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DTI, brain

Jae W Song, Gerlinde M Gruber, Janina M Patsch, Rainer Seidl, Daniela Prayer, Gregor Kasprian
Prenatal detection of abnormal white matter tracts might serve as a structural marker for altered neurodevelopment. As a result of many technical and patient-related challenges, the accuracy of prenatal tractography remains unknown. We hypothesized that characteristics of prenatal tractography of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts derived from fetal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are accurate and predictive of the integrity of these tracts postnatally. We compared callosal and corticospinal tracts of 12 subjects with paired prenatal (age: 23-35 gestational weeks) and postnatal (age: 1 day to 2 years) DTI examinations (b values of 0 s/mm2 and 700 s/mm2 , 16 gradient encoding directions) using deterministic tractography...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Giovanni Raffa, Maria C Quattropani, Antonino Scibilia, Alfredo Conti, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Felice Esposito, Carmela Sindorio, Salvatore Massimiliano Cardali, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
OBJECTIVES: Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network...
March 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Asaff Harel, Dylan Sperling, Maria Petracca, Achillefs Ntranos, Ilana Katz-Sand, Stephen Krieger, Fred Lublin, Zichen Wang, Yangbo Liu, Matilde Inglese
OBJECTIVES: The accuracy of 'no evidence of disease activity' (NEDA) in predicting long-term clinical outcome in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is unproven, and there is growing evidence that NEDA does not rule out disease worsening. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate whether ongoing brain microstructural injury occurs in patients with RRMS meeting NEDA criteria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to identify patients with RRMS visiting our centre over a 3-month period who had undergone prior longitudinal DTI evaluation at our facility spanning ≥2 years...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Xi Sun, Ting Feng, Lin Ma, Baoci Shan, Demin Li, Hua Liu
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays a key role in various cognitive functions. The fiber connectivity of RSC had been reported in rodent and primate studies by tracer injection methods To explore structural and functional connectivity of two sub-regions of RSC, Brodmann area (BA)29 and BA30, we constructed fiber connectivity networks of two sub-regions by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional connectivity networks by resting-state functional MRI...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Cheima Bouziane, Matthan W A Caan, Hyke G H Tamminga, Anouk Schrantee, Marco A Bottelier, Michiel B de Ruiter, Sandra J J Kooij, Liesbeth Reneman
Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown a delay in brain white matter (WM) development. Because these studies were mainly conducted in children and adolescents, these WM abnormalities have been assumed, but not proven to progress into adulthood. To provide further insight in the natural history of WM maturation delay in ADHD, we here investigated the modulating effect of age on WM in children and adults. 120 stimulant-treatment naive male ADHD children (10-12 years of age) and adults (23-40 years of age) with ADHD (according to DSM-IV; all subtypes) were included, along with 23 age and gender matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hua Zhou, Yan Tang, Zhi Yuan
White matter (WM) asymmetries of the human brain have been well documented using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The purpose of this study was to investigate white matter asymmetry across the whole brain in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) patients and evaluate the relation between the factors which often represent disease's existence and white matter asymmetry. A total of 105 nondemented elderly with cerebral SVD patients aged between 60 and 85 years were included in this study. All participants underwent T1 MPRAGE, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and DTI scanning...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Ailing Hui, Huayang Yin, Zheng Zhang, An Zhou, Jingchao Chen, Li Yang, Zeyu Wu, Wencheng Zhang
Tetramethylpyrazine was introduced to the structure of danshensu (DSS) as P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-inhibiting carrier, designing some novel brain-targeting DSS-pyrazine derivatives via prodrug delivery strategy. Following the virtual screening, three DSS-pyrazine esters (DT1, DT2, DT3) were selected because of their better prediction parameters related to brain-targeting. Among them, DT3 was thought to be a promising candidate due to its appropriate bioreversible property in vitro release assay. Further investigation with regard to DT3's brain-targeting effects in vivo was also reported in this study...
March 9, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Olga Tymofiyeva, Eva Henje Blom, Tiffany C Ho, Colm G Connolly, Daniel Lindqvist, Owen M Wolkowitz, Jue Lin, Kaja Z LeWinn, Matthew D Sacchet, Laura K M Han, Justin P Yuan, Sarina P Bhandari, Duan Xu, Tony T Yang
BACKGROUND: Adolescent anxiety and depression are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders that are associated with altered molecular and neurocircuit profiles. Recently, increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-cn) has been found to be associated with several psychopathologies in adults, especially anxiety and depression. The associations between mtDNA-cn and anxiety and depression have not, however, been investigated in adolescents. Moreover, to date there have been no studies examining associations between mtDNA-cn and brain network alterations in mood disorders in any age group...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jie Zhan, Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Jane E Libbey, Peng Sun, Zezhong Ye, Chunyu Song, Michael Wallendorf, Honghan Gong, Robert S Fujinami, Sheng-Kwei Song
Hippocampal CA1 inflammation and dendritic loss are common in epilepsy. Quantitative detection of coexisting brain inflammation and injury could be beneficial in monitoring disease progression and assessing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we used conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, known to detect axonal injury and demyelination) and a novel diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI, known to detect axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation) to detect hippocampal CA1 lesions resulting from neuronal dendritic injury/loss and concomitant inflammation in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Taylor Kuhn, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Lars T Westlye, Jacob Jones, Rodolfo A Nunez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin, April D Thames
OBJECTIVE: HIV infection and aging are both associated with neurodegeneration. However, whether the aging process alone or other factors associated with advanced age account for the progression of neurodegeneration in the aging HIV-positive (HIV+) population remains unclear. METHODS: HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV-negative (HIV-, n = 34) participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and metrics of microstructural properties were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs)...
February 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Woo Young Im, Ji Hye Ha, Eun Joo Kim, Keun-Ah Cheon, Jaeil Cho, Dong-Ho Song
Objective: It is known that many of the cognitive and social deficits associated with autism can arise from abnormal functional connectivity between brain networks. This aberrant functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by impaired integrity of white matter tracts that link distant regions of the networks. Methods: We investigated white matter in 9 children with high-function autism (HFA) compared to 13 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Jing Lu, Sijia Guo, Mingming Chen, Weixia Wang, Hua Yang, Daqing Guo, Dezhong Yao
Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Claudia Kim Nyberg, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Darius A Rohani, Donatas Sederevicius, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Background Computerized cognitive training is suggested to enhance attention and working memory functioning following stroke, but effects on brain and behavior are not sufficiently studied and longitudinal studies assessing brain and behavior relationships are scarce. Objective The study objectives were to investigate relations between neuropsychological performance post-stroke and white matter microstructure measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), including changes after 6 weeks of working memory training...
February 25, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Dorothée Lulé, Sarah Böhm, Hans-Peter Müller, Helena Aho-Özhan, Jürgen Keller, Martin Gorges, Markus Loose, Jochen H Weishaupt, Ingo Uttner, Elmar Pinkhardt, Jan Kassubek, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Sharon Abrahams, Albert C Ludolph
Sequential spread of TDP-43 load in the brain may be a pathological characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based marker of this pathological feature. Cognitive deficits known to be present in a subset of ALS patients might act as an additional in vivo clinical marker of disease spread. N = 139 patients with ALS were tested with the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS screen (ECAS) in addition to DTI brain measures of pathological spread...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mohammadreza Soltaninejad, Guang Yang, Tryphon Lambrou, Nigel Allinson, Timothy L Jones, Thomas R Barrick, Franklyn A Howe, Xujiong Ye
BACKGROUND: Accurate segmentation of brain tumour in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a difficult task due to various tumour types. Using information and features from multimodal MRI including structural MRI and isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components derived from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may result in a more accurate analysis of brain images. METHODS: We propose a novel 3D supervoxel based learning method for segmentation of tumour in multimodal MRI brain images (conventional MRI and DTI)...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla
The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), Profusion imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with tractography and connectomics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration-deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were negative following head trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kenichiro Harada, Toshikazu Ikuta, Mami Nakashima, Toshio Watanuki, Masako Hirotsu, Toshio Matsubara, Hirotaka Yamagata, Yoshifumi Watanabe, Koji Matsuo
Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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