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Infectious psychiatric

Nathan S Bertelsen, Elizabeth Selden, Polina Krass, Eva S Keatley, Allen Keller
Effective screening in primary care among asylum-seekers in the US is critical as this population grows. This study aimed to evaluate disease prevalence and screening methods in this high-risk group. Two hundred ten new clients from 51 countries, plus Tibet, who were accepted into a program for asylum seekers from 2012 to 2014 were included. Screening rates and outcomes for infectious, non-communicable, and mental illnesses were evaluated. Screening rates were highest for PTSD, depression, hepatitis B, and latent tuberculosis...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Atsurou Yamada, Nobuhiro Miyachi, Toshiyasu Miura, Masako Suzuki, Norio Watanabe, Tatsuo Akechi
INTRODUCTION: Post-infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy is a neurological syndrome that sometimes develops following common viral or bacterial infections. The most common form is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalitis. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is another type of severe autoimmune disorder, characterized by seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric symptoms...
2016: SpringerPlus
Zachary D Zuschlag, Callie J Lalich, Edward B Short, Mark Hamner, David A Kahn
The concept that fevers can improve the condition of patients with certain medical and psychiatric diseases dates back to Hippocrates. Over the centuries, it has been observed that fevers and infectious agents have been beneficial for a broad spectrum of diseases, including neurologic conditions such as epilepsy and psychiatric illnesses including melancholy and psychosis. Interest in the concept of fever as a treatment for disease, termed pyrotherapy or pyretotherapy, peaked in the late 1800s and early 1900s thanks to the Nobel Prize winning work of Julius Wagner-Jauregg for his studies with malaria therapy for general paralysis of the insane, now more commonly referred to as neurosyphilis...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Gen-Min Lin, Yi-Hwei Li, Chung-Jen Lee, Jeng-Chuan Shiang, Ko-Huan Lin, Kai-Wen Chen, Yu-Jung Chen, Ching-Fen Wu, Been-Sheng Lin, Yun-Shun Yu, Felicia Lin, Fung-Ying Su, Chih-Hung Wang
AIM: To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in a cohort of large voluntary arm forces in Taiwan. METHODS: The cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) is a retrospective cohort consisting of more than 4000 professional military members aged 18-50 years in Eastern Taiwan. All participants received history taking, physical examination, chest radiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests for cell counts and fasting glucose, lipid profiles, uric acid, renal function and liver function in the Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital during 2014...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Héctor Meijide, Álvaro Mena, Iria Rodríguez-Osorio, Sonia Pértega, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Guillermo Rodríguez-Martínez, José Pedreira, Eva Poveda
BACKGROUND: New patterns in epidemiological characteristics of people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) have changed the profile of hospital admissions in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions, re-admissions, and mortality rates in HIV patients and to analyze the role of HCV co-infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study conducted on all hospital admissions of HIV patients between 1993 and 2013...
September 5, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Oliver Ambrée, Irene Klassen, Irmgard Förster, Volker Arolt, Stefanie Scheu, Judith Alferink
Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Koichi Inoue, Eisuke Sakuma, Hiroyuki Morimoto, Hayato Asai, Yoshinori Koide, Tiandong Leng, Ikuo Wada, Zhi-Gang Xiong, Takatoshi Ueki
Microglia are derived from myelogenous cells and contribute to immunological and inflammatory responses in central nervous system. They play important roles not only in infectious diseases and inflammation after stroke, but also in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. While recent studies suggest the significances of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGKs) in other immune cells such as macrophages, T cells and dendritic cells, their role in microglia remains unknown. Here we, for the first time, report that SGK1 and SGK3 are expressed in multiple microglial cell lines...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nidhi Kaeley, Sunil Bansal, Rohan Bhatia, Sohaib Ahmad
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Lauren K Whiteside, Rosemarie Fernandez, Justin Bammer, Graham Nichol
INTRODUCTION: Emerging infectious diseases often create concern and fear among the public. Ebola virus disease (EVD) and enterovirus (EV-68) are uncommon viral illnesses compared to influenza. The objective of this study was to determine risk for these viral diseases and then determine how public perception of influenza severity and risk of infection relate to more publicized but less common emerging infectious diseases such as EVD and EV-68 among a sample of adults seeking care at an emergency department (ED) in the United States...
July 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
N Gotland, M L Uhre, N Mejer, R Skov, A Petersen, A R Larsen, T Benfield
OBJECTIVES: Data describing long-term mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is scarce. This study investigated risk factors, causes of death and temporal trends in long-term mortality associated with SAB. METHODS: Nationwide population-based matched cohort study. Mortality rates and ratios for 25,855 cases and 258,547 controls were analyzed by Poisson regression. Hazard ratio of death was computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis...
October 2016: Journal of Infection
Carlos Roncero, Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Jesús Pérez-Pazos, Nieves Martinez-Luna, Miguel Casas, Marta Torrens, Lara Grau-López
Opioid-dependent patients show a high rate of psychiatric comorbidities. The prevalence and characteristics of patients with dual diagnosis have not been well established in Spanish opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programmes. Thus, 621 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in OAT programmes were assessed, using the EuropASI questionnaire, for psychiatric comorbidities, which were detected in 67% of patients (anxiety 53%, mood disorders 48%, sleep disorders 41%, substance-related disorders 36%). In addition, compared with patients without a dual diagnosis, patients with dual pathology were significantly older, used benzodiazepines and cannabis in significantly greater percentages, and showed significantly more frequent infectious and non-infectious comorbidities, worse overall working status, a lower proportion of drivers and higher levels of severity regarding medical, employment, alcohol, legal, family and psychological issues...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Catherine R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, F Markus Leweke, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case-control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Ashley J Dittmar, Allison A Drozda, Ira J Blader
The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of <5 µM. A significant number of these compounds are established inhibitors of dopamine or estrogen signaling...
March 2016: MSphere
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Julie Bruneau, Didier Jutras-Aswad
After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other "high-income countries...
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Sebastian Meyer, Ingeborg Warnke, Wulf Rössler, Leonhard Held
Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Anne Batisse, Hélène Peyrière, Céline Eiden, Marie-Anne Courné, Samira Djezzar
The "SLAM" phenomenon is an increasingly popular practice, in Paris and London gay scene, defined by 3 characteristics: injection, sexual party and psychostimulant drugs. The French Medical Agency requested a risk assessment of "SLAM" and more broadly of the use of psychostimulants in a sexual context, by the analysis of complications related to this practice notified to the French Network of Addictovigilance Centers. All cases of complications related to "SLAM" practice, including cases of abuse or dependence, and somatic and psychiatric complications, were analysed...
April 26, 2016: Thérapie
Martin Müller, Karsten Klingberg, David Srivastava, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: Large-scale war-related migration to Switzerland and other European countries is currently challenging European health systems. Little is known about recent patterns and trends in Emergency Department (ED) consultations by Asylum Seekers (AS). METHODS: A retrospective single-centre analysis was performed of the data from all adult patients with the official status of "Asylum Seeker" or "Refugee" who consulted the ED of Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, between June 2012 and June 2015...
2016: PloS One
N Malek, E J Newman
Chorea, cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disturbance occur in varying combinations in Huntington's disease (HD). This is often easy to recognise particularly in the presence of an autosomal dominant history. Whilst HD may be the most common aetiology of such a presentation, several HD phenocopies should be considered if genetic testing for HD is negative. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database from January 1, 1946 up to January 1, 2016, combining the search terms: 'chorea', 'Huntington's disease', 'HDL' and 'phenocopies'...
May 6, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Robert S Rahimi, Don C Rockey
BACKGROUND: Head computed tomography (CT) scans are ordered in patients with cirrhosis along with altered mental status (AMS) during admission, often, despite lack of evidence of any structural abnormality. Thus, we aimed to examine the use of head CT scans in patients with cirrhosis along with AMS and to correlate scan abnormalities with causes of AMS and physical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We defined AMS as having impaired cognition, diminished attention, reduced awareness or altered level of consciousness or all of these, and categorized AMS into the following groups: hepatic encephalopathy (HE), sepsis or infectious, metabolic, exogenous drugs or toxins, structural lesions or psychiatric abnormalities...
May 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Lara Grau-López, Constanza Daigre, Laia Grau-López, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Ángel Egido, Miquel Casas, Carlos Roncero
INTRODUCTION: A bidirectional relation between substance use and insomnia has been described, although there are few studies examining insomnia in the population of people with addiction. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of insomnia during active substance use in patients with addiction and its associated clinical features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Descriptive study in patients diagnosed with substance dependence disorder admitted to a Hospital Detoxification Unit...
March 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
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