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Protective lung strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642520/melatonin-protects-against-lung-fibrosis-by-regulating-the-hippo-yap-pathway
#1
Xiaoguang Zhao, Jian Sun, Wei Su, Huitong Shan, Bowen Zhang, Yining Wang, Azaliia Shabanova, Hongli Shan, Haihai Liang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fibrotic interstitial pneumonia with high mortality. Melatonin, a hormone predominantly secreted by the pineal gland, has been reported to participate in the process of IPF. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis have not been elucidated to date. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic role of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. We observed that melatonin markedly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced experimental lung fibrosis in mice and inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis in lung fibroblasts...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629201/anesthesia-and-fast-track-in-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-vats-from-evidence-to-practice
#2
REVIEW
Marzia Umari, Stefano Falini, Matteo Segat, Michele Zuliani, Marco Crisman, Lucia Comuzzi, Francesco Pagos, Stefano Lovadina, Umberto Lucangelo
In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625389/high-molecular-weight-hyaluronan-attenuates-fine-particulate-matter-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-ros-ask1-p38-jnk-mediated-epithelial-apoptosis
#3
Chenming Xu, Qiwen Shi, Leifang Zhang, Hang Zhao
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is asscoiated with lung injury. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is an essential constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM), exhibiting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties when administered by injection, inhalation, nebulization or gene delivery of HA synthases. The aim of the present study is to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5 -induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We observed that HMW-HA suppressed pathological injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, edema and epithelial damage caused by PM2...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618733/use-of-soluble-extracellular-regions-of-mmpl-serom-as-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#4
Emily J Strong, Nicholas P West
The current vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and while effective at reducing the potential for disseminated TB in young children its disease protection rates in adults is highly variable while it confers little protection against latent TB. With these limitations a new vaccine is desperately needed. We investigated the efficacy of three members of the mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) family as potential subunit vaccines for TB. MmpLs are large, multifunctional integral membrane proteins, and as such are recalcitrant to purification...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615483/incidence-of-hypocapnia-hypercapnia-and-acidosis-and-the-associated-risk-of-adverse-events-in-preterm-neonates
#5
Melissa K Brown, Deborah M Poeltler, Kasim O Hassen, Danielle V Lazarus, Vanessa K Brown, Jeremiah J Stout, Wade D Rich, Anup C Katheria
BACKGROUND: Permissive hypercapnia is a lung-protection strategy. We sought to review our current clinical practice for the range of permissive hypercapnia and identify the relationship between P aCO2 and pH and adverse outcomes. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a delayed cord-clamping clinical trial was performed on all arterial blood gas tests in the first 72 h in infants < 32 weeks gestational age. All arterial blood gas values were categorized into a clinical range to determine the percent likelihood of occurring in the total sample...
April 3, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609129/nebulized-lidocaine-ameliorates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-downregulation-of-tlr2
#6
Lixia Wang, Muzi Wang, Shuai Li, Huimei Wu, Qiying Shen, Shihai Zhang, Lei Fang, Rongyu Liu
Nebulized lidocaine has been suggested to be beneficial in asthma therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are little known. We aimed to investigate whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was involved in the protective effect of lidocaine on allergic airway inflammation. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Meanwhile, some of the mice were treated with TLR2 agonist (Pam3CSK4, 100 μg) intraperitoneally in combination with OVA on day 0. Just after allergen provocation, mice were treated with inhaled lidocaine or vehicle for 30 min...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606090/application-of-intraoperative-lung-protective-ventilation-varies-in-accordance-with-the-knowledge-of-anaesthesiologists-a-single-centre-questionnaire-study-and-a-retrospective-observational-study
#7
Seung Hyun Kim, Sungwon Na, Woo Kyung Lee, Hyunwoo Choi, Jeongmin Kim
BACKGROUND: The benefits of lung-protective ventilation (LPV) with a low tidal volume (6 mL/kg of ideal body weight [IBW]), limited plateau pressure (< 28-30 cm H2 O), and appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have become apparent and it is now widely adopted in intensive care units. Recently evidence for LPV in general anaesthesia has been accumulated, but it is not yet generally applied by anaesthesiologists in the operating room...
April 2, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599422/fatal-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-due-to-influenza-a-h1n1-infection-in-patients-after-kidney-transplantation-a-report-of-five-cases
#8
Paweł Zatorski, Agata Adamczyk, Maciej Kosieradzki, Teresa Baczkowska, Dariusz Kosson, Janusz Trzebicki
BACKGROUND In the general population, swine influenza is a self-limited infection. Patients after kidney transplantation, however, are at increased risk for complications and mortality from influenza A (H1N1). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicates up to 55% of influenza-related pneumonia in hospitalized patients and carries a mortality of 40-46%. We describe our experience in intensive care of kidney transplant patients with ARDS complicating influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia during a flu outbreak...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597832/maternal-pufa-omega-3-supplementation-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-offspring
#9
Ying Zhong, Daniel Catheline, Ali Houeijeh, Dyuti Sharma, Li-Zhong Du, Capucine Besengez, Philippe Deruelle, Philippe Legrand, Laurent Storme
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) affect 16-25% of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), contributing significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) can improve vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation under pathophysiological conditions. However, the effects of PUFA ω-3 supplementation in BPD-associated PH are unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PUFA ω-3 on pulmonary vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response in a hyperoxia-induced rat model of PH...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596290/use-of-recruitment-maneuvers-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
Angela Nguyen
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a deadly complication in critically ill patients that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with ARDS are seen across intensive care unit settings, with treatment being largely supportive involving techniques through mechanical ventilation. Using low-tidal-volume ventilation is a standard of practice for patients with ARDS, as a lung protection strategy; however, alveolar decruitment may occur. Recruitment maneuvers can recruit collapsed alveoli and promote oxygenation...
May 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595185/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-challenge-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Chun Pan, Ling Liu, Jian-Feng Xie, Hai-Bo Qiu
Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome whose diagnosis and therapy are still in question. The aim of this review was to discuss the current challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of ARDS. Data Sources: Data sources were the published articles in English through December 2017 in PubMed using the following key words: "acute respiratory distress syndrome," "definition", "diagnosis," "therapy," "lung protective strategy," "right ventricular dysfunction," and "molecular mechanism...
March 27, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582522/education-on-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-involving-intensive-care-nurses-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Michelle C Guilhermino, Kerry J Inder, Deborah Sundin
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit nurses are critical for managing mechanical ventilation. Continuing education is essential in building and maintaining nurses' knowledge and skills, potentially improving patient outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether continuing education programmes on invasive mechanical ventilation involving intensive care unit nurses are effective in improving patient outcomes. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from 2001 to 2016 using keywords such as mechanical ventilation, nursing and education...
March 26, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578522/histological-quantification-to-determine-lung-fungal-burden-in-experimental-aspergillosis
#13
Dylan J Stolz, Ethan M Sands, Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Angar Tsoggerel, Steven P Templeton
The quantification of lung fungal burden is critical for the determination of the relative levels of immune protection and fungal virulence in mouse models of pulmonary fungal infection. Although multiple methods are used to assess fungal burden, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of fungal DNA has emerged as a technique with several advantages over previous culture-based methods. Currently, a comprehensive assessment of lung pathology, leukocyte recruitment, fungal burden, and gene expression in mice with invasive aspergillosis (IA) necessitates the use of a significant number of experimental and control animals...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574856/hu-deviation-in-lung-and-bone-tissues-characterization-and-a-corrective-strategy
#14
Hua A Ai, Joseph G Meier, Richard E Wendt
INTRODUCTION: In the era of precision medicine, quantitative applications of x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) are on the rise. These require accurate measurement of the CT number, also known as the Hounsfield Unit. In this study, we evaluated the effect of patient attenuation-induced beam hardening of the x-ray spectrum on the accuracy of the HU values and a strategy to correct for the resulting deviations in the measured HU values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CIRS electron density phantom was scanned on a Siemens Biograph mCT Flow CT scanner and a GE Discovery 710 CT scanner using standard techniques that are employed in the clinic to assess the HU deviation caused by beam hardening in different tissue types...
March 24, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573352/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-monoclonal-antibody-treatment-of-brain-edema-induced-by-influenza-infection-and-lipopolysaccharide
#15
Nobuyuki Nosaka, Kazuki Hatayama, Mutsuko Yamada, Yousuke Fujii, Masato Yashiro, Hidenori Wake, Hirokazu Tsukahara, Masahiro Nishibori, Tsuneo Morishima
Encephalopathy is a major cause of influenza-associated child death and severe neurological sequelae in Japan, highlighting the urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anti-high mobility group box-1 monoclonal antibody (α-HMGB1) treatment on brain edema induced by influenza A virus (IAV) and lipopolysaccharide in 4-week-old BALB/c female mice. The results showed that administration of 7.5 mg/kg α-HMGB1 1 h after IAV (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) inoculation significantly alleviated brain edema at 48 h after IAV inoculation, as confirmed by the suppression of Evans Blue dye leakage and matrix metallopeptidase-9 mRNA expression in the brain...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566734/acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-lessons-learned-from-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Alessandro Marchioni, Roberto Tonelli, Lorenzo Ball, Riccardo Fantini, Ivana Castaniere, Stefania Cerri, Fabrizio Luppi, Mario Malerba, Paolo Pelosi, Enrico Clini
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrotic lung disease characterized by progressive loss of lung function and poor prognosis. The so-called acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) may lead to severe hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). AE-IPF shares several pathophysiological features with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a very severe condition commonly treated in this setting.A review of the literature has been conducted to underline similarities and differences in the management of patients with AE-IPF and ARDS...
March 23, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556300/a-dosimetric-phantom-study-of-thoracic-radiotherapy-based-on-three-dimensional-modeling-of-mediastinal-lymph-nodes
#17
Ji-Bin Zhang, Li-Rong Zhao, Tian-Xiang Cui, Xie-Wan Chen, Qiao Yang, Yi-Bing Zhou, Zheng-Tang Chen, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Jian-Guo Sun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimal strategy and dosimetric measurement of thoracic radiotherapy based on three-dimensional (3D) modeling of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs). A 3D model of MLNs was constructed from a Chinese Visible Human female dataset. Image registration and fusion between reconstructed MLNs and original chest computed tomography (CT) images was conducted in the Eclipse™ treatment planning system (TPS). There were three plans, including 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), which were designed based on 10 cases of simulated lung lesions (SLLs) and MLNs...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554138/plga-particulate-subunit-tuberculosis-vaccines-promote-humoral-and-th17-responses-but-do-not-enhance-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#18
Anneliese S Ashhurst, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, John Gar Yan Chan, Leon C W Lin, Manuela Flórido, Nicholas P West, Hak-Kim Chan, Warwick J Britton
Tuberculosis places a staggering burden on human health globally. The new World Health Organisation End-TB Strategy has highlighted the urgent need for more effective TB vaccines to improve control of the disease. Protein-based subunit vaccines offer potential as safe and effective generators of protective immunity, and the use of particulate vaccine formulation and delivery by the pulmonary route may enhance local immunogenicity. In this study, novel particulate subunit vaccines were developed utilising biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) slow-release particles as carriers for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein MPT83, together with the adjuvants trehalose-dibehenate (TDB) or Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538225/interventional-vitamin-c-a-strategy-for-attenuation-of-coagulopathy-and-inflammation-in-a-swine-polytrauma-model
#19
Penny S Reynolds, Bernard J Fisher, Jacquelyn McCarter, Christopher Sweeney, Erika J Martin, Paul Middleton, Matthew Ellenberg, Evan Fowler, Donald F Brophy, Alpha A Fowler, Bruce D Spiess, Ramesh Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and inflammation induced by hemorrhagic shock and traumatic injury are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Vitamin C (VitC) is an antioxidant with potential protective effects on the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant pathways. We hypothesized that high-dose VitC administered as a supplement to fluid resuscitation would attenuate inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and end-organ tissue damage in a swine model of polytrauma and hemorrhage. METHODS: Male Sinclair swine (n = 24; mean body weight 27 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for physiological monitoring...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536537/effect-of-verbascoside-on-apoptosis-and-metastasis-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Yaqin Zhang, Yi Yuan, Heming Wu, Zhuoying Xie, Yunong Wu, Xiaomeng Song, Jingjing Wang, Wei Shu, Junyong Xu, Bin Liu, Linzhong Wan, Yanan Yan, Xu Ding, Xinghui Shi, Yongchu Pan, Xiaokang Li, Jianrong Yang, Xiaohui Zhao, Lin Wang
Despite significant advances in therapy, the five-year survival rates for patients with advanced stage oral cancers still remains poor as an appropriate treatment has not been found yet, due to side effects of chemo/radiotherapy. Verbascoside (VB), a major bioactive constituent of the Tsoong herb, displays pharmacological properties by exhibiting anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. However, the underlining function and mechanism of VB in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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