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DTI, brain

V B Puetz, D Parker, N Kohn, B Dahmen, R Verma, K Konrad
Childhood maltreatment is associated with alterations in neural architecture that potentially put these children at increased risk for psychopathology. Alterations in white matter (WM) tracts have been reported, however no study to date has investigated WM connectivity in brain networks in maltreated children to quantify global and local abnormalities through graph theoretical analyses of DTI data. We aimed for a multilevel investigation examining the DTI-based structural connectome and its associations with basal cortisol levels of 25 children with documented maltreatment experiences before age 3, and 24 matched controls (age: 10...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yi-Bin Xi, Fan Guo, Hua Li, Xiao Chang, Jin-Bo Sun, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Wen-Ming Liu, Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin
Heterogeneous findings across studies of structural abnormality in schizophrenia (SZ) have impeded the development a unified theory of white matter pathology. As a cardinal symptom of SZ, auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been suspected to be associated with improper communication among several brain regions, which might indicated white matter pathology. Participants comprised 25 first-episode (FE) patients with AVH, 25 patients without AVH and 25 healthy subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures were calculated using the TBSS of FSL...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Martin T Freitag, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Francisczek Binczyk, Frederik B Laun, Christian Weber, David Bonekamp, Rafal Tarnawski, Barbara Bobek-Billewicz, Joanna Polanska, Henryk Majchrzak, Bram Stieltjes
OBJECTIVE: Here, we retrospectively investigate the value of voxel-wisely plotted diffusion tensor-derived (DTI) axial, radial and mean diffusivity for the early detection of malignant transformation (MT) in WHO II glioma compared to contrast-enhanced images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up between 2006-2014 after gross-tumor resection of intra-axial WHO II glioma. Axial/Mean/Radial diffusivity maps (AD/MD/RD) were generated from DTI data...
2016: PloS One
Jiaolong Qin, Haiyan Liu, Maobin Wei, Ke Zhao, Jianhuai Chen, Jingyu Zhu, Xiangyu Shen, Rui Yan, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
BACKGROUND: The role of abnormal communications among large-scale brain networks have been given increasing attentions in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have investigated the effect of antidepressant medication treatment on the information communication of structural brain networks, especially converged from the individual analysis. METHODS: Nineteen unipolar MDD patients completed two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans before and after 8-week treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Alexandra L Clark, Lisa Delano-Wood, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Karen L Hanson, Dawn M Schiehser
No known studies have directly examined white matter microstructural correlates of cognitive fatigue post-TBI in a Veteran sample. We therefore investigated the relationship between cognitive fatigue and white matter integrity in Veterans with history of mild to moderate TBI (mmTBI). 59 Veterans (TBI = 34, Veteran Controls [VCs] = 25]) with and without history of mmTBI underwent structural 3T DTI scans and completed questionnaires related to cognitive fatigue and psychiatric symptoms. Tractography was employed on six regions of interest, including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule; genu; body and splenium of the corpus callosum; and cingulum bundle...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dana van Son, Reinout W Wiers, Andrés Catena, Miguel Perez-Garcia, Antonio Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence has been associated with alterations in the brain's white matter integrity, yet relevant questions remain about what alterations are linked to cocaine use and/or polysubstance use, and whether they are amenable to abstinence. METHODS: This study applied a single measurement session of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter structure in male cocaine polysubstance users (n=37) versus male healthy controls (n=38), along with correlations between DTI measures and patterns of polysubstance use and duration of abstinence...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volker Ressel, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Ianina Scheer, Hubertus J A van Hedel
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injury is a challenging endeavour. There is a large variability in motor recovery between patients, and a need to optimize therapies by exploiting cerebral plasticity and recovery mechanisms. This retrospective study aims to identify tract-based markers that could serve as predictors of functional outcome following rehabilitation. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with traumatic brain injury (n = 14) or stroke (n = 15) underwent a 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurement, including Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) between admission to the Hospital and onset of rehabilitation therapy at the Rehabilitation Centre...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wenchao Qiu, Yuan Gao, Chuanyong Yu, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Zheng Hu, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN) regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64 ± 2.59 years, seven females and seven males) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Freddy J Alfaro, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Daniela A Pimentel, Chen-Chih Chung, Francisco Bedoya, Woo-Kyoung Yoo, Vera Novak
Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) often show worse cognitive performance compared with the healthy population. We investigated whether microstructural white matter abnormalities are associated with cognitive performance in adults with MetS using diffusion tensor MR imaging. A total of 32 subjects with MetS (age 64.8 ± 7.8, 56.25 % female) and 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3-T MRI. Brain global and regional volumes, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (LD) were calculated...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Sunyoung Choi, Kyu-Man Han, June Kang, Eunsoo Won, Hun Soo Chang, Woo Suk Tae, Kyu Ri Son, Su-Jin Kim, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is presumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD through regulation of glutamate transmission in the brain. However, the involvement of this gene in microstructural changes in white matter (WM) tracts remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of a polymorphism of this gene (rs1545853) on the structural integrity of WM tracts in the cortico-limbic network...
2016: PloS One
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Laurie M Baker, Ryan P Cabeen, Sarah Cooley, David H Laidlaw, Robert H Paul
This paper reviews basic methods and recent applications of length-based fiber bundle analysis of cerebral white matter using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a dMRI technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure in the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an extension of DWI that measures the magnitude and direction of water diffusion in cerebral white matter, using either voxel-based scalar metrics or tractography-based analyses...
April 2016: Technology and Innovation
Lauren E Salminen, Thomas E Conturo, Jacob D Bolzenius, Ryan P Cabeen, Erbil Akbudak, Robert H Paul
Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan...
April 2016: Technology and Innovation
Ulysse Gimenez, Adriana-T Perles-Barbacaru, Arnaud Millet, Florence Appaix, Michele El-Atifi, Karin Pernet-Gallay, Boudewijn van der Sanden, François Berger, Hana Lahrech
Monitoring glioma cell infiltration in the brain is critical for diagnosis and therapy. Using a new glioma Glio6 mouse model derived from human stem cells we show how diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may predict glioma cell migration/invasion. In vivo multiparametric MRI was performed at one, two and three months of Glio6 glioma growth (Glio6 (n = 6), sham (n = 3)). This longitudinal study reveals the existence of a time window to study glioma cell/migration/invasion selectively. Indeed, at two months only Glio6 cell invasion was detected, while tumor mass formation, edema, blood-brain barrier leakage and tumor angiogenesis were detected later, at three months...
September 15, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Cenan Hepdurgun, Özgün Özalay, Seda Eroğlu, Irmak Polat Nazlı, Ömer Kitiş, Ali Saffet Gönül
The majority of the research studying the prefrontal region has focused on gray matter injury. However, recent studies show that damage to white matter also contributes to the development of cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), it is now possible to assess the white matter fiber pathways between brain regions. With Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT), fibers of interest can be three dimensionally reconstructed and associated measurements can be performed...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Carina Sander, Paul Eling, Katrin Hanken, Jan Klein, Andreas Kastrup, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a disabling syndrome in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may be associated with inflammation and faster disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the significance of cognitive fatigue for subsequent disease progression. METHOD: We followed 46 MS patients and 14 healthy controls in a study over 17 months. At the beginning (t1) and at the end (t2) of the study participants scored their fatigue, performed the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and received MRI scanning, encompassing MPR T1, FLAIR, and DTI sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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