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Protective lung strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107207/dynamic-mechanical-interactions-between-neighboring-airspaces-determine-cyclic-opening-and-closure-in-injured-lung
#1
Ludovic Broche, Gaetano Perchiazzi, Liisa Porra, Angela Tannoia, Mariangela Pellegrini, Savino Derosa, Alessandra Sindaco, João Batista Borges, Loïc Degrugilliers, Anders Larsson, Göran Hedenstierna, Anthony S Wexler, Alberto Bravin, Sylvia Verbanck, Bradford J Smith, Jason H T Bates, Sam Bayat
OBJECTIVES: Positive pressure ventilation exposes the lung to mechanical stresses that can exacerbate injury. The exact mechanism of this pathologic process remains elusive. The goal of this study was to describe recruitment/derecruitment at acinar length scales over short-time frames and test the hypothesis that mechanical interdependence between neighboring lung units determines the spatial and temporal distributions of recruitment/derecruitment, using a computational model. DESIGN: Experimental animal study...
January 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100330/-protective-effects-of-heat-shock-protein-70-against-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-neonatal-rats
#2
Le Wang, Hai-Yan Wu, Ming-Xia Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) against hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) in neonatal rats. METHODS: A total of 128 neonatal rats were randomly divided into blank control group, HPH model group, empty virus group, and HSP70 group, with 32 rats in each group. Before the establishment of an HPH model, the rats in the blank control group and HPH model group were given caudal vein injection of 5 μL sterile saline, those in the empty virus group were given caudal vein injection of 5 μL Ad-GFP (1 010 PFU/mL), and those in the HSP70 group were given caudal vein injection of 5 μL Ad-HSP70 (1 010 PFU/mL)...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079267/estimating-4d-cbct-from-prior-information-and-extremely-limited-angle-projections-using-structural-pca-and-weighted-free-form-deformation-for-lung-radiotherapy
#3
Wendy Harris, You Zhang, Fang-Fang Yin, Lei Ren
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. METHODS: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079260/an-experimentally-validated-couch-and-mlc-tracking-simulator-used-to-investigate-hybrid-couch-mlc-tracking
#4
Jakob Toftegaard, Rune Hansen, Thomas Ravkilde, Kristijan Macek, Per Rugaard Poulsen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Couch and MLC tracking are two novel techniques to mitigate intrafractional tumor motion on a conventional linear accelerator, but both techniques still have residual dosimetric errors. Here, we first propose and experimentally validate a software tool to simulate couch and MLC tracking, and then use the simulator to study hybrid couch-MLC tracking for improved tracking performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tracking simulator requires a treatment plan and a motion trajectory as input and simulates the delivered monitor units and motion of all accelerator parts as function of time...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078769/interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-release-of-interleukin-8-by-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-in-vitro-assessing-mechanisms-and-possible-treatment-options
#5
REVIEW
Hannelore Bellon, Elly Vandermeulen, Carolien Mathyssen, Annelore Sacreas, Stijn E Verleden, Tobias Heigl, Hanne Vriens, Elise Lammertyn, Charles Pilette, Peter Hoet, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Geert M Verleden
BACKGROUND: Survival after lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Persistently elevated BAL-neutrophilia is observed in some patients despite treatment with azithromycin, which may be induced by IL-1α. Our aim is to establish an in vitro model, assess mechanistic pathways and test different therapeutic strategies of IL-1α induced release of IL-8 by human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were stimulated with IL-1α with or without azithromycin or dexamethasone...
January 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073150/the-impact-of-overdiagnosis-on-the-selection-of-efficient-lung-cancer-screening-strategies
#6
Summer S Han, Kevin Ten Haaf, William D Hazelton, Vidit N Munshi, Jihyoun Jeon, Saadet A Erdogan, Colden Johanson, Pamela M McMahon, Rafael Meza, Chung Yin Kong, Eric J Feuer, Harry J de Koning, Sylvia K Plevritis
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently updated their national lung screening guidelines and recommended low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer (LC) screening through age 80. However, the risk of overdiagnosis among older populations is a concern. Using four comparative models from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network, we evaluate the overdiagnosis of the screening program recommended by USPSTF in the U.S. 1950 birth cohort. We estimate the number of LC deaths averted by screening (D) per overdiagnosed case (O), yielding the ratio D/O, to quantify the trade-off between the harms and benefits of LDCT...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063403/lat-alleviates-th2-treg-imbalance-in-an-ova-induced-allergic-asthma-mouse-model-through-lat-plc-%C3%AE-1-interaction
#8
Xi Chen, Xiao-Ming Li, Wen Gu, Di Wang, Yi Chen, Xue-Jun Guo
INTRODUCTION: Low expression of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is observed in asthma. LAT and its downstream regulator, phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) play important roles in the T cell antigen receptor signaling pathway, and their interaction is associated with CD4(+) cell polarization. Here, we investigated whether LAT can alleviate the imbalance among CD4(+) cell subgroups and the possible mechanism. METHODS: An ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma mouse model was established and LAT plasmid was delivered...
January 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062569/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-integrin-attenuates-vascular-permeability-and-protects-against-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Amy McCurley, Stella Alimperti, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, Ruben M Sandoval, Jenna E Calvino, Taylor L Reynolds, Catherine Quigley, Joshua W Mugford, William J Polacheck, Ivan G Gomez, Jennifer Dovey, Graham Marsh, Angela Huang, Fang Qian, Paul H Weinreb, Brian M Dolinski, Shaun Moore, Jeremy S Duffield, Christopher S Chen, Bruce A Molitoris, Shelia M Violette, Michael A Crackower
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of AKI. This common clinical complication lacks effective therapies and can lead to the development of CKD. The αvβ5 integrin may have an important role in acute injury, including septic shock and acute lung injury. To examine its function in AKI, we utilized a specific function-blocking antibody to inhibit αvβ5 in a rat model of renal IRI. Pretreatment with this anti-αvβ5 antibody significantly reduced serum creatinine levels, diminished renal damage detected by histopathologic evaluation, and decreased levels of injury biomarkers...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055301/autophagy-orchestrates-adaptive-responses-to-targeted-therapy-in-endometrial-cancer
#10
Núria Eritja, Bo-Juen Chen, Ruth Rodríguez-Barrueco, Maria Santacana, Sònia Gatius, August Vidal, Maria Dolores Martí, Jordi Ponce, Laura Bergadà, Andree Yeramian, Mario Encinas, Joan Ribera, Jaume Reventós, Jeff Boyd, Alberto Villanueva, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Xavier Dolcet, David Llobet-Navàs
Targeted therapies in endometrial cancer (EC) using kinase inhibitors rarely result in complete tumor remission and are frequently challenged by the appearance of refractory cell clones, eventually resulting in disease relapse. Dissecting adaptive mechanisms is of vital importance to circumvent clinical drug resistance and improve the efficacy of targeted agents in EC. Sorafenib is an FDA-approved multitarget tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal carcinoma and radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinoma...
January 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051154/therapeutic-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-acute-lung-injury-mice
#11
Hua Zhu, Yi Xiong, Yunqiu Xia, Rong Zhang, Daiyin Tian, Ting Wang, Jihong Dai, Lijia Wang, Hongbing Yao, Hong Jiang, Ke Yang, Enmei Liu, Yujun Shi, Zhou Fu, Li Gao, Lin Zou
The incidence and mortality of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are still very high, but stem cells show some promise for its treatment. Here we found that intratracheal administration of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) significantly improved survival and attenuated the lung inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. We also used the proteins-chip and bioinformatics to analyze interactions between UC-MSCs treatment and immune-response alternations of ALI mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043608/new-options-in-tuberculosis-care-visions-for-the-future-are-crucial-for-controlling-the-disease
#12
Malin Ridell
The current strategies for controlling tuberculosis (TB) are not sufficient. Improved prophylactic and diagnostic tools are imperative, being crucial for decreasing TB incidence and mortality and for preventing outbreaks. Furthermore, new and better drugs are badly needed, particularly considering the increase in cases with multidrug-resistant strains. The current TB vaccine-the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-has a preventive impact on disseminated TB in children, but little effect on the most common form of TB, that is, lung TB in adults and young adults...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039960/preventive-strategies-against-cytomegalovirus-and-incidence-of-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infections-in-olid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#13
Cecilia Martin-Gandul, Susanne Stampf, Delphine Héquet, Nicolas J Mueller, Alexia Cusini, Christian van Delden, Nina Khanna, Katia Boggian, Cédric Hirzel, Paola Soccal, Hans H Hirsch, Manuel Pascual, Pascal Meylan, Oriol Manuel
We assessed the impact of antiviral preventive strategies on the incidence of herpes-simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections in a nationwide cohort of transplant recipients. Risk factors for the development of HSV/VZV infection were assessed by Cox PH regression. We included 2781 patients (56% kidney, 20% liver, 10% lung, 7.3% heart, 6.7% others). Overall, 1264 (45%) patients received antiviral prophylaxis [(val)ganciclovir (n=1126) or (val)acyclovir (n=138)]. Incidences for HSV and VZV infections were 28...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039459/a-novel-glutaminase-inhibitor-968-inhibits-the-migration-and-proliferation-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-targeting-egfr-erk-signaling-pathway
#14
Tianyu Han, Meng Guo, Tingting Zhang, Mingxi Gan, Caifeng Xie, Jian-Bin Wang
Metabolic reprogramming is critical for cancer cell proliferation. Glutaminolysis which provides cancer cells with bioenergetics and intermediates for macromolecular synthesis have been intensively studied in recent years. Glutaminase C (GAC) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in glutaminolysis and plays important roles in cancer initiation and progression. We previously screened a small molecule named 968, a specific inhibitor of GAC, to block the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that 968 effectively inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation and migration and arrested G0/G1 phase of cell cycle...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028907/clec-2-promotes-hematogenous-tumor-metastasis-and-prothrombotic-state-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#15
Toshiaki Shirai, Osamu Inoue, Shogo Tamura, Nagaharu Tsukiji, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Hiroshi Endo, Kaneo Satoh, Makoto Osada, Hitomi Sato-Uchida, Hideki Fujii, Yukio Ozaki, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
BACKGROUND: C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is a platelet activation receptor of sialoglycoprotein podoplanin, which is expressed on the surface of certain types of tumor cells. CLEC-2-podoplanin interactions facilitate hematogenous tumor metastasis. However, direct evidence of the role of CLEC-2 in hematogenous metastasis and cancer progression is lacking. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We generated immunological CLEC-2-depleted mice by using anti-mouse CLEC-2 monoclonal antibody 2A2B10 and investigated whether CLEC-2 promoted hematogenous tumor metastasis and tumor growth and exacerbated the prognosis of mice bearing podoplanin-expressing B16F10 melanoma cells...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027590/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-occult-viral-carriers-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-study
#16
Wai-Kay Seto, Thomas Sau-Yan Chan, Yu-Yan Hwang, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, James Fung, Kevin Sze-Hang Liu, Harinder Gill, Yuk-Fai Lam, Eric H Y Lau, Ka-Shing Cheung, Albert K W Lie, Ching-Lung Lai, Yok-Lam Kwong, Man-Fung Yuen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have not been prospectively studied. HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive patients with undetectable HBV DNA undergoing allogeneic HSCT were prospectively monitored every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was HBV reactivation, defined as detectable HBV DNA (≥10 IU/mL). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, HBsAg-positivity, and changes in liver biochemistry and antibody to HBsAg levels...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027401/breast-milk-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-associations-with-adolescent-allergic-disease-and-lung-function
#17
Nilakshi T Waidyatillake, Rachel Stoney, Francis Thien, Caroline J Lodge, Julie A Simpson, Katrina J Allen, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas, Cecile Svanes, Shyamali C Dharmage, Adrian J Lowe
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that n-3 PUFA in breast-milk may assist immune and lung development. There are very limited data on possible long-term effects on allergic disease and lung function. The aim was to investigate associations of n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in colostrum and breast milk with allergic disease and lung function at ages 12 and 18 years. METHOD: PUFAs were measured in 194 colostrum samples and in 118 three month expressed breast milk samples from mothers of children enrolled in the Melbourne Atopy Cohort (MACS) Study, a high risk birth cohort study...
December 27, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019709/exogenous-induction-of-unphosphorylated-pten-reduces-tgf%C3%AE-induced-extracellular-matrix-expressions-in-lung-fibroblasts
#18
Motohiro Kimura, Naozumi Hashimoto, Masaaki Kusunose, Daisuke Aoyama, Koji Sakamoto, Shinichi Miyazaki, Akira Ando, Norihiro Omote, Kazuyoshi Imaizumi, Tsutomu Kawabe, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays an important role in regulating aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) production from alveolar/epithelial cells (AECs) and fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis. Although the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) can negatively control many TGFβ-activated signaling pathways via the phosphatase activity, hyperactivation of the TGFβ-related signaling pathways is often observed in fibrosis. Loss of PTEN expression might cause TGFβ-induced ECM production...
December 26, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004808/il-13-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-radiation-lung-injury
#19
Su I Chung, Jason A Horton, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Ayla O White, Eun Joo Chung, Kathryn E Hudak, Bradley T Scroggins, Joseph R Arron, Thomas A Wynn, Deborah E Citrin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal late adverse event of thoracic irradiation. Prior research indicates that unrestrained TGF-β1 and/or type 2 cytokine-driven immune responses promote fibrosis following radiation injury, but the full spectrum of factors governing this pathology remains unclear. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a key factor in fibrotic disease associated with helminth infection, but it is unclear whether it plays a similar role in radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that IL-13 drives the progression of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999152/optimizing-peep-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-in-a-porcine-animal-model-of-ards
#20
Nadine Hochhausen, Ingeborg Biener, Rolf Rossaint, Andreas Follmann, Christian Bleilevens, Till Braunschweig, Steffen Leonhardt, Michael Czaplik
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is necessary in diverse clinical circumstances. Especially in the context of ARDS, so-called protective ventilation strategies must be followed. It is already known that PEEP might enhance oxygenation in ARDS. However, determining the optimal PEEP settings in clinical routines is challenging. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising technique with which to adjust ventilator settings. We investigated whether the combination of different EIT parameters, namely the global inhomogeneity and hyperdistension indices, may lead to a feasible and safe PEEP setting...
December 20, 2016: Respiratory Care
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