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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323483/taphonomy-of-microbial-biosignatures-in-spring-deposits-a-comparison-of-modern-quaternary-and-jurassic-examples
#1
Sally L Potter-McIntyre, Jason Williams, Charity Phillips-Lander, Laura O'Connell
On Earth, microorganisms commonly enhance mineral precipitation and mediate mineralogical and chemical compositions of resulting deposits, particularly at spring systems. However, preservation of any type of microbial fossil or chemical or textural biosignature depends on the degree of alteration during diagenesis and factors such as exposure to diagenetic fluids. Little is known about the transformation of biosignatures during diagenesis over geologic time. Ten Mile Graben, Utah, USA, hosts a cold spring system that is an exceptional site for evaluation of diagenetic alteration of biosignatures because of the presence of modern springs with actively precipitating microbial mats and a series of progressively older tufa terraces (<400 ka) preserved in the area from the same spring system...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323446/leguminosae-native-nodulating-bacteria-from-a-gold-mine-as-contaminated-soil-multi-resistance-to-trace-elements-and-possible-role-in-plant-growth-and-mineral-nutrition
#2
Wesley de M Rangel, Silvia M de Oliveira Longatti, Paulo A A Ferreira, Daiane S Bonaldi, Amanda A Guimarães, Sofie Thijs, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld, Fatima M S Moreira
Efficient N2-fixing Leguminosae nodulating bacteria resistant to As may facilitate plant growth on As-contaminated sites. In order to identify bacteria possessing these features, 24 strains were isolated from nodules of the trap species Crotalaria spectabilis (12) and Stizolobium aterrimum (12) growing on an As-contaminated gold mine site. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that most of the strains belonged to the group of α-Proteobacteria, being representatives of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Inquilinus, Labrys, Bosea, Starkeya and Methylobacterium...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321994/detection-and-imaging-of-chrome-yellow-lead-chromate-in-latent-prints-solid-residues-and-minerals-by-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-ldi-ms
#3
Zhaoyu Zheng, Julius Pavlov, Athula B Attygalle
In the past, Chrome Yellow (lead chromate, PbCrO4 ), a bright orange-red substance, has been widely used as an inorganic pigment in the production of paints, coatings, and plastics. Herein, we demonstrate that laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is a powerful tool for the detection of lead chromate in solid residues. In fact, lead chromate in trace amounts is easily detectable by LDI-MS even from residues left as latent prints. For example, a latent print obtained by stamping the exposed laterally cut surface of a pencil over 50 years old on an acetonitrile-moistened paper, was successfully imaged for both lead and chromate using a Synapt G2 HDMS mass spectrometer...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321633/dietary-intake-of-minerals-vitamins-and-trace-elements-among-geriatric-population-in-india
#4
Aakriti Gupta, Preetika Khenduja, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Hem Chandra Sati, Nighat Yaseen Sofi, Umesh Kapil
The geriatric population is at a high risk of developing deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements and their related deficiency signs and symptoms. Scarce data is available on the dietary intake of essential micronutrients among geriatric subjects in India. Hence, to fill the gap in the existing knowledge, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital, Uttarakhand State, India. A total of 255 geriatric subjects were enrolled from 30 clusters (villages) identified by using population proportionate to size sampling methodology...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#5
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281133/assessing-the-efficacy-over-time-of-the-addition-of-industrial-by-products-to-remediate-contaminated-soils-at-a-pilot-plant-scale
#6
Raquel González-Núñez, Anna Rigol, Miquel Vidal
The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278122/cadmium-lead-mercury-and-arsenic-in-animal-feed-and-feed-materials-trend-analysis-of-monitoring-results
#7
Paulien Adamse, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx, Jacob de Jong
This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated...
March 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277234/biomarkers-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-influence-of-minerals-oligo-and-trace-elements
#8
REVIEW
Harry Robberecht, Tess De Bruyne, Nina Hermans
Influences of minerals, oligo- and trace elements on the concentration of biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are reviewed. Since food is a complex mixture of caloric compounds and essential non-caloric food components with multiple interactions and varying bioavailability, it is hard to separate or identify the effect of one single component in a total meal or diet. Moreover the diet contains various non-nutritive biologically active components, which may add some beneficial characteristics. Therefore, conclusions on the effect of components on various biomarkers of MetS are sometimes quite contradictory...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277082/specific-accumulation-of-cadmium-and-other-trace-elements-in-sarcodon-imbricatus-using-icp-ms-with-a-chemometric-approach
#9
Małgorzata Mędyk, Maria Chudzińska, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Fungi can effectively accumulate various metallic elements, metalloids and non-metals in fruiting bodies. This study provides information on the accumulation of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Tl, U and Zn in the edible mushroom Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst. using the technique of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry with a dynamic reaction cell mode. Mushrooms were foraged from four regions in Poland. Baseline concentrations of minerals, expressed in mg kg(-1) dry biomass (db), were in the composite samples of caps in the range: for Ag (0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274194/the-combined-effects-of-nanotopography-and-sr-ion-for-enhanced-osteogenic-activity-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs
#10
Dandan Hu, Kai Li, Youtao Xie, Houhua Pan, Jun Zhao, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Both surface topography and chemistry have a significant influence on the biological performance of orthopedic implant coatings. In our study, a surface modification strategy embodying bioactive trace element incorporation and nanotopography construction was employed to enhance the osteogenic activity of calcium silicate (Ca-Si) coatings. We developed strontium-loaded nanolayer on plasma sprayed Ca-Si (CS) coating via hydrothermal treatment which was denoted as Sr-NT-CS. The original CS coating and the CS coating modified with similar nanotopography (NT-CS) were studied in parallel...
March 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273529/heavy-metals-in-human-teeth-dentine-a-bio-indicator-of-metals-exposure-and-environmental-pollution
#11
Khandoker Asaduzzaman, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Nurul Atiqah Binti Baharudin, Yusoff Bin Mohd Amin, Mohideen Salihu Farook, D A Bradley, Okba Mahmoud
With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc...
February 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265834/characteristics-and-quality-of-reservoir-sediments-mujib-dam-central-jordan-as-a-case-study
#12
Nazem El-Radaideh, Ahmed A Al-Taani, Wesam M Al Khateeb
This paper focuses on characterizing the current status of physiochemical properties of Mujib Dam sediments. Five types of granulometric textural facies were observed for the bottom sediments of Mujib reservoir bed; these are clayey facies, clayey-silt facies, sand-silt-clay facies, sand facies, and granule facies. This average grain size will likely play a vital role in adsorption-desorption of the majority trace metals to the reservoir lake. Other sediment parameters including the total averages were 5.9% (total organic matter (TOM)), 7...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261445/evaluating-the-consequences-of-salmon-nutrients-for-riparian-organisms-linking-condition-metrics-to-stable-isotopes
#13
Carmella Vizza, Beth L Sanderson, Holly J Coe, Dominic T Chaloner
Stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) have been used extensively to trace nutrients from Pacific salmon, but salmon transfer more than carbon and nitrogen to stream ecosystems, such as phosphorus, minerals, proteins, and lipids. To examine the importance of these nutrients, metrics other than isotopes need to be considered, particularly when so few studies have made direct links between these nutrients and how they affect riparian organisms. Our study specifically examined δ(13)C and δ(15)N of riparian organisms from salmon and non-salmon streams in Idaho, USA, at different distances from the streams, and examined whether the quality of riparian plants and the body condition of invertebrates varied with access to these nutrients...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257043/minerals-and-trace-elements-intakes-and-food-consumption-patterns-of-young-children-living-in-rural-areas-of-tibet-autonomous-region-p-r-china-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Michael Dermience, Françoise Mathieu, Xiao Wei Li, Stefanie Vandevijvere, William Claus, Viviane De Maertelaer, Ghislaine Dufourny, Li Bin, Dechen Yangzom, Georges Lognay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism...
March 1, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255820/a-powerful-tool-for-assessing-distribution-and-fate-of-potentially-toxic-metals-ptms-in-soils-integration-of-laser-ablation-spectrometry-la-icp-ms-on-thin-sections-with-soil-micromorphology-and-geochemistry
#15
Fabio Scarciglia, Donatella Barca
The dynamic behavior and inherent spatial heterogeneity, at different hierarchic levels, of the soil system often make the spatial distribution of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) quite complex and difficult to assess correctly. This work demonstrates that the application of laser ablation spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to soil thin sections constitutes an ancillary powerful tool to well-established analytical methods for tracing the behavior and fate of potential soil contaminants at the microsite level. It allowed to discriminate the contribution of PTMs in distinct soil sub-components, such as parent rock fragments, neoformed, clay-enriched or humified matrix, and specific pedogenetic features of illuvial origin (unstained or iron-stained clay coatings) even at very low contents...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251530/effects-of-prepartum-sustained-release-trace-elements-ruminal-bolus-on-performance-colustrum-composition-and-blood-metabolites-in-najdi-ewes
#16
Mutassim M Abdelrahman, Riyadh S Aljumaah, Rifat Ullah Khan
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the supplementation of slow release bolus of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), phosphorous (P), manganese (Mn), and iodine (I) at late gestation (60 day prepartum) on performance of Najdi ewes and their newborn. Twenty Najdi ewes at late gestation were randomly selected from a herd raised under an intensive system and equally divided into two groups (control and treated). Blood samples were collected from ewes and newborns at parturition...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248489/so2-initiates-the-efficient-conversion-of-no2-to-hono-on-mgo-surface
#17
Qingxin Ma, Tao Wang, Chang Liu, Hong He, Zhe Wang, Weihao Wang, Yutong Liang
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl radical (OH) that determines the fate of many chemically active and climate relevant trace gases. However, the sources and the formation mechanisms of HONO remain poorly understood. In this study, the effect of SO2 on the heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on MgO as a mineral dust surrogate was investigated. The reactivity of MgO to NO2 is weak, while coexisting SO2 can increase the uptake coefficients of NO2 on MgO by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The uptake coefficients of NO2 on SO2-aged MgO are independent of NO2 concentrations in the range of 20-160 ppbv and relative humidity (0-70%RH)...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246632/seeing-is-believing-visualization-of-he-distribution-in-zircon-and-implications-for-thermal-history-reconstruction-on-single-crystals
#18
Martin Danišík, Brent I A McInnes, Christopher L Kirkland, Brad J McDonald, Noreen J Evans, Thomas Becker
Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is an established radiometric dating technique used to place temporal constraints on a range of thermally sensitive geological events, such as crustal exhumation, volcanism, meteorite impact, and ore genesis. Isotopic, crystallographic, and/or mineralogical heterogeneities within analyzed grains can result in dispersed or anomalous (U-Th)/He ages. Understanding the effect of these grain-scale phenomena on the distribution of He in analyzed minerals should lead to improvements in data interpretation...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239202/increased-zinc-accumulation-in-mineralized-osteosarcoma-tissue-measured-by-confocal-synchrotron-radiation-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-analysis
#19
Mirjam Rauwolf, Bernhard Pemmer, Andreas Roschger, Anna Turyanskaya, Stephan Smolek, Angelika Maderitsch, Peter Hischenhuber, Martin Foelser, Rolf Simon, Susanna Lang, Stephan E Puchner, Reinhard Windhager, Klaus Klaushofer, Peter Wobrauschek, Jochen G Hofstaetter, Paul Roschger, Christina Streli
Abnormal tissue levels of certain trace elements such as zinc (Zn) were reported in various types of cancer. Little is known about the role of Zn in osteosarcoma. Using confocal synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of Zn in high-grade sclerosing osteosarcoma of nine patients (four women/five men; seven knee/one humerus/one femur) following chemotherapy and wide surgical resection. Levels were compared with adjacent normal tissue. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging as well as histological examinations was also performed...
January 2017: X-Ray Spectrometry: XRS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237598/characterization-of-major-and-trace-minerals-fatty-acid-composition-and-cholesterol-content-of-protected-designation-of-origin-cheeses
#20
C L Manuelian, S Currò, M Penasa, M Cassandro, M De Marchi
Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, <35% moisture; semi-hard, 35-45%; and soft, >45%)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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