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Hyori Kim, Sung Hee Hong, Jung Yong Kim, In-Chull Kim, Young-Whan Park, Song-Jae Lee, Seong-Won Song, Jung Ju Kim, Gunwoo Park, Tae Min Kim, Yun-Hee Kim, Jong Bae Park, Junho Chung, In-Hoo Kim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, cMET, play critical roles in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion in a wide variety of cancers. We therefore examined the anti-tumor activity of the humanized monoclonal anti-HGF antibody, YYB-101, in nude mice bearing human glioblastoma xenografts as a single agent or in combination with temozolomide. HGF neutralization, The extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and HGF-induced scattering were assessed in HGF-expressing cell lines treated with YYB-101...
March 24, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Min Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yunsong Liu, Longwei Lv, Xiao Zhang, Hao Liu, Yongsheng Zhou
The four R-spondins (RSPOs) and their three related receptors, LGR4, 5 and 6, have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival. However, the exact roles of the RSPO-LGR system in osteogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that RSPO3-shRNA increased the osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) significantly. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RSPO3 is a negative regulator of ERK/FGF signalling. We confirmed that inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway blocked osteogenic differentiation in hASCs, and the increased osteogenic capacity observed after RSPO3 knockdown in hASCs was reversed by inhibition of ERK signalling...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriele Picco, Consalvo Petti, Alessia Centonze, Erica Torchiaro, Giovanni Crisafulli, Luca Novara, Andrea Acquaviva, Alberto Bardelli, Enzo Medico
In colorectal cancer (CRC), WNT pathway activation by genetic rearrangements of RSPO3 is emerging as a promising target. However, its low prevalence severely limits availability of preclinical models for in-depth characterization. Using a pipeline designed to suppress stroma-derived signal, we find that RSPO3 "outlier" expression in CRC samples highlights translocation and fusion transcript expression. Outlier search in 151 CRC cell lines identified VACO6 and SNU1411 cells as carriers of, respectively, a canonical PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2) fusion and a novel PTPRK(e13)-RSPO3(e2) fusion...
March 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Min Zheng, Zhouying Liu, Nana Liu, Cuihong Hou, Jielin Pu, Shu Zhang
Aims. The molecular mechanisms of Chinese traditional medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) were unknown. This study was aimed at exploring the effects of WXKL on the gene expression profile and pathological alteration of rabbits with myocardial infarction. Methods. Twenty male adult rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, model, WXKL, and captopril groups. Model, WXKL, and captopril groups underwent the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery while sham group went through an identical procedure without ligation...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Evelyze Pinheiro Dos Reis, Débora Martins Paixão, Otávio José Bernardes Brustolini, Fabyano Fonseca E Silva, Walmir Silva, Flávio Marcos Gomes de Araújo, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Guilherme Oliveira, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães
This study used qRT-PCR to examine variation in the expression of 13 myogenes during muscle development in four prenatal periods (21, 40, 70 and 90 days post-insemination) in commercial (the three-way Duroc, Landrace and Large-White cross) and local Piau pig breeds that differ in muscle mass. There was no variation in the expression of the CHD8, EID2B, HIF1AN, IKBKB, RSPO3, SOX7 and SUFU genes at the various prenatal ages or between breeds. The MAP2K1 and RBM24 genes showed similar expression between commercial and Piau pigs but greater expression (p < 0...
October 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Hanseol Kim, Jihye Ryu, Chaeyoung Lee
A genome-wide association study was conducted to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for human telomerase.We tested the genetic associations of nucleotide variants with expression of the genes encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase RNA components (TERC) in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 373 Europeans.Our results revealed 6 eQTLs associated with hTERT (P < 5 × 10). One eQTL (rs17755753) was located in the intron 1 of the gene encoding R-spondin-3 (RSPO3), a well-known Wnt signaling regulator...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
John Hilkens, Nikki C Timmer, Mandy Boer, Gerjon J Ikink, Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Martijn A J Koppens, Ji-Ying Song, Elvira R M Bakker
OBJECTIVE: The gross majority of colorectal cancer cases results from aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signalling through adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or CTNNB1 mutations. However, a subset of human colon tumours harbour, mutually exclusive with APC and CTNNB1 mutations, gene fusions in RSPO2 or RSPO3, leading to enhanced expression of these R-spondin genes. This suggested that RSPO activation can substitute for the most common mutations as an alternative driver for intestinal cancer. Involvement of RSPO3 in tumour growth was recently shown in RSPO3-fusion-positive xenograft models...
August 10, 2016: Gut
Huai-Xiang Hao, Xiaomo Jiang, Feng Cong
Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is frequently found in various cancers, often through mutations of downstream components. Inhibiting β-catenin signaling in tumors with downstream pathway mutations remains challenging, due to a lack of favorable targets. On the other hand, targeting upstream components of the Wnt pathway is rather straightforward. However, it is difficult to identify tumors addicted to autocrine or paracrine Wnt signaling. Discovery of the R-spondin-ZNRF3/RNF43 signaling module and its genetic alterations in cancers represents a breakthrough in this area...
June 8, 2016: Cancers
Chiung-Fang Chang, Li-Sung Hsu, Chieh-Yu Weng, Chih-Kai Chen, Shu-Ying Wang, Yi-Hwa Chou, Yan-Yu Liu, Zi-Xiu Yuan, Wen-Ying Huang, Ho Lin, Yau-Hung Chen, Jen-Ning Tsai
R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) plays an essential role in stem cell biology by potentiating Wnt signaling activity. Despite the fact that Rspo1 holds therapeutic potential for a number of diseases, its biogenesis is not fully elucidated. All Rspo proteins feature two amino-terminal furin-like repeats, which are responsible for Wnt signal potentiation, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TSR1) domain that can provide affinity towards heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Using chemical inhibitors, deglycosylase and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that human Rspo1 and Rspo3 are both N-glycosylated at N137, a site near the C-terminus of the furin repeat 2 domain, and Rspo2 is N-glycosylated at N160, a position near the N-terminus of TSR1 domain...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Valerie Vidal, Sonia Sacco, Ana Sofia Rocha, Fabio da Silva, Clara Panzolini, Typhanie Dumontet, Thi Mai Phuong Doan, Jingdong Shan, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska, Tom Bird, Seppo Vainio, Antoine Martinez, Andreas Schedl
Adrenal glands are zonated endocrine organs that are essential in controlling body homeostasis. How zonation is induced and maintained and how renewal of the adrenal cortex is ensured remain a mystery. Here we show that capsular RSPO3 signals to the underlying steroidogenic compartment to induce β-catenin signaling and imprint glomerulosa cell fate. Deletion of RSPO3 leads to loss of SHH signaling and impaired organ growth. Importantly, Rspo3 function remains essential in adult life to ensure replenishment of lost cells and maintain the properties of the zona glomerulosa...
June 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Eugene Kang, Mitra Yousefi, Samantha Gruenheid
The R-spondin family of proteins has recently been described as secreted enhancers of β-catenin activation through the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major determinant of susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-mediated colitis in mice and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed RSPO3 as a candidate Crohn's disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene in humans. However, there is little information on the endogenous expression and cellular source of R-spondins in the colon at steady state and during intestinal inflammation...
2016: PloS One
Shigeki Sekine, Satoshi Yamashita, Taro Tanabe, Taiki Hashimoto, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Motohiro Kojima, Kazuya Shinmura, Yutaka Saito, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Toshikazu Ushijima, Atsushi Ochiai
The molecular mechanisms underlying the serrated pathway of colorectal tumourigenesis, particularly those related to traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), are still poorly understood. In this study, we analysed genetic alterations in 188 colorectal polyps, including hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), TSAs, tubular adenomas, and tubulovillous adenomas by using targeted next-generation sequencing and reverse transcription-PCR. Our analyses showed that most TSAs (71%) contained genetic alterations in WNT pathway components...
June 2016: Journal of Pathology
Beate Scholz, Claudia Korn, Jessica Wojtarowicz, Carolin Mogler, Iris Augustin, Michael Boutros, Christof Niehrs, Hellmut G Augustin
The WNT signaling enhancer R-spondin3 (RSPO3) is prominently expressed in the vasculature. Correspondingly, embryonic lethality of Rspo3-deficient mice is caused by vessel remodeling defects. Yet the mechanisms underlying vascular RSPO3 function remain elusive. Inducible endothelial Rspo3 deletion (Rspo3-iECKO) resulted in perturbed developmental and tumor vascular remodeling. Endothelial cell apoptosis and vascular pruning led to reduced microvessel density in Rspo3-iECKO mice. Rspo3-iECKO mice strikingly phenocopied the non-canonical WNT signaling-induced vascular defects of mice deleted for the WNT secretion factor Evi/Wls...
January 11, 2016: Developmental Cell
Elaine E Storm, Steffen Durinck, Felipe de Sousa e Melo, Jarrod Tremayne, Noelyn Kljavin, Christine Tan, Xiaofen Ye, Cecilia Chiu, Thinh Pham, Jo-Anne Hongo, Travis Bainbridge, Ron Firestein, Elizabeth Blackwood, Ciara Metcalfe, Eric W Stawiski, Robert L Yauch, Yan Wu, Frederic J de Sauvage
Colorectal cancer remains a major unmet medical need, prompting large-scale genomics efforts in the field to identify molecular drivers for which targeted therapies might be developed. We previously reported the identification of recurrent translocations in R-spondin genes present in a subset of colorectal tumours. Here we show that targeting RSPO3 in PTPRK-RSPO3-fusion-positive human tumour xenografts inhibits tumour growth and promotes differentiation. Notably, genes expressed in the stem-cell compartment of the intestine were among those most sensitive to anti-RSPO3 treatment...
January 7, 2016: Nature
Jonathan D Boone, Rebecca C Arend, Bobbi E Johnston, Sara J Cooper, Scott A Gilchrist, Denise K Oelschlager, William E Grizzle, Gerald McGwin, Abhishek Gangrade, J Michael Straughn, Donald J Buchsbaum
Preclinical studies in ovarian cancer have demonstrated upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway promoting tumor proliferation and chemoresistance. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor, WNT974, in primary ovarian cancer ascites cells. Ascites cells from patients with papillary serous ovarian cancer were isolated and treated with 1 μM WNT974±100 μM carboplatin. Viability was evaluated with the ATPlite assay. The IC50 was calculated using a dose-response analysis...
February 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ana Sofia Rocha, Valerie Vidal, Marjolijn Mertz, Timothy J Kendall, Aurelie Charlet, Hitoshi Okamoto, Andreas Schedl
Liver zonation, the spatial separation of different metabolic pathways along the liver sinusoids, is fundamental for proper functioning of this organ, and its disruption can lead to the development of metabolic disorders such as hyperammonemia. Metabolic zonation involves the induction of β-catenin signaling around the central veins, but how this patterned activity is established and maintained is unclear. Here, we show that the signaling molecule Rspondin3 is specifically expressed within the endothelial compartment of the central vein...
December 1, 2015: Cell Reports
B Madan, Z Ke, N Harmston, S Y Ho, A O Frois, J Alam, D A Jeyaraj, V Pendharkar, K Ghosh, I H Virshup, V Manoharan, E H Q Ong, K Sangthongpitag, J Hill, E Petretto, T H Keller, M A Lee, A Matter, D M Virshup
Enhanced sensitivity to Wnts is an emerging hallmark of a subset of cancers, defined in part by mutations regulating the abundance of their receptors. Whether these mutations identify a clinical opportunity is an important question. Inhibition of Wnt secretion by blocking an essential post-translational modification, palmitoleation, provides a useful therapeutic intervention. We developed a novel potent, orally available PORCN inhibitor, ETC-1922159 (henceforth called ETC-159) that blocks the secretion and activity of all Wnts...
April 28, 2016: Oncogene
Momoko Horikoshi, Reedik Mӓgi, Martijn van de Bunt, Ida Surakka, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Anubha Mahajan, Letizia Marullo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Sara Hӓgg, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Claes Ladenvall, Janina S Ried, Thomas W Winkler, Sara M Willems, Natalia Pervjakova, Tõnu Esko, Marian Beekman, Christopher P Nelson, Christina Willenborg, Steven Wiltshire, Teresa Ferreira, Juan Fernandez, Kyle J Gaulton, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Anders Hamsten, Patrik K E Magnusson, Gonneke Willemsen, Yuri Milaneschi, Neil R Robertson, Christopher J Groves, Amanda J Bennett, Terho Lehtimӓki, Jorma S Viikari, Johan Rung, Valeriya Lyssenko, Markus Perola, Iris M Heid, Christian Herder, Harald Grallert, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Michael Roden, Elina Hypponen, Aaron Isaacs, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Lennart C Karssen, Evelin Mihailov, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Anton J M de Craen, Joris Deelen, Aki S Havulinna, Matthew Blades, Christian Hengstenberg, Jeanette Erdmann, Heribert Schunkert, Jaakko Kaprio, Martin D Tobin, Nilesh J Samani, Lars Lind, Veikko Salomaa, Cecilia M Lindgren, P Eline Slagboom, Andres Metspalu, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johan G Eriksson, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Antti Jula, Leif Groop, Olli T Raitakari, Chris Power, Brenda W J H Penninx, Eco de Geus, Johannes H Smit, Dorret I Boomsma, Nancy L Pedersen, Erik Ingelsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Samuli Ripatti, Inga Prokopenko, Mark I McCarthy, Andrew P Morris
Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry...
July 2015: PLoS Genetics
Lalarukh Haris Shaikh, Junhua Zhou, Ada E D Teo, Sumedha Garg, Sudeshna Guha Neogi, Nichola Figg, Giles S Yeo, Haixiang Yu, Janet J Maguire, Wanfeng Zhao, Martin R Bennett, Elena A B Azizan, Anthony P Davenport, Grahame McKenzie, Morris J Brown
CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthesis and cellularity in the human adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) is sparse and patchy, presumably due to salt excess. The frequency of somatic mutations causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) may be a consequence of protection from cell loss by constitutive aldosterone production. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to delineate a process in human ZG, which may regulate both aldosterone production and cell turnover. DESIGN: This study included a comparison of 20 pairs of ZG and zona fasciculata transcriptomes from adrenals adjacent to an APA (n = 13) or a pheochromocytoma (n = 7)...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Babita Madan, David M Virshup
Wnt signaling is dysregulated in many cancers and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. The focus of drug development has recently shifted away from downstream inhibitors of β-catenin. Active inhibitors of Wnt secretion and Wnt/receptor interactions have been developed that are now entering clinical trials. Such agents include inhibitors of Wnt secretion, as well as recombinant proteins that minimize Wnt-Frizzled interactions. These new therapies arrive together with the recent insight that cancer-specific upregulation of Wnt receptors at the cell surface regulates cellular sensitivity to Wnts...
May 2015: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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