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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087489/neurite-density-index-is-sensitive-to-age-related-differences-in-the-developing-brain
#1
Sila Genc, Charles B Malpas, Scott K Holland, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk
PURPOSE: White matter development during childhood and adolescence is characterised by increasing white matter coherence and organisation. Commonly used scalar metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), are sensitive to multiple mechanisms of white matter change and therefore unable to distinguish between mechanisms that change during development. We investigate the relationship between age and neurite density index (NDI) from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and the age-classification accuracy of NDI compared with FA, in a developmental cohort...
January 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086899/evaluations-of-diffusion-tensor-image-registration-based-on-fiber-tractography
#2
Yi Wang, Yu Shen, Dongyang Liu, Guoqin Li, Zhe Guo, Yangyu Fan, Yilong Niu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI, also known as DTI) measures the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissues and to date is one of the main techniques that can effectively study the microstructures of the brain in vivo. Presently, evaluation of DTI registration techniques is still in an initial stage of development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, six well-known open source DTI registration algorithms: Elastic, Rigid, Affine, DTI-TK, FSL and SyN were applied on 11 subjects from an open-access dataset, among which one was randomly chosen as the template...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#3
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069530/structural-changes-in-functionally-illiterate-adults-after-intensive-training
#4
Melanie Boltzmann, Bahram Mohammadi, Amir Samii, Thomas F Münte, Jascha Rüsseler
About 7.5 million adults in Germany cannot read and write properly despite attending school for several years. They are considered to be functional illiterates. Since the ability to read and write is crucial for being employed and socially accepted, we developed a literacy training to overcome these deficits. In this study, we investigate the structural changes induced by the training. A group of 20 functional illiterates and 20 adult normal readers participated in the study. Group differences as well as intervention-related changes in gray (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and white matter (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS, applied to fractional anisotropy, FA, obtained with diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) were assessed in functional illiterates and normal reading controls...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059709/microstructure-of-the-default-mode-network-in-preterm-infants
#5
J Cui, O Tymofiyeva, R Desikan, T Flynn, H Kim, D Gano, C P Hess, D M Ferriero, A J Barkovich, D Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion and fMRI has been providing insights to brain development in addition to anatomic imaging. This study aimed to evaluate the microstructure of white matter tracts underlying the default mode network in premature infants by using resting-state functional MR imaging in conjunction with diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 44 preterm infants underwent structural T1-weighted imaging, resting-state fMRI, and DTI at 3T, including 21 infants with brain injuries and 23 infants with normal-appearing structural imaging as controls...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054004/diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-of-white-matter-compared-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunofluorescence-in-tissue-cleared-intact-brains
#6
Eric H Chang, Miklos Argyelan, Manisha Aggarwal, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Susumu Mori, Anil K Malhotra
We provide datasets from combined ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Clear Lipid-exchanged, Anatomically Rigid, Imaging/immunostaining compatible, Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY) performed on intact mouse brains. DTI-derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were compared to antibody-based labeling of myelin basic protein (MBP), as measured by fluorescence microscopy. We used a customized CLARITY hydrogel solution to facilitate whole brain tissue clearing and subsequent immunolabeling...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#7
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048182/su-g-iep1-14-the-relationship-between-voxel-based-morphometry-and-fiber-tract-abnormalities-by-correlation-analysis-in-patients-with-neurodegerative-disease
#8
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: We evaluated the relationship between white matter (WM) tract disintegration and gray matter (GM) atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and an optimized voxel-based analysis. METHODS: Two hundred thirty one individuals (61 controls, 116 MCI and 54 AD) were included. Voxel-based WM tract statistics was used to obtain whole-brain maps of WM bundles for FA. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was conducted to detect regions of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the AD, MCI group relative to the control group...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046822/su-f-i-17-white-matter-track-based-analysis-at-limbic-abnormalities-in-cognitive-impairment
#9
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment with depression (MCID) is common and associated with disability and cognitive impairment, with high probability of relapse. Hypothesize that a sign of WM disintegration would be observed in MCID than MCI nondepression (MCIND), especially in frontal and limbic regions and patients with depression would show reduced GM density in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior gyrus cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) the abnormalities of long association fiber tracts integrity are correlated with geriatric depression...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046704/mo-fg-campus-iep3-04-evaluation-of-reproducibility-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-metrics-using-automatically-generated-regions-of-interest
#10
X Jiang
PURPOSE: To establish diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a valid diagnostic tool, it is essential to first establish the reproducibility of DTI metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). In this study, we developed two fully automated pipelines for obtaining FA and MD in multiple ROIs, and used them to evaluate intra- and inter-session reproducibility. METHODS: Twenty subjects were scanned at 3.0T in two identical sessions separated by 1 week...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045213/longitudinal-diffusion-changes-in-prodromal-and-early-hd-evidence-of-white-matter-tract-deterioration
#11
Joseph J Shaffer, Ali Ghayoor, Jeffrey D Long, Regina Eun-Young Kim, Spencer Lourens, Lauren J O'Donnell, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Yogesh Rathi, Vincent Magnotta, Jane S Paulsen, Hans J Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects striatal neurons. Striatal volume loss is present years before clinical diagnosis; however, white matter degradation may also occur prior to diagnosis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can measure microstructural changes associated with degeneration that precede macrostructural changes. DWI derived measures enhance understanding of degeneration in prodromal HD (pre-HD). METHODS: As part of the PREDICT-HD study, N = 191 pre-HD individuals and 70 healthy controls underwent two or more (baseline and 1-5 year follow-up) DWI, with n = 649 total sessions...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040046/diffusion-tensor-imaging-reveals-changes-in-the-adult-rat-brain-following-long-term-and-passive-moderate-acoustic-exposure
#12
Sherwin Abdoli, Leon C Ho, Jevin W Zhang, Celia M Dong, Condon Lau, Ed X Wu
This study investigated neuroanatomical changes following long-term acoustic exposure at moderate sound pressure level (SPL) under passive conditions, without coupled behavioral training. The authors utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect morphological changes in white matter. DTIs from adult rats (n = 8) exposed to continuous acoustic exposure at moderate SPL for 2 months were compared with DTIs from rats (n = 8) reared under standard acoustic conditions. Two distinct forms of DTI analysis were applied in a sequential manner...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032374/heritability-of-white-matter-microstructure-in-late-middle-age-a-twin-study-of-tract-based-fractional-anisotropy-and-absolute-diffusivity-indices
#13
Eero Vuoksimaa, Matthew S Panizzon, Donald J Hagler, Sean N Hatton, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Daniel Rinker, Lisa T Eyler, Carol E Franz, Michael J Lyons, Michael C Neale, Ming T Tsuang, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
There is evidence that differences among individuals in white matter microstructure, as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), are under genetic control. However, little is known about the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on different diffusivity indices among late middle-aged adults. Here, we examined the magnitude of genetic influences for fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities in male twins aged 56-66 years old. Using an atlas-based registration approach to delineate individual white matter tracts, we investigated mean DTI-based indices within the corpus callosum, 12 bilateral tracts and all these regions of interest combined...
December 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025071/th17-cells-correlate-positively-to-the-structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-brain-in-bipolar-depression-and-healthy-controls
#14
Sara Poletti, Harm de Wit, Elena Mazza, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Clara Locatelli, Veronica Aggio, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti, Hemmo A Drexhage
: Abnormalities of T cell-mediated immune activation, in the absence of active somatic immune diseases, have consistently been reported in mood disorders. Apart from being important players in the regulation of cells of the immune system, T cells are essential for normal brain development. We here report studies on the relationship between circulating levels of T helper cells and structural and functional brain imaging in depressed bipolar patients. Since the CCL20-CCR6 axis is an important entry to the brain we differentiated the various T helper cell subpopulations on the basis of their chemokine receptor expression...
December 23, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012424/white-matter-microstructure-and-volitional-motor-activity-in-schizophrenia-a-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#15
Lise Docx, Louise Emsell, Wim Van Hecke, Timo De Bondt, Paul M Parizel, Bernard Sabbe, Manuel Morrens
Avolition is a core feature of schizophrenia and may arise from altered brain connectivity. Here we used diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to investigate the association between white matter (WM) microstructure and volitional motor activity. Multi-shell diffusion MRI and 24-h actigraphy data were obtained from 20 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and 16 right-handed age and gender matched healthy controls. We examined correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK), and motor activity level, as well as group differences in these measures...
October 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011255/the-%C3%AE-parameter-of-anomalous-diffusion-quantified-in-human-brain-by-mri-depends-on-local-magnetic-susceptibility-differences
#16
A Caporale, M Palombo, E Macaluso, M Guerreri, M Bozzali, S Capuani
Motivated by previous results obtained in vitro, we investigated the dependence of the anomalous diffusion (AD) MRI technique on local magnetic susceptibility differences (Δχ) driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity in human brains. The AD-imaging contrast investigated here is quantified by the stretched-exponential parameter γ, extracted from diffusion weighted (DW) data collected by varying diffusion gradient strengths. We performed T2* and DW experiments in eight healthy subjects at 3.0T. T2*-weighted images at different TEs=(10,20,35,55)ms and DW-EPI images with fourteen b-values from 0 to 5000s/mm(2) were acquired...
December 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008201/active-brain-changes-after-initiating-fingolimod-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-using-individual-voxel-based-analyses-for-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#17
Joe Senda, Hirohisa Watanabe, Kuniyuki Endo, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hawsegawa, Noritaka Yoneyama, Takashi Tsuboi, Kazuhiro Hara, Mizuki Ito, Naoki Atsuta, Bagarinao Epifanio, Masahisa Katsuno, Shinji Naganawa, Gen Sobue
Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor images (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) can sensitively detect occult tissue damage that underlies pathological changes in the brain. In the present study, both at the start of fingolimod and post-four months clinical remission, we assessed four patients with MS who were evaluated with VBA of DTI, VBM, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). DTI images for all four patients showed widespread areas of increased mean diffusivity (MD) and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) that were beyond the high-intensity signal areas across images...
December 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007768/toward-precision-and-reproducibility-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-a-multicenter-diffusion-phantom-and-traveling-volunteer-study
#18
E M Palacios, A J Martin, M A Boss, F Ezekiel, Y S Chang, E L Yuh, M J Vassar, D M Schnyer, C L MacDonald, K L Crawford, A Irimia, A W Toga, P Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Precision medicine is an approach to disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that relies on quantitative biomarkers that minimize the variability of individual patient measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the intersite variability after harmonization of a high-angular-resolution 3T diffusion tensor imaging protocol across 13 scanners at the 11 academic medical centers participating in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury multisite study...
December 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007690/deep-brain-stimulation-for-tremor-tractographic-versus-traditional-distinct-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#19
Bastian Elmar Alexander Sajonz, Florian Amtage, Peter Christoph Reinacher, Carolin Jenkner, Tobias Piroth, Jürgen Kätzler, Horst Urbach, Volker Arnd Coenen
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is a movement disorder that can result in profound disability affecting the quality of life. Medically refractory essential tremor can be successfully reduced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) traditionally targeting the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). Although this structure can be identified with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging nowadays, Vim-DBS electrodes are still implanted in the awake patient with intraoperative tremor testing to achieve satisfactory tremor control...
December 22, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003162/amygdalar-and-hippocampal-connections-with-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-a-diffusion-mri-study-in-human-brain
#20
Alessandro Arrigo, Enricomaria Mormina, Alessandro Calamuneri, Michele Gaeta, Silvia Marino, Demetrio Milardi, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The limbic system has a central role for the integration of several cognitive and visceral functions through an extended network of connections involving the hippocampus and the amygdala. A number of studies performed in humans have been dedicated to the investigation of supratentorial limbic pathways by means of non-invasive MRI approaches, such as DTI. However, detection of possible limbic connections involving the brainstem and the spinal cord is still missing. Subtentorial limbic pathways have been previously studied in animals by means of invasive approaches, including viral tracing...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
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