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gestational diabetes Pathology

Shaofang Hua, Yueqin Li, Lijun Su, Xiajun Liu
Gestational diabetes (GD) is a pathological condition, affecting 2-5% of pregnant women. Diosgenin (DSG) possesses a variety of biological activities. The present study was designed to examine the effect of DSG on GD and to investigate the possible mechanism in C57BL/KsJ-Lep(db/+) (db/+) mice. We found that DSG could remarkably ameliorated GD in pregnant db/+ mice, as reflected by the improvement of glucose and insulin intolerance, and the decrease of fasting blood glucose and insulin level and the increase of hepatic glycogen content...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Basilio Pintaudi, Giacoma Di Vieste, Matteo Bonomo
Inositol has been used as a supplement in treating several pathologies such as PCOS, metabolic syndrome, and gestational diabetes. Both myo-inositol and its isomer d-chiro-inositol showed insulin mimetic effects in conditions of insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a condition typically caused by insulin resistance. There is a lack of evidence of inositol use in T2DM. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol treatment in T2DM. This was a pilot study involving a consecutive sample of patients with T2DM with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c 7...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Mantha Pantazi, Georgios D Lianos, George Stranjalis, George A Alexiou
OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English...
November 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Pramod K Guru, Devon M Ramaeker, Arundhathi Jeybalan, Nirav A Shah, Sheldon Bastacky, Kelly V Liang
Pregnancy-related renal diseases are unique and need special attention, both for diagnosis and management. The major confounding factors for diagnosis are the physiological multiorgan changes that occur throughout the gestational period. Proper diagnosis of the renal disease is also important, given the impact of varied management options both on the maternal and fetal health. A young middle-aged female with a long-standing history of diabetes presented to the hospital with worsening proteinuria in her second trimester of pregnancy...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Gozde Unek, Asli Ozmen, Bekir Sitki Isenlik, Emin T Korgun
The placenta, which is a regulator organ for many metabolic activities between mother and fetus, is critical in influencing the outcome of pregnancy. Therefore, fetal growth is directly related to the placental development. Placental development depends on the coordinated action of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion. Studies on cell cycle related proteins that control these events are limited. Abnormal placental development is linked to various pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, diabetes mellitus and gestational trophoblastic diseases...
September 26, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Hadas Ganer Herman, Hadas Miremberg, Letizia Schreiber, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
INTRODUCTION: High and low birth weight (BW) to placental weight (PW) ratios (BW/PW) have been proposed as markers of placental malfunction. We studied the association of clinical outcome and placental histopathology lesions with BW/PW ratios. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period between 2008 and 2013, placentas from deliveries at gestational age (GA) ≥37 weeks, including both complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies, were sent for histopathology evaluation...
September 7, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Carla Sancho-Mestre, David Vivas-Consuelo, Luis Alvis-Estrada, Martin Romero, Ruth Usó-Talamantes, Vicent Caballer-Tarazona
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to estimate the frequency of multimorbidity in type 2 diabetes patients classified by health statuses in a European region and to determine the impact on pharmaceutical expenditure. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of the inhabitants of a southeastern European region with a population of 5,150,054, using data extracted from Electronic Health Records for 2012. 491,854 diabetic individuals were identified and selected through clinical codes, Clinical Risk Groups and diabetes treatment and/or blood glucose reagent strips...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Antoine Edu, Cristina Teodorescu, Carmen Gabriela Dobjanschi, ZiŢa Zsuzsana Socol, Valeriu Teodorescu, Alexandru Matei, Dinu Florin Albu, Gabriela Radulian
Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Carolyn M Salafia, Diana M Thomas, Drucilla J Roberts, Jennifer K Straughen, Patrick M Catalano, Gabriela Perez-Avilan
It is generally agreed that placental pathology accounts for the majority of perinatal morbidity and mortality. If a placental prodrome could be diagnosed in vivo, risk for maternal or fetal complications could be estimated and acted upon before clinical symptoms are apparent. This is especially relevant in early diagnoses of gestational diabetes mellitus, which can be controlled through carefully monitored diet and activity changes. To meet this important need, there have been increased efforts to identify early gestation biomarkers of placental dysfunction using innovative imaging technologies...
November 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Ivana Jurkovic, Iva Gecek, Anita Skrtic, Jasenka Zmijanac Partl, Tamara Nikuseva Martic, Alan Serman, Danica Galesic Ljubanovic, Ljiljana Serman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure immunohistochemically the expression of ELF5 protein in term human and rat placentas and in human placentas associated with gestational diabetes (GD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: The results were quantitated stereologically using the stereological variable of volume density. A semiquantitative analysis was performed independently by a certified pathologist. RESULTS: Total expression of ELF5 protein was higher in pathological pregnancies than in corresponding control term placentas, with both methods of quantifications showing similar results...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rochan Agha-Jaffar, Nick Oliver, Desmond Johnston, Stephen Robinson
The overall incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. Preventing pathological hyperglycaemia during pregnancy could have several benefits: a reduction in the immediate adverse outcomes during pregnancy, a reduced risk of long-term sequelae and a decrease in the economic burden to healthcare systems. In this Review we examine the evidence supporting lifestyle modification strategies in women with and without risk factors for GDM, and the efficacy of dietary supplementation and pharmacological approaches to prevent this disease...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Shi-Bin Cheng, Surendra Sharma
Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring...
November 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
Olga Motyl, Marek Droździk
Drug treatment during pregnancy is often inevitable. The number of pregnant women in need of pharmacotherapy continues to grow, partly due to advanced diagnostic tests and partly due to advanced maternal age. Obviously, knowledge about the function of drug transporters in the placenta allows for a more accurate analysis of drug penetration (and other xenobiotics) through the placental barrier, and therefore safer pharmacotherapy. The paper provides information on the role of drug transporters in the pharmacotherapy of pregnancy-associated pathologies which require long-term treatment, e...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
A Hichami, O Grissa, I Mrizak, C Benammar, N A Khan
Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
F Sierra, D Reitz, S Ermisch, G Heller, S Schmidt
We report a case of pathological foetal Doppler velocity, specifically the absence of end diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (AEDV/REDV), suspected diabetic pregnancy and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, at 32 weeks of gestation. The foetal heart rate tracings were evaluated using a computerised cardiotocogram (Oxford Sonicaid system 8002 Chichester, England) 1 for 20-30 min parallel to the routine cardiotocogram. The ultrasound control at 33 weeks of gestation showed oligohydramnion, foetal centralisation and reduced interval foetal growth...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Nora E Grotenfelt, Niko S Wasenius, Kristiina Rönö, Hannele Laivuori, Beata Stach-Lempinen, Marju Orho-Melander, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Hannu Kautiainen, Saila B Koivusalo, Johan G Eriksson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) rs10830963 polymorphism and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy on occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in high-risk women. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the randomised controlled gestational diabetes prevention trial 'RADIEL', conducted between 2008 and 2014 in four maternity hospitals in southern Finland. A total of 226 women with a history of GDM and/or a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) were enrolled at <20 weeks of gestation (mean 13 weeks) and randomised into an intervention group receiving counselling on diet, physical activity and weight control and a control group receiving standard antenatal care...
August 2016: Diabetologia
Xuemei Xie, Hongjie Gao, Shimin Wu, Yue Zhao, Caiqi Du, Guandou Yuan, Qin Ning, Kenneth McCormick, Xiaoping Luo
AIM: Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital...
2016: PloS One
Nissim Arbib, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Amir Aviram, Orly Sneh-Arbib, Arnon Wiznitzer, Moshe Hod, Rony Chen, Eran Hadar
OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal outcome of women after third trimester oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) following normal glucose challenge test (GCT) stratified by test results. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of women delivered in a tertiary, university affiliated medical center (2007-2012). Inclusion criteria were women with a normal 50 g GCT (<140 mg/dl) followed by GTT, who delivered a live-born fetus >28 gestational weeks. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was defined as ≥2 pathological values on GTT (Carpenter and Coustan's criteria)...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kovalchuk Liudmila Akhmetovna, Tarkhanova Alla Eduardovna, Chernaya Liudmila Vladimirovna, Mikshevich Nikolay Vladislavovich
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the presence of metabolic disturbances in obese pregnant women living in an industrial city in Russia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the ambulatory cards of 96 pregnant women with alimentary obesity (aged 23-34), their birth history, and their newborn development history (anamnesis). RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of women had obstetric and gynecological complications. Pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes, risk of pregnancy interruption, toxicosis in the first half gestation, gestosis) were experienced in 36% of women...
May 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Bao-Heng Xing, Feng-Zhen Yang, Xiao-Hua Wu
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease commonly occurs during mid to late pregnancy with pathologies such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and mal-development of fetus. We have previously demonstrated that pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) effectively alleviated diabetic symptoms in a mouse model of GDM, although the clinical efficacy was limited due to oxidative stress. In this study, using the anti-oxidant agent naringenin, we aimed to further enhance the efficacy of hESC-derived PE transplant...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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