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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637708/hypohydration-impairs-endurance-performance-a-blinded-study
#1
Lewis J James, Jodie Moss, Joshua Henry, Charikleia Papadopoulou, Stephen A Mears
The general scientific consensus is that starting exercise with hypohydration >2% body mass impairs endurance performance/capacity, but most previous studies might be confounded by a lack of subject blinding. This study examined the effect of hypohydration in a single blind manner using combined oral and intragastric rehydration to manipulate hydration status. After familiarization, seven active males (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 2 years, height 1.79 ± 0.07, body mass 78.6 ± 6.2, VO2peak 48 ± 7 mL·kg·min(-1)) completed two randomized trials at 34°C...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629704/relationship-between-8-year-weight-change-body-size-and-health-in%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-large-cohort-of-adults-in-thailand
#2
Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Wimalin Rimpeekool, Keren Papier, Cathy Banwell, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian C Sleigh
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have been shown to be risk factors for a range of non-communicable diseases, especially cardio-metabolic conditions, worldwide. But less is known about the effects of weight change on adults' overall health and wellbeing, particularly in transitional low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the relationship between 8-year weight change and measures of self-assessed health among Thai adults. METHODS: Data were collected from Thai adults aged 25-40 years (n = 27,003) enrolled in the Thai cohort Study and surveyed in 2005, 2009, and 2013...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608186/incidence-of-glaucomatous-visual-field-loss-after-two-decades-of-follow-up-the-rotterdam-study
#4
Henriët Springelkamp, Roger C Wolfs, Wishal D Ramdas, Albert Hofman, Johannes R Vingerling, Caroline C Klaver, Nomdo M Jansonius
To determine the incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) two decades after the start of the Rotterdam Study, and to compare known risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) between different clinical manifestations of OAG. Of 6806 participants aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study, 3939 underwent visual field testing at baseline and at least one follow-up round. The ophthalmic examinations included optic disc assessment and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and height and weight...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605314/the-validity-and-reliability-of-knee-proprioception-measurement-performed-with-inclinometer-in-different-positions
#5
Sinem Suner-Keklik, Gamze Cobanoglu-Seven, Nihan Kafa, Mustafa Ugurlu, Nevin Atalay Guzel
CONTEXT: Proprioception is the basic element of the spontaneous control of movement, balance and joint stability. Therefore, it is necessary for the execution of walking and daily and sport activities. Loss of proprioception of the knee, which may cause a new injury, is important to evaluate the position sense of the joint during the rehabilitation period. However, the evaluation methods that are used are very expensive, complicated and non-portable, or the measuring method is difficult to implement...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598454/prevalence-of-malnutrition-in-a-rural-residential-sanskrit-school-in-baglung-nepal
#6
B Amatya, N Shrestha
INTRODUCTION: Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. METHODS: Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596284/prognostic-biopsy-of-choroidal-melanoma-an-optimised-surgical-and-laboratory-approach
#7
Martina Angi, Helen Kalirai, Azzam Taktak, Rumana Hussain, Carl Groenewald, Bertil E Damato, Heinrich Heimann, Sarah E Coupland
BACKGROUND: Accurate survival prognostication for patients with uveal melanoma (UM) enables effective patient counselling and permits personalised systemic surveillance for the early detection of metastases and, in high-risk patients, enrolment in any trials of systemic adjuvant therapy. The aim of this work is to determine the success of prognostic UM tumour biopsy using an improved surgical approach and optimised sample handling workflow. METHODS: Patients with UM treated by primary radiotherapy between 2011 and 2013 and who underwent a prognostic biopsy with cytology, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and/or microsatellite analysis were included...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589417/bone-loss-with-antiepileptic-drug-therapy-a-twin-and-sibling-study
#8
B Shiek Ahmad, S J Petty, A Gorelik, T J O'Brien, K D Hill, J J Christie, P N Sambrook, J D Wark
Changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and other predictors of bone loss were evaluated in 48 same-sex twin/age-matched sibling pairs discordant for antiepileptic drug (AED) use. AED users had reduced BMD at the hip regions. Prolonged AED users had greater aBMD loss, predicting a higher risk of bone fragility. INTRODUCTION: To investigate the longitudinal associations of bone mineral measures with antiepileptic drug (AED) use, including enzyme-inducing (EIAED) and non-enzyme-inducing (NEIAED) types, and other predictors of bone loss in a study of 48 same-sex twin/age-matched sibling pairs (40 female, 8 male) discordant for AED use...
June 6, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572890/association-of-coffee-consumption-with-sarcopenia-in-korean-elderly-men-analysis-using-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2011
#9
Hyewon Chung, Ji Hyun Moon, Ju Il Kim, Mi Hee Kong, Jung Sik Huh, Hyeon Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Coffee has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to be inversely related to the mechanism of sarcopenia. While there have been some studies on the effect of coffee on sarcopenia in animals, studies on the topic in humans are rare. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in elderly Korean men. METHODS: The cross-sectional data were derived from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571219/bi-pedicle-fixation-of-affected-vertebra-in-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#10
Pravin Padalkar, Varshil Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Burst fractures of the spine account for 14% of all spinal injuries and more than 50% of all thoracolumbar trauma. However, there is ambiguity while choosing the right treatment plan. Short Segment Pedicle screw Fixation (SSPF) has become an increasingly popular method of treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, providing the advantage of incorporating fewer motion segments in the fixation. Various biomechanical studies showed that the use of pedicle screws could achieve stable construct within short-segment fixation...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561274/statistical-shape-modelling-of-hip-and-lumbar-spine-morphology-and-their-relationship-in-the-mrc-national-survey-of-health-and-development
#11
Anastasia V Pavlova, Fiona R Saunders, Stella G Muthuri, Jennifer S Gregory, Rebecca J Barr, Kathryn R Martin, Rebecca J Hardy, Rachel Cooper, Judith E Adams, Diana Kuh, Richard M Aspden
The anatomical shape of bones and joints is important for their proper function but quantifying this, and detecting pathological variations, is difficult to do. Numerical descriptions would also enable correlations between joint shapes to be explored. Statistical shape modelling (SSM) is a method of image analysis employing pattern recognition statistics to describe and quantify such shapes from images; it uses principal components analysis to generate modes of variation describing each image in terms of a set of numerical scores after removing global size variation...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560796/postoperative-evaluation-of-reduction-loss-in-proximal-humeral-fractures-a-comparison-of-plain-radiographs-and-computed-tomography
#12
Xiao-Yang Jia, Yan-Xi Chen, Min-Fei Qiang, Kun Zhang, Hao-Bo Li, Yu-Chen Jiang, Yi-Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative CT images with plain radiographs for measuring prognostic factors of reduction loss of fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. METHODS: A total of 65 patients who sustained fractures of the proximal humerus treated with locking plates from June 2012 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 24 men and 41 women, with a mean age of 60.0 years (range, 22-76 years). According to the Neer classification system of proximal humeral fracture, there were 26 two-part, 27 three-part and 12 four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus, and all fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using locked plating...
May 30, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560474/vertebral-fracture-in-postmenopausal-chinese-women-a-population-based-study
#13
L Cui, L Chen, W Xia, Y Jiang, L Cui, W Huang, W Wang, X Wang, Y Pei, X Zheng, Q Wang, Z Ning, M Li, O Wang, X Xing, Q Lin, W Yu, X Weng, L Xu, S R Cummings
In a random sample of postmenopausal Chinese women, the prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures increased from 13% between ages 50 and 59 to over 50% after age 80 years. A model with seven clinical risk factors predicted the probability of vertebral fractures as well with as without BMD and better than a model with only three risk factors. More than half an hour of outdoor activity per day might correlate with lower risk of vertebral fracture in this population. INTRODUCTION: We aimed to describe the prevalence and develop a model for prediction of radiographic vertebral fractures in a large random sample of postmenopausal Chinese women...
May 30, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557859/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-genotype-influences-power-output-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Eli F Kelley, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ADRB2 genotypes on muscle function (absolute power and relative power) in healthy subjects. We performed genotyping of the ADRB2 (amino acid 16) and high-intensity, steady-state exercise on 77 healthy subjects (AA = 18, AG = 25, GG = 34). There were no differences between genotype groups in age, height, weight, or BMI (age = 28.9 ± 5.7yrs, 27.9 ± 5.7yrs, 29.2 ± 5.9yrs, height = 170.7 ± 8.6cm, 174.9 ± 8.7cm, 173.4 ± 9.6cm, weight = 68.5 ± 13.0kg, 75...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555705/role-of-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-on-muscle-mass-and-performance-changes-in-elderly-men-and-women
#15
A P Rossi, S Budui, E Zoico, C Caliari, G Mazzali, F Fantin, M D'Urbano, R Paganelli, M Zamboni
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the presence of a correlation between systemic inflammatory profile of community-dwelling individuals and the loss of muscular mass and performance in old age over a 4.5y follow-up, focusing on the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in muscular changes in elderly. DESIGN: Longitudinal clinical study. SETTING: Subjects were randomly selected from lists of 11 general practitioners in the city of Verona, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 120 subjects, 92 women and 28 men aged 72...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553985/peridental-bone-changes-after-orthodontic-tooth-movement-with-fixed-appliances-a-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-study
#16
Fabian Jäger, James K Mah, Axel Bumann
OBJECTIVE: To quantify treatment-related changes in peridental bone height and thickness in orthodontic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) of 43 patients (24 female, 19 male; mean age: 25 years, 5 months) who underwent orthodontic treatment with multibracket appliances for at least 1 year were chosen for retrospective evaluation. Dehiscence depth and changes in bone width and tooth inclination were determined for 954 teeth. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in peridental bone height (dehiscence; -0...
May 29, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#17
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542658/-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-patients-under-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis
#18
Paula Lehmann F, Francisco Cano Sc
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the most common renal replacement therapy used in pediatric patients with end stage renal disease. This population has a mortality rate 1,000 times greater compare to pediatric population, mainly due to cardiovascular causes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize pediatric patients on chronic PD in relation to dialysis and cardiovascular outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross sectional study. Patients in stable PD according to DOQI criteria were selected...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539050/functional-capacities-of-polish-adults-of-60-87-years-and-risk-of-losing-functional-independence
#19
Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławinska, Anna Skrzek, Krystyna Rożek, Sławomir Kozieł, Pawel Posłuszny, Robert M Malina
AIM: To characterise the functional capacities of Polish men and women aged 60-87 years and evaluate their status relative to criteria for functional independence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-one women and 125 men, aged 60-87 years, who were residents of Wrocław, southwestern Poland, were recruited. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. The Fullerton Functional Fitness Test was administered to test upper and lower body strength, upper and lower body flexibility, agility-dynamic balance and aerobic endurance...
May 24, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535093/the-effects-of-crushed-ice-ingestion-prior-to-steady-state-exercise-in-the-heat
#20
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E Wallman, Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion before steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23 ± 3 y), height (176.9 ± 8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5 ± 8.0 kg), VO2peak (48.5 ± 3.6 mL∙kg∙min(-1)) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their VO2peak preceded by 30 min of precooling whereby 7 g∙kg(-1) of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of precooling was greater in ICE (-0...
June 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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