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Microbiome psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698624/integrative-therapies-in-anxiety-treatment-with-special-emphasis-on-the-gut-microbiome
#1
Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319972/microbes-immunity-and-behavior-psychoneuroimmunology-meets-the-microbiome
#2
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121424/the-microbiome-and-mental-health-looking-back-moving-forward-with-lessons-from-allergic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Alan C Logan, Felice N Jacka, Jeffrey M Craig, Susan L Prescott
Relationships between gastrointestinal viscera and human emotions have been documented by virtually all medical traditions known to date. The focus on this relationship has waxed and waned through the centuries, with noted surges in interest driven by cultural forces. Here we explore some of this history and the emerging trends in experimental and clinical research. In particular, we pay specific attention to how the hygiene hypothesis and emerging research on traditional dietary patterns has helped re-ignite interest in the use of microbes to support mental health...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104961/precision-medicine-for-psychopharmacology-a-general-introduction
#4
Cheolmin Shin, Changsu Han, Chi-Un Pae, Ashwin A Patkar
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine is an emerging medical model that can provide accurate diagnoses and tailored therapeutic strategies for patients based on data pertaining to genes, microbiomes, environment, family history and lifestyle. AREAS COVERED: Here, we provide basic information about precision medicine and newly introduced concepts, such as the precision medicine ecosystem and big data processing, and omics technologies including pharmacogenomics, pharamacometabolomics, pharmacoproteomics, pharmacoepigenomics, connectomics and exposomics...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090305/from-gut-dysbiosis-to-altered-brain-function-and-mental-illness-mechanisms-and-pathways
#5
G B Rogers, D J Keating, R L Young, M-L Wong, J Licinio, S Wesselingh
The human body hosts an enormous abundance and diversity of microbes, which perform a range of essential and beneficial functions. Our appreciation of the importance of these microbial communities to many aspects of human physiology has grown dramatically in recent years. We know, for example, that animals raised in a germ-free environment exhibit substantially altered immune and metabolic function, while the disruption of commensal microbiota in humans is associated with the development of a growing number of diseases...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090302/inflammasome-signaling-affects-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behavior-and-gut-microbiome-composition
#6
M-L Wong, A Inserra, M D Lewis, C A Mastronardi, L Leong, J Choo, S Kentish, P Xie, M Morrison, S L Wesselingh, G B Rogers, J Licinio
The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067014/gut-microbiome-remodeling-induces-depressive-like-behaviors-through-a-pathway-mediated-by-the-host-s-metabolism
#7
P Zheng, B Zeng, C Zhou, M Liu, Z Fang, X Xu, L Zeng, J Chen, S Fan, X Du, X Zhang, D Yang, Y Yang, H Meng, W Li, N D Melgiri, J Licinio, H Wei, P Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. According to the World Health Organization, MDD is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the definitive environmental mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MDD remain elusive. The gut microbiome is an increasingly recognized environmental factor that can shape the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We show here that the absence of gut microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice resulted in decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test relative to conventionally raised healthy control mice...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005587/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-challenges-for-translation-in-psychiatry
#8
REVIEW
John R Kelly, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
PURPOSE: The accruing data linking the gut microbiome to the development and function of the central nervous system has been proposed as a paradigm shift in neuroscience. The gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways comprising the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Dysfunctional neuroimmune pathways are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Using depression as our primary example, we review both the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the possible role played by the gut microbiota in stress-related psychiatric disorders...
May 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645377/personalized-medicine-beyond-genomics-alternative-futures-in-big-data-proteomics-environtome-and-the-social-proteome
#9
Vural Özdemir, Edward S Dove, Ulvi K Gürsoy, Semra Şardaş, Arif Yıldırım, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, I Ömer Barlas, Kıvanç Güngör, Alper Mete, Sanjeeva Srivastava
No field in science and medicine today remains untouched by Big Data, and psychiatry is no exception. Proteomics is a Big Data technology and a next generation biomarker, supporting novel system diagnostics and therapeutics in psychiatry. Proteomics technology is, in fact, much older than genomics and dates to the 1970s, well before the launch of the international Human Genome Project. While the genome has long been framed as the master or "elite" executive molecule in cell biology, the proteome by contrast is humble...
December 8, 2015: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25415497/the-gut-microbiome-and-diet-in-psychiatry-focus-on-depression
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Dash, Gerard Clarke, Michael Berk, Felice N Jacka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With depressive disorders the leading source of disability globally, the identification of new targets for prevention and management is imperative. A rapidly emerging field of research suggests that the microbiome-gut-brain axis is of substantial relevance to mood and behaviour. Similarly, unhealthy diet has recently emerged as a significant correlate of and risk factor for depression. This review provides evidence for the gut microbiota as a key factor mediating the link between diet and depressive illness...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24422720/fermented-foods-microbiota-and-mental-health-ancient-practice-meets-nutritional-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Eva M Selhub, Alan C Logan, Alison C Bested
The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear that there are untold connections between our resident microbes and many aspects of physiology...
2014: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23497650/intestinal-microbiota-probiotics-and-mental-health-from-metchnikoff-to-modern-advances-part-iii-convergence-toward-clinical-trials
#12
Alison C Bested, Alan C Logan, Eva M Selhub
Rapid scientific and technological advances have allowed for a more detailed understanding of the relevance of intestinal microbiota, and the entire body-wide microbiome, to human health and well-being. Rodent studies have provided suggestive evidence that probiotics (e.g. lactobacillus and bifidobacteria) can influence behavior. More importantly, emerging clinical studies indicate that the administration of beneficial microbes, via supplementation and/or fecal microbial transplant (FMT), can influence end-points related to mood state (glycemic control, oxidative status, uremic toxins), brain function (functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI), and mental outlook (depression, anxiety)...
2013: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23139216/psychoactive-bacteria-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-jb-1-elicits-rapid-frequency-facilitation-in-vagal-afferents
#13
Azucena Perez-Burgos, Bingxian Wang, Yu-Kang Mao, Bhavik Mistry, Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, John Bienenstock, Wolfgang Kunze
Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain...
January 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21485746/the-mind-body-microbial-continuum
#14
Antonio Gonzalez, Jesse Stombaugh, Catherine Lozupone, Peter J Turnbaugh, Jeffrey I Gordon, Rob Knight
Our understanding of the vast collection of microbes that live on and inside us (microbiota) and their collective genes (microbiome) has been revolutionized by culture-independent "metagenomic" techniques and DNA sequencing technologies. Most of our microbes live in our gut, where they function as a metabolic organ and provide attributes not encoded in our human genome. Metagenomic studies are revealing shared and distinctive features of microbial communities inhabiting different humans. A central question in psychiatry is the relative role of genes and environment in shaping behavior...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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