eshetu G Atenafu, Joan Sweet, Lynn Anson-Cartwright, Peter Boström, Peter Chung, Padraig Warde, Philippe L Bedard, Aditya Bagrodia, Yuval Freifeld, Nicholas Power, Eric Winquist, Robert J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (pcRPLND) is indicated in testicular cancer patients with normalised or plateaued serum tumour markers and residual retroperitoneal lesions >1cm. Challenges remain in predicting postchemotherapy residual mass (pcRM) histology, which may lead to unnecessary surgery. OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate model to predict pcRM histology in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective review of 335 patients undergoing pcRPLND for metastatic NSGCTs to develop a model to predict benign histology in retroperitoneal pcRM...
February 7, 2018: European Urology Focus
M Ondrusova, M Suchansky, M Psota, T Zeleny, D Ondrus
OBJECTIVE: Primary aim was to assess relapse‑free survival (RFS) in patients with clinical stage I (CS I) of non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (NSGCTT) undergoing surveillance after orchiectomy. The secondary aim was to examine differences in risk factors in patients with early relapse (ER 2 years) and very late relapse (VLR > 5 years). METHODS: Cross-sectional study analyzed 25‑year single‑center experiences with 198 CS I NSGCTT patients according the time to relapse...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Lindsay M Yuh, Primo N Lara, Rebecca M Wagenaar, Christopher P Evans, Marc A Dall'era, Rosemary Cress, Stanley A Yap
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to characterize demographic distribution, patient outcomes, and prognostic features of testicular sex cord stromal tumours (SCST) using a large statewide database. METHODS: Adult male patients diagnosed with SCST between 1988 and 2010 were identified within the California Cancer Registry (CCR). Baseline demographic variables and disease characteristics were reported. Primary outcome measures were cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS)...
September 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Jonathan J Dutton, Alan D Proia
PURPOSE: Seminomas are solid tumors in young men, but which rarely metastasize to the orbit. The authors review the known literature on seminoma metastatic to the orbit, and describe an additional case in a 33-year-old man. METHODS: A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE database using keywords "seminoma," "testicular germ-cell tumors," "testicular cancer," "testicular neoplasm," "orbital metastasis," and "germ-cell neoplasms." RESULTS: Malignant neoplasms of the testis account for only 1% of cancers in men...
January 12, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Katarina Kalavska, Vincenza Conteduca, Ugo De Giorgi, Michal Mego
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35. Due to these tumors' biological and clinical characteristics, they can serve as an appropriate system for studying molecular mechanisms associated with cisplatin-based treatment resistance. This review describes treatment resistance from clinical and molecular viewpoints. Cisplatin resistance is determined by various biological mechanisms, including the modulation of the DNA repair capacity of cancer cells, alterations to apoptotic cell death pathways, deregulation of gene expression pathways, epigenetic alterations and insufficient DNA binding...
January 1, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Friederike Haidl, David Pfister, Axel Heidenreich, Isabel Heidegger
The use of antiangiogenic agents in cancer therapy has become an attractive target in oncological research. However, concerning the uro-oncological field, current guidelines only recommend the use of antiangiogenic agents in metastatic renal cell cancer. Yet in recent years, several approaches for sequential treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors in other urogenital malignancies apart from renal cell cancer are ongoing. Thus, the present review article aims to provide an overview about clinical studies with antiangiogenic agents in prostate-, bladder-, testicular-, as well as penile cancer patients...
2017: Memo
Costantine Albany, Lawrence Einhorn, Lawrence Garbo, Thomas Boyd, Neil Josephson, Darren R Feldman
BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic therapy for relapsed and refractory germ cell tumors or metastatic sex cord stromal tumors is rarely effective and is often accompanied by high adverse event rates. Expression of CD30 has been observed in testicular cancers, and patients with CD30-expressing embryonal carcinomas have worse progression-free survival and overall survival than those with CD30-negative tumors. The objective of this study (NCT01461538) was to characterize the antitumor activity of brentuximab vedotin in patients with CD30-expressing nonlymphomatous malignancies...
March 2018: Oncologist
Chan-Kyung J Cho, Samantha Sigurdson, Christopher M Davidson, Michael Leveridge, Aamer Mahmud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Brigitte Moreau, Pierre Clement, Yves Theoret, Ernest G Seidman
Background: Thiopurines, azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are common maintenance medications for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive methylation via thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) frequently causes therapeutic failure. Allopurinol reduces excessive 6-methyl-mercaptopurine (6-MMP) while enhancing 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, metabolic and endoscopic impact of allopurinol in combination with low-dose thiopurine in IBD...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Timothy M Pierpont, Amy M Lyndaker, Claire M Anderson, Qiming Jin, Elizabeth S Moore, Jamie L Roden, Alicia Braxton, Lina Bagepalli, Nandita Kataria, Hilary Zhaoxu Hu, Jason Garness, Matthew S Cook, Blanche Capel, Donald H Schlafer, Teresa Southard, Robert S Weiss
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are among the most responsive solid cancers to conventional chemotherapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a mouse TGCT model featuring germ cell-specific Kras activation and Pten inactivation. The resulting mice developed malignant, metastatic TGCTs composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, the latter of which exhibited stem cell characteristics, including expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4. Consistent with epidemiological data linking human testicular cancer risk to in utero exposures, embryonic germ cells were susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas adult germ cells underwent apoptosis in response to the same oncogenic events...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
Claudia Mosillo, Simone Scagnoli, Giulia Pomati, Salvatore Caponnetto, Maria Laura Mancini, Mario Bezzi, Enrico Cortesi, Alain Gelibter
Two or more histological types characterize more than 60% of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs). Burned-out testicular tumor refers to partial or complete histological regression of the primary testicular lesions. The most frequent GCT type involved in this kind of histological regression is choriocarcinoma, followed by embryonal carcinoma. To our knowledge, there are no cases of the burned-out phenomenon in teratoma. We report a case of a 19-year-old man presenting to our institute with a right testicular lesion, evidence of mediastinal and abdominal lymph node metastasis, and high levels of GCT serum biomarkers...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
M Jankovich, T Jankovichova, D Ondrus, J Breza
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations of elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) characteristics other than cancer specific survival (CSS) and progression free survival (PFS). BACKGROUND: NLR was recently presented as a widely available and inexpensive marker of poor prognosis in several types of solid tumors. Previous study showed no predictive value of NLR for CSS and PFS in testicular GCT...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Rodrigo Albergaria Ressio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
BACKGROUND: The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). CASE PRESENTATION: During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses...
October 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kah Poh Loh, Chunkit Fung
Testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) is the most common malignancy in young males between the ages of 15 to 35 years. Although the overall cure rate of GCTs approaches 95%, almost 25% of patients with distant metastases die from the cancer. Active investigations on novel treatment options for platinum-refractory GCTs include immunotherapies such as program-death 1 (PD-1)/program death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. In this case, we report a patient with metastatic GCTs who was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, in a phase II study after failing several lines of chemotherapy...
July 3, 2017: Rare Tumors
Rowan E Miller, Sarah C Markt, Elizabeth O'Donnell, Brandon Bernard, Laurence K Albiges, Clair Beard, Christopher J Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Age ≥40 yr is associated with poorer testicular cancer outcomes in population-based studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between age (≥40 yr) and outcomes among men with germ cell tumors (GCTs) in a large hospital registry. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Electronic medical records for 1095 GCT patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 1997 and 2013 were reviewed. Information regarding histology, stage, treatment, and patient characteristics was obtained...
October 26, 2016: European Urology Focus
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