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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#1
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147631/automated-whole-brain-tractography-affects-preoperative-surgical-decision-making
#2
Hesham Zakaria, Sameah Haider, Ian Lee
Surgery in and around eloquent brain structures poses a technical challenge when the goal of surgery is maximal safe resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, but tractography still remains limited in terms of utility because of the requisite manual labor and time required combined with the high risk of bias and inaccuracy. Automated whole brain tractography (AWBT) has simplified this workflow, overcoming historical barriers, and allowing for integration into modern neuronavigation...
September 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141511/a-multimodal-mri-study-of-recovery-of-consciousness-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-results
#3
Ang Yang, Xue Hong Xiao, Zhong Hua Liu, Zhi Long Wan, Ze Yan Wang
Accurate and reliable assessment of the conscious state of patients with severe TBI is vital for their future management. The purpose of the present study is to find an effective and accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for predicting recovery of consciousness in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multimodal MR techniques, including structural MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were used to evaluate brain damage in 58 patients with severe TBI...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128446/disrupted-focal-white-matter-integrity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#4
Xin Di, Azeezat Azeez, Xiaobo Li, Emad Haque, Bharat B Biswal
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that has long been considered to result from brain underconnectivity. However, volumetric analysis of structural MRI data has failed to find consistent white matter alterations in patients with ASD. The present study aims to examine whether there are consistent focal white matter alterations as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in individuals with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. METHOD: Coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed on 14 studies that reported fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations between individuals with ASD and TD individuals...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123476/multi-scale-computational-models-for-electrical-brain-stimulation
#5
REVIEW
Hyeon Seo, Sung C Jun
Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an appealing method to treat neurological disorders. To achieve optimal stimulation effects and a better understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms, neuroscientists have proposed computational modeling studies for a decade. Recently, multi-scale models that combine a volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons have been developed to predict stimulation effects on the macroscopic and microscopic levels more precisely. As the need for better computational models continues to increase, we overview here recent multi-scale modeling studies; we focused on approaches that coupled a simplified or high-resolution volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons, and constructed realistic fiber models using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#6
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114921/association-of-early-left-ventricular-dysfunction-with-advanced-magnetic-resonance-white-matter-and-gray-matter-brain-measures-the-cardia-study
#7
Anderson C Armstrong, Majon Muller, Bharath Ambale-Ventakesh, Michael Halstead, Satoru Kishi, Nick Bryan, Stephen Sidney, Luís C L Correia, Samuel S Gidding, Lenore J Launer, João A C Lima
INTRODUCTION: Relations between heart failure and clinically manifested stroke are well known, but the associations between heart and brain early abnormalities are not totally clear. AIMS: We explore relations of subclinical brain abnormalities with early cardiac dysfunction in a large healthy middle-aged biracial cohort. METHODS: The CARDIA study enrolled 5115 young adults aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986). We assessed 719 Caucasian and African American participants of the CARDIA study, with echocardiograms and brain MRI at follow-up year 25 (2010-2011)...
November 8, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113947/diffusion-tensor-and-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-the-brains-of-professional-musicians
#8
Niyazi Acer, Serap Bastepe-Gray, Ayse Sagiroglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Levent Degirmencioglu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Muhammet Usame Ozic
Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113572/effects-of-an-individual-12-week-community-located-start-to-run-program-on-physical-capacity-walking-fatigue-cognitive-function-brain-volumes-and-structures-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Peter Feys, Lousin Moumdjian, Florian Van Halewyck, Inez Wens, Bert O Eijnde, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Veronica Popescu, Paul Van Asch
BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy studies in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) primarily focused on motor outcomes in mid disease stage, while cognitive function and neural correlates were only limitedly addressed. OBJECTIVES: This pragmatic randomized controlled study investigated the effects of a remotely supervised community-located "start-to-run" program on physical and cognitive function, fatigue, quality of life, brain volume, and connectivity. METHOD: In all, 42 pwMS were randomized to either experimental (EXP) or waiting list control (WLC) group...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113251/structural-mri-research-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-following-radiotherapy-a-dti-and-vbm-study
#10
Xi Leng, Peng Fang, Huan Lin, Jie An, Xin Tan, Chi Zhang, Donglin Wu, Wen Shen, Shijun Qiu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the microstructural characteristics of the brain lobes following radiotherapy (RT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at distinct times. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 3D-T1-weighted imaging was performed in 70 age- and sex-matched subjects, 24 of whom were pre-treatment patients. The patients were divided into three groups, according to the time following completion of RT. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and gray matter (GM) volume were determined...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#11
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110092/tracking-posttraumatic-hemianopia
#12
Thomas Decramer, Karel Van Keer, Peter Stalmans, Patrick Dupont, Stefan Sunaert, Tom Theys
Hemianopia after traumatic brain injury is not infrequent and results from retro-chiasmatic lesions. Differentiating optic pathway lesions can be challenging with classic imaging. Advanced imaging techniques as an investigational tool for posttraumatic hemianopia are discussed and their pitfalls highlighted through an illustrative case study. In a patient with posttraumatic hemianopia, MRI at 8 weeks and 2 years after trauma were analyzed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and morphometric analysis of the primary visual cortex (V1) were performed...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108821/brain-diffusion-tensor-mri-in-systematic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Beatriz Lavras Costallat, Daniel Miranda Ferreira, Aline Tamires Lapa, Letícia Rittner, Lilian Tereza Lavras Costallat, Simone Appenzeller
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps the brain's microstructure by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). This systematic review describes brain diffusion tensor Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The literature was reviewed following the PRISMA guidelines and using the terms "lupus", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "SLE", "diffusion tensor imaging", "DTI", "white matter" (WM), "microstructural damage", "tractography", and "fractional anisotropy"; the search included articles published in English from January 2007 to April 2017...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098835/-comparison-of-different-administration-routes-of-saikosaponin-in-plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-brain-pharmacokinetics
#14
Ya-Jie Dai, Xiao-Lan Chen, Hong-Yan Tang, Xian-Yi Deng, Lang Xie
To evaluate the optimum administration routes of saikosaponin in the treatment of epilepsy by comparing the plasma pharmacokinetics and the brain pharmacokinetics after different administration routes of saikosaponin. After receiving saikosaponin in different administration routes, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood and brain tissues. The acetonitrile and methanol (9∶1) were used to precipitate the plasma protein. The concentration of the SSa in mice plasma and brain was determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the pharmacokinetic parameters, bioavailability, the brain targeting coefficient (Re) and the brain drug targeting index (DTI) were calculated with Kinetica software...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097988/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-can-induce-angiogenesis-and-regeneration-of-nerve-fibers-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#15
Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin, Shai Efrati
Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can induce neuroplasticity. Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging. Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) MR sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093495/application-of-multimodal-navigation-together-with-fluorescein-angiography-in-microsurgical-treatment-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformations
#16
Shiyu Feng, Yanyang Zhang, Zhenghui Sun, Chen Wu, Zhe Xue, Yudong Ma, Jinli Jiang
This study aimed to explore the clinical applications of multimodal navigation combined with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescein angiography in microsurgical treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We retrospectively collected 52 patients with AVMs. Assisted by anatomic image, we reestablished three-dimensional structure using preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The operation for lesion resection was finished under the assistance of neuro-navigation...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093492/the-association-between-gene-variants-and-longitudinal-structural-brain-changes-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-neuroimaging-genetics-studies
#17
REVIEW
Julia H Harari, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Joost Janssen, Kenia Martínez, Bárbara Arias, Celso Arango
Evidence suggests that genetic variation might influence structural brain alterations in psychotic disorders. Longitudinal genetic neuroimaging (G-NI) studies are designed to assess the association between genetic variants, disease progression and brain changes. There is a paucity of reviews of longitudinal G-NI studies in psychotic disorders. A systematic search of PubMed from inception until November 2016 was conducted to identify longitudinal G-NI studies examining the link between Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)-based brain measurements and specific gene variants (SNPs, microsatellites, haplotypes) in patients with psychosis...
November 1, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089767/thalamo-cortical-network-underlying-deep-brain-stimulation-of-centromedian-thalamic-nuclei-in-intractable-epilepsy-a-multimodal-imaging-analysis
#18
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Dong Won Yang, Jeong Hee Cho, Byung-Chul Son, Jiyeon Kim, Seung Bong Hong, Young-Min Shon
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM) can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084064/new-insights-into-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-from-mri
#19
Eric E Smith, Andrew E Beaudin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent MRI research that addresses two important challenges in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) research: early diagnosis, and linking SVD with cognitive impairment. First, we review studies of MRI measurements of blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Second, we review MRI studies identifying neuroimaging correlates of SVD-related cognitive dysfunction, focusing on brain connectivity and white matter microarchitecture. This research is placed in context through discussion of recent recommendations for management of incidentally discovered SVD, and neuroimaging biomarker use in clinical trials...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083521/peripheral-nerve-diffusion-tensor-imaging-overview-pitfalls-and-future-directions
#20
Tina Jeon, Maggie M Fung, Kevin M Koch, Ek T Tan, Darryl B Sneag
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that measures the extent of restricted water diffusion and anisotropy in biological tissue. Although DTI has been widely applied in the brain, more recently researchers have used it to characterize nerve pathology in the setting of entrapment neuropathy, traumatic injury, and tumor. DTI artifacts are exacerbated when imaging off isocenter in the body. Anecdotally, the most significant artifacts in peripheral nerve DTI include magnetic field inhomogeneity, motion, incomplete fat suppression, aliasing, and distortion...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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