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Ironman triathlon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135637/triathlon-injuries-transitioning-from-prevalence-to-prediction-and-prevention
#1
Carolyn M Kienstra, Tristen R Asken, Jennifer D Garcia, Vanessa Lara, Thomas M Best
The Ironman triathlon began in Hawaii in 1978 with 50 participants. Since then, the race has continued to grow in popularity. Injuries are very common among triathletes. Studies have looked at the relationship between injuries and many different factors. Sex, age, and morphological characteristics, such as height, weight, and body mass index, have not been shown to correlate with injury. The association between training volume and injury has shown inconsistent results. This could be due to multiple factors in study design including definitions and evaluation of training volume...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050040/maximal-fat-oxidation-is-related-to-performance-in-an-ironman-triathlon
#2
Jacob Frandsen, Stine Dahl Vest, Steen Larsen, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) measured during a progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer and ultra-endurance performance. 61 male ironman athletes (age: 35±1 yrs. [23-47 yrs.], with a BMI of 23.6±0.3 kg/m(2) [20.0-30.1 kg/m(2)], a body fat percentage of 16.7±0.7% [8.4-30.7%] and a VO2peak of 58.7±0.7 ml/min/kg [43.9-72.5 ml/min/kg] SEM [Range]) were tested in the laboratory between 25 and 4 days prior to the ultra-endurance event, 2016 Ironman Copenhagen...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026523/medical-support-during-an-ironman-70-3-triathlon-race
#3
Hae-Rang Yang, Jinwoo Jeong, Injoo Kim, Ji Eun Kim
BACKGROUND: The Ironman 70.3 race is also called a half Ironman, and consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90.1 km of cycling, and 21.1 km of running. The authors provide practical insights that may be useful for medical support in future events by summarizing the process and results of on-scene medical care. METHODS: The medical post was established at the transition area between the cycling and running courses, which was close to the finish line, and staffed with the headquarters team comprised of an emergency physician, an EMT, two nurses, and an ambulance with a driver...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904979/the-russians-are-the-fastest-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing-the-engadin-ski-marathon
#4
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Jan Heller, Beat Knechtle
It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the "Engadin Ski Marathon." All athletes (n = 197,125) who finished the "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were considered...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#5
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in events such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609447/blood-biomarkers-in-male-and-female-participants-after-an-ironman-distance-triathlon
#6
Tom Danielsson, Jörg Carlsson, Hendrik Schreyer, Jonas Ahnesjö, Lasse Ten Siethoff, Thony Ragnarsson, Åsa Tugetam, Patrick Bergman
BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552834/high-impact-sport-after-hip-resurfacing-the-ironman-triathlon
#7
J Girard, A Lons, T Pommepuy, R Isida, K Benad, S Putman
BACKGROUND: Returning to high-impact sport is an increasingly frequent functional demand following hip replacement. The literature, however, is sparse on the subject and nonexistent regarding triathlon. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of hip resurfacing in triathlon players, to determine: (1) whether it is possible to return to this kind of sport; (2) if so, whether it is possible to return to the same level; and (3) how a resurfaced hip behaves under these conditions. HYPOTHESIS: Hip resurfacing allows return to competition level in long-distance triathlon...
May 25, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498220/patient-presentations-and-medical-logistics-at-full-and-half-ironman-distance-triathlons
#8
Sheila A Turris, Adam Lund, Ron R Bowles, Michael Camporese, Tom Green
We describe logistical challenges, illness/injury rates, as well as medical and ambulance transfer rates (ATR) at an annual large-scale half/full triathlon in a remote location. Prospective observational study; registry data. Data on patient presentation rates, percentage of patients transferred by ambulance, transfer to hospital rates (TTHR), ATR, and medical usage rates were collected and analyzed. In total, 1923 athletes participated in the 2016 triathlon (1404 in the full-length race and 519 in the half) and 181 patient encounters were documented...
May 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350714/multiple-transportable-carbohydrate-effect-on-long-distance-triathlon-performance
#9
David S Rowlands, Stuart D Houltham
The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose-fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance relative to glucose alone. However, during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230417/aging-and-half-ironman-performance
#10
M J Stones, Adric Hartin
Background/Study Context: Previous research on triathlon performance analyzed age trends for the Top Ten or Top Five finishers in world championship or national races at Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. The findings indicated higher age declines and/or earlier onset of decline in swimming and running than cycling. However, the designs of those studies took no account of possible differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal trends (i.e., cohort differences versus age changes). METHODS: This study analyzed performance times over the inaugural 5 years of the Half-Ironman world championship held in Clearwater, Florida, from 2006 to 2010...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225523/the-age-related-performance-decline-in-ironman-triathlon-starts-earlier-in-swimming-than-in-cycling-and-running
#11
Ilja Käch, Christoph A Rüst, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203462/adherence-to-follow-up-recommendations-by-triathlon-competitors-receiving-event-medical-care
#12
Jeremy D Joslin, Jarem B Lloyd, Nikoli Copeli, Derek R Cooney
Introduction. We sought to investigate triathlete adherence to recommendations for follow-up for participants who received event medical care. Methods. Participants of the 2011 Ironman Syracuse 70.3 (Syracuse, NY) who sought evaluation and care at the designated finish line medical tent were contacted by telephone approximately 3 months after the initial encounter to measure adherence with the recommendation to seek follow-up care after event. Results. Out of 750 race participants, 35 (4.6%) athletes received event medical care...
2017: Emergency Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817192/positive-pacing-in-elite-ironman-triathletes
#13
Nicole Angehrn, Christoph A. Rüst, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Pacing is known to influence athletic performance. For the Ironman triathlon program, a positive pacing strategy, i.e., the continuous decrease of speed over time was recommended. By analyzing split times, we assessed the pacing strategies of the top 100 finishers of the cycling part of 13 Ironman races and of the running part of 11 Ironman races taking place in 2014. Furthermore, sex-associated differences in performance and pacing strategies were calculated. We analyzed 7,687 cycling and 11,894 running split times of 1,392 triathletes (1,263 men, 129 women)...
December 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642618/infodemiological-data-of-ironman-triathlon-in-the-study-period-2004-2013
#14
Sofiane Mnadla, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mehdi Rouissi, Anis Chaalali, Anna Siri, Johnny Padulo, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Francesco Brigo, Karim Chamari, Beat Knechtle
This article reports data concerning the Internet-related activities and interest for Ironman Triathlon competition. Google Trends (GT) was used and mined from 2004 onwards. The interest for Ironman Triathlon was found to be cyclic over time. The Triathlon-related Internet activities negatively correlated with the number of finishers per year (Pearson׳s correlation r=-0.690, p-value<0.05), while an increasing participation of female athletes who were less likely to surf the Internet could be noticed (r=-0...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604138/performance-and-sex-differences-in-isklar-norseman-xtreme-triathlon
#15
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207600/left-ventricular-function-and-physiological-performance-in-female-ironman-athletes-and-female-police-officers
#16
Roman Leischik, Peter Foshag, Markus Strauss, Norman Spelsberg
Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography...
June 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176786/many-non-elite-multisport-endurance-athletes-do-not-meet-sports-nutrition-recommendations-for-carbohydrates
#17
Geneviève Masson, Benoît Lamarche
Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139796/blood-markers-of-recovery-from-ironman-distance-races-in-an-elite-triathlete
#18
Iñigo Mujika, Felipe Pereira DA Silveira, Kazunori Nosaka
To understand the recovery of a top triathlete from Ironman distance triathlon races and the timing of training resumption, this study followed an elite male triathlete for 4 years and examined blood parameters after 6 Ironman triathlon races, in which he finished either first (3 races) or second (3 races), with finishing times of 8:00:21 to 8:49:38 (hours:minutes:seconds). The blood was taken either 5, 6 or 8 days after each triathlon race without any training sessions or recovery interventions after the race until the blood sampling...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134213/a-case-report-of-a-completely-displaced-stress-fracture-of-the-femoral-shaft-in-a-middle-aged-male-athlete-a-precursor-of-things-to-come
#19
Peter Larsen, Rasmus Elsoe, Michael S Rathleff
BACKGROUND: Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture...
May 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025688/massage-therapy-decreases-pain-and-perceived-fatigue-after-long-distance-ironman-triathlon-a-randomised-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Guilherme S Nunes, Paula Urio Bender, Fábio Sprada de Menezes, Igor Yamashitafuji, Valentine Zimermann Vargas, Bruna Wageck
QUESTION: Can massage therapy reduce pain and perceived fatigue in the quadriceps of athletes after a long-distance triathlon race (Ironman)? DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-four triathlon athletes who completed an entire Ironman triathlon race and whose main complaint was pain in the anterior portion of the thigh. INTERVENTION: The experimental group received massage to the quadriceps, which was aimed at recovery after competition, and the control group rested in sitting...
April 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
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