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Stuart K Gardiner, Steven L Mansberger
Purpose: We have previously shown that sensitivities obtained at severely damaged visual field locations (<15-19 dB) are unreliable and highly variable. This study evaluates a testing algorithm that does not present very high contrast stimuli in damaged locations above approximately 1000% contrast, but instead concentrates on more precise estimation at remaining locations. Methods: A trained ophthalmic technician tested 36 eyes of 36 participants twice with each of two different testing algorithms: ZEST0, which allowed sensitivities within the range 0 to 35 dB, and ZEST15, which allowed sensitivities between 15 and 35 dB but was otherwise identical...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jarrod D Frizzell, Li Liang, Phillip J Schulte, Clyde W Yancy, Paul A Heidenreich, Adrian F Hernandez, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg C Fonarow, Warren K Laskey
Importance: Several attempts have been made at developing models to predict 30-day readmissions in patients with heart failure, but none have sufficient discriminatory capacity for clinical use. Machine-learning (ML) algorithms represent a novel approach and may have potential advantages over traditional statistical modeling. Objective: To develop models using a ML approach to predict all-cause readmissions 30 days after discharge from a heart failure hospitalization and to compare ML model performance with models developed using "conventional" statistically based methods...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
W Abel Wright, Jack M Gorman, Melissa Odorzynski, Mark J Peterson, Carol Clayton
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Cannada Andrew Lewis, Justus Aaron Calvin, Edward F Valeev
We describe the Clustered Low Rank (CLR) framework for block-sparse and block-low-rank tensor representation and computation. The CLR framework exploits the tensor structure revealed by basis clustering; computational savings arise from low-rank compression of tensor blocks and performing block arithmetic in the low-rank form whenever beneficial. The precision is rigorously controlled by 2 parameters, avoiding ad-hoc heuristics, such as domains: one controls the CLR block rank truncation and the other controls screening of small contributions in arithmetic operations on CLR tensors to propagate sparsity through expressions...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
David Urdidiales-Nieto, Ismael Navas-Delgado, José F Aldana-Montes
Web services play a key role in bioinformatics enabling the integration of database access and analysis of algorithms. However, Web service repositories do not usually publish information on the changes made to their registered Web services. Dynamism is directly related to the changes in the repositories (services registered or unregistered) and at service level (annotation changes). Thus, users, software clients or workflow based approaches lack enough relevant information to decide when they should review or re-execute a Web service or workflow to get updated or improved results...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Informatics
Daniel Summer Gareau, Joel Correa da Rosa, Sarah Yagerman, John A Carucci, Nicholas Gulati, Ferran Hueto, Jennifer L DeFazio, Mayte Suárez-Farinas, Ashfaq Marghoob, James G Krueger
We developed an automated approach for generating quantitative image analysis metrics (imaging biomarkers) that are then analyzed with a set of thirteen machine-learning algorithms to generate an overall risk score that is called a Q-score. These methods were applied to a set of 120 "difficult" dermoscopy images of dysplastic nevi and melanomas that were subsequently excised/classified. This approach yielded 98% sensitivity and 36% specificity for melanoma detection, approaching sensitivity/specificity of expert lesion evaluation...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jin Xu, Zhao-Xia Xu, Ping Lu, Rui Guo, Hai-Xia Yan, Wen-Jie Xu, Yi-Qin Wang, Chun-Ming Xia
OBJECTIVE: To develop an effective Chinese Medicine (CM) diagnostic model of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to confifirm the scientifific validity of CM theoretical basis from an algorithmic viewpoint. METHODS: Four types of objective diagnostic data were collected from 835 CHD patients by using a self-developed CM inquiry scale for the diagnosis of heart problems, a tongue diagnosis instrument, a ZBOX-I pulse digital collection instrument, and the sound of an attending acquisition system...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Pravech Ajawatanawong
Molecular phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using molecular sequence data. The aim of this review is to introduce the important terminology and general concepts of tree reconstruction to biologists who lack a strong background in the field of molecular evolution. Some modern phylogenetic programs are easy to use because of their user-friendly interfaces, but understanding the phylogenetic algorithms and substitution models, which are based on advanced statistics, is still important for the analysis and interpretation without a guide...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Mingshun Jiang, Yaozhang Sai, Xiangyi Geng, Qingmei Sui, Xiaohui Liu, Lei Jia
We proposed and studied an impact detection system based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm to determine the location and the number of low velocity impacts on a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate. A FBG linear array, consisting of seven FBG sensors, was used for detecting the ultrasonic signals from impacts. The edge-filter method was employed for signal demodulation. Shannon wavelet transform was used to extract narrow band signals from the impacts...
October 24, 2016: Sensors
Joseph A Ricci, Kayva Crawford, Olivia A Ho, Bernard T Lee, Ketan M Patel, Matthew L Iorio
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism encompasses a spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis to fatal pulmonary embolism. As microsurgical techniques increase in complexity, the overriding benefit from a microsurgical versus a venous thromboembolism prophylactic regimen remains unclear. This study evaluated the current recommendations and procedure-specific strategies for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with a focus on the utility of prophylaxis in microsurgical procedures...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Anita T Mohan, Lin Zhu, Zhen Wang, Aparna Vijayasekaran, Michel Saint-Cyr
BACKGROUND: Perforator selection is critical to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest. Commitment to a single perforator has the potential benefit of a simpler dissection, but may increase fat necrosis or perfusion-related complications compared with multiple perforator harvest. METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study was carried out of all patients who underwent DIEP flap breast reconstruction performed by the senior author (M.S.-C). Data were collected on patient demographics and surgical outcomes...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Benjamin Puccio, James P Pooley, John S Pellman, Elise C Taverna, R Cameron Craddock
BACKGROUND: Skull-stripping is the procedure of removing non-brain tissue from anatomical MRI data. This procedure can be useful for calculating brain volume and for improving the quality of other image processing steps. Developing new skull-stripping algorithms and evaluating their performance requires gold standard data from a variety of different scanners and acquisition methods. We complement existing repositories with manually corrected brain masks for 125 T1-weighted anatomical scans from the Nathan Kline Institute Enhanced Rockland Sample Neurofeedback Study...
October 25, 2016: GigaScience
Andrew F Auld, Tefera Agizew, Sherri Pals, Alyssa Finlay, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Rosanna Boyd, Heather Alexander, Anikie Mathoma, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Gwebe-Nyirenda, James Shepherd, Tedd V Ellerbrock, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". METHODS: The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Antonella Fogliata, Francesca Lobefalo, Giacomo Reggiori, Antonella Stravato, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
PURPOSE: Small field measurements are challenging, due to the physical characteristics coming from the lack of charged particle equilibrium, the partial occlusion of the finite radiation source, and to the detector response. These characteristics can be modeled in the dose calculations in the treatment planning systems. Aim of the present work is to evaluate the MU calculation accuracy for small fields, defined by jaw or MLC, for anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB algorithms, relative to output measurements on the beam central axis...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Lior Weizman, Yonina C Eldar, Dafna Ben Bashat
PURPOSE: In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this paper the authors present a framework, referred to as FASTMER, for fast MRI by exploiting a reference image. METHODS: The proposed approach utilizes the possible similarity of the reference image to the acquired image, which exists in many clinical MRI imaging scenarios. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient...
October 2016: Medical Physics
A Neubert, Z Yang, C Engstrom, Y Xia, M W Strudwick, S S Chandra, J Fripp, S Crozier
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Dan Nguyen, David Thomas, Minsong Cao, Daniel O'Connor, James Lamb, Ke Sheng
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target and critical organ tracking. To increase delivery efficiency, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, allowing up to 600 cGy combined dose rate at isocenter. Despite the potential tripling in output, creating a delivery plan that uses all three sources is considerably unintuitive. Here, the authors computerize the triplet orientation optimization using column generation, an approach that was demonstrated effective in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for noncoplanar therapies...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Andrik Rampun, Bernie Tiddeman, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Paul Malcolm
PURPOSE: In this paper the authors propose a texton based prostate computer aided diagnosis approach which bypasses the typical feature extraction process such as filtering and convolution which can be computationally expensive. The study focuses the peripheral zone because 75% of prostate cancers start within this region and the majority of prostate cancers arising within this region are more aggressive than those arising in the transitional zone. METHODS: For the model development, square patches were extracted at random locations from malignant and benign regions...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Jun Dang, Fang-Fang Yin, Tao You, Chunhua Dai, Deyu Chen, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: Current approaches using deformable vector field (DVF) for motion-compensated 4D-cone beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction typically utilize an isotropically smoothed DVF between different respiration phases. Such isotropically smoothed DVF does not work well if sliding motion exists between neighboring organs. This study investigated an anisotropic motion modeling scheme by extracting organ boundary local motions (e.g., sliding) and incorporated them into 4D-CBCT reconstruction to optimize the motion modeling and reconstruction methods...
October 2016: Medical Physics
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