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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147661/an-eeg-tool-for-monitoring-patient-engagement-during-stroke-rehabilitation-a-feasibility-study
#1
Gadi Bartur, Katherin Joubran, Sara Peleg-Shani, Jean-Jacques Vatine, Goded Shahaf
Objective: Patient engagement is of major significance in neural rehabilitation. We developed a real-time EEG marker for attention, the Brain Engagement Index (BEI). In this work we investigate the relation between the BEI and temporary functional change during a rehabilitation session. Methods: First part: 13 unimpaired controls underwent BEI monitoring during motor exercise of varying levels of difficulty. Second part: 18 subacute stroke patients underwent standard motor rehabilitation with and without use of real-time BEI feedback regarding their level of engagement...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147585/acute-exercise-and-neurocognitive-development-in-preadolescents-and-young-adults-an-erp-study
#2
Chien-Heng Chu, Arthur F Kramer, Tai-Fen Song, Chih-Han Wu, Tsung-Min Hung, Yu-Kai Chang
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of exercise on neurocognitive function in preadolescent children and young adults by determining the modulatory role of age and the neuroelectrical mechanism(s) underlying the association between acute exercise and executive function. Twenty preadolescents and 20 young adults completed the Stroop test, and neuroelectrical activity was recorded during two treatment sessions performed in a counterbalanced order. Exercise treatments involved moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 20 min as the main exercise and two 5 min periods of warm-up and cool-down...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143590/exercise-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-effects-on-function-and-the-brain
#4
Ulrik Dalgas
Exercise therapy is a promising nonpharmacological therapy in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although exercise training may induce a transient worsening of symptoms in some MS patients, it is generally considered safe and does not increase the risk of relapses. Exercise training can lead to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#5
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#6
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135714/ritanserin-a-serotonin-2-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-infarction
#7
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#8
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#9
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-fmri-responses
#10
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham or physical exercise and photostimulation...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129676/exercise-enhances-cognitive-function-and-neurotrophin-expression-in-the-hippocampus-accompanied-by-changes-in-epigenetic-programming-in-senescence-accelerated-mice
#12
Hiroshi Maejima, Naohiko Kanemura, Takanori Kokubun, Kenji Murata, Kiyomi Takayanagi
Aerobic exercise is known to increase expression of neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the hippocampus and to improve cognitive function. Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus by inducing epigenetic changes, which play crucial roles in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, the activity levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and modulate gene transcription. The objective of the present study was to assess the interactive effects of exercise and aging on cognitive function, expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and neurotrophin-4) and their receptors (tyrosine receptor kinase B and p75), and epigenetic regulations, including the activity of HATs and HADCs in the hippocampus...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128320/exercise-decreases-bace-and-app-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Karim A Alkadhi, An T Dao
We investigated the effect of treadmill exercise training on the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein molecules in the DG and CA1 areas of a rat model of AD, i.c.v. infusion of Aβ1-42 peptide, 2weeks (250pmol/day). Aβ infusion markedly increased protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the secretase beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) and Aβ in the CA1 and DG areas. The results also revealed that 4weeks of treadmill exercise prevented the increase in the levels of APP, BACE-1 and Aβ proteins in both hippocampal areas...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127518/identifying-molecular-mediators-of-environmentally-enhanced-neurogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Brian E Eisinger, Xinyu Zhao
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life and supports healthy brain functions. The production of new neurons decreases with age, and deficiencies in adult neurogenesis are associated with neurodevelopmental and degenerative disease. The rate of neurogenesis is dynamically sensitive to an individual's environmental conditions and experiences, and certain stimuli are known robustly to enhance neurogenesis in rodent models, including voluntary exercise, enriched environment, and electroconvulsive shock...
November 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127316/exercise-induced-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-mirnas-in-gulf-war-illness-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-sedentary-control-subjects
#15
James N Baraniuk, Narayan Shivapurkar
Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) have similar profiles of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and exertional exhaustion. Post-exertional malaise suggests exercise alters central nervous system functions. Lumbar punctures were performed in GWI, CFS and control subjects after (i) overnight rest (nonexercise) or (ii) submaximal bicycle exercise. Exercise induced postural tachycardia in one third of GWI subjects (Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia, START). The remainder were Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception (STOPP) subjects...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127193/maintained-exercise-enhanced-brain-executive-function-related-to-cerebral-lactate-metabolism-in-men
#16
Takeshi Hashimoto, Hayato Tsukamoto, Saki Takenaka, Niels D Olesen, Lonnie G Petersen, Henrik Sørensen, Henning B Nielsen, Niels H Secher, Shigehiko Ogoh
High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake. Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v difflactate), glucose (diffglucose), oxygen (diffoxygen), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; diffBDNF)...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126338/effect-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#17
Toshiaki Miyamoto, Keihou Kou, Hideya Yanamoto, Saya Hashimoto, Mai Ikawa, Takashi Sekiyama, Yoshiki Nakano, Shin-Ichiro Kashiwamura, Chisako Takeda, Hiroyuki Fujioka
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been considered an essential mediator responsible for the beneficial effects of physical activity in preventing cognitive impairment. This study aimed at examining the effects of a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on levels of BDNF in the plasma and on cognitive performance in healthy adult men. Thirteen healthy adult men participated in three experimental sessions. The first session was 30 min of NMES to both legs, the second was 30 min of cycling exercise at the intensity of 60% peak oxygen uptake, and the third was 30 min of complete rest...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125056/monosodium-glutamate-and-treadmill-exercise-anxiety-like-behavior-and-spreading-depression-features-in-young-adult-rats
#18
Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Catarina Nicácio Dos Santos, Nahara Oliveira Lima da Silva, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior...
November 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124115/study-protocol-of-the-intense-physical-activity-and-cognition-study-the-effect-of-high-intensity-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#19
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon M Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer
Introduction: Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122145/exercise-effects-on-depression-possible-neural-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Swathi Gujral, Howard Aizenstein, Charles F Reynolds, Meryl A Butters, Kirk I Erickson
Depression is a syndrome of stress- and emotion-dysregulation, involving compromised structural integrity of frontal-limbic networks. Meta-analytic evidence indicates that volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala, as well as compromised white matter integrity are frequently observed in depressed adults. Exercise has shown promise as an effective treatment for depression, but few studies have attempted to characterize or identify the neural mechanisms of these effects...
November 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
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