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Paul D M Pettit, Jason R Thompson, Anita H Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first sacral nerve stimulators implanted by Tanagho and Schmidt (1981) were performed for the indications of urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and nonobstructive urinary retention. Since that time, observations have been made for benefits beyond voiding disorders. These additional benefits have included re-establishment of pelvic floor muscle awareness, resolution of pelvic floor muscle tension and pain, decrease in vestibulitis and vulvadynia, decrease in bladder pain (interstitial cystitis), and normalization of bowel function...
October 2002: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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