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Protective lung strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818565/raw-starch-microparticles-have-immunostimulant-activity-in-mice-vaccinated-with-bcg-and-challenged-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Sergio Sánchez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
The main challenge for vaccine development or improvement is the lack of safe adjuvants or immunostimulants that induce protective immune responses and can be used for mucosal immunization, which is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against infectious diseases acquired by oral or intranasal routes. One promising alternative is the use of biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microparticles. Recently, we developed an immobilization and delivery system with starch microparticles (SMPs) and a starch-binding domain (SBDtag) suitable for the mucosal administration of antigens and the induction of antigen-specific immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815066/anaesthesia-during-oesophagectomy
#2
REVIEW
Denise P Veelo, Bart F Geerts
In this review, we will provide an overview of the current state of the art of perioperative practices for open and laparoscopic oesophagus surgery from the anaesthetist's perspective. Morbidity and mortality after oesophagectomy is still high despite multidisciplinary and enhanced recovery pathways showing promising results. The anaesthetist has an important role in the complex care of the oesophageal cancer patient. Minimizing unnecessary fluid administration, adequate pain management, hypotension, and protective lung ventilation are examples of proven strategies that can improve outcome after this high-risk surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#3
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#4
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801922/prophylaxis-with-enoxaparin-for-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-after-lung-transplantation-a-retrospective-study
#6
Berta Sáez-Giménez, Cristina Berastegui, Helena Sintes, Javier Perez, Ana Figueredo, Manuel López Meseguer, Víctor Monforte, Carlos Bravo, Amparo Santamaría, Maria Antonia Ramon, Susana Gómez, Antonio Roman
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and, specifically, after lung transplantation (LT). The objectives of this study were to evaluate prophylaxis with enoxaparin and to describe risk factors for VTE after LT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 333 patients who underwent LT in our institution between 2009 and 2014. We compared 2 consecutive cohorts, one that received enoxaparin only during post-transplant hospital admissions and a second cohort that received 90-day extended prophylaxis with enoxaparin...
August 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800778/effects-of-intraoperative-peep-optimization-on-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-and-the-inflammatory-response-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Zoltán Ruszkai, Erika Kiss, Ildikó László, Fanni Gyura, Erika Surány, Péter Töhötöm Bartha, Gergely Péter Bokrétás, Edit Rácz, István Buzogány, Zoltán Bajory, Erzsébet Hajdú, Zsolt Molnár
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation during major abdominal surgery commonly develop pulmonary atelectasis and/or hyperdistention of the lungs. Recent studies show benefits of lung-protective mechanical ventilation with the use of low tidal volumes, a moderate level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and regular alveolar recruitment maneuvers during general anesthesia, even in patients with healthy lungs. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the effects of intraoperative lung-protective mechanical ventilation, using individualized PEEP values, on postoperative pulmonary complications and the inflammatory response...
August 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#8
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
Please check if statements under Abstract section are presented correctly.The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789830/sphingosine-kinase-1-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Nigel J Pyne, Susan Pyne
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) knockout mice are protected against pulmonary hypertension and expression levels of the enzyme are increased in the lungs of pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) patients. Moreover, sphingosine 1-phosphate can promote vascular remodeling/vasoconstriction in rodent and human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell models. Therefore, SphK1 might be a novel target for treatment of PAH. However, in our opinion, more refined strategies to target SphK1 are needed because this enzyme is protective against endothelial dysfunction and can become resistant to SphK1 inhibitors in vascular smooth muscle, thereby potentially limiting their effectiveness in PAH...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780502/pulmonary-ccr2-cd4-t-cells-are-immune-regulatory-and-attenuate-lung-fibrosis-development
#10
Katrin Milger, Yingyan Yu, Eva Brudy, Martin Irmler, Alla Skapenko, Michael Mayinger, Mareike Lehmann, Johannes Beckers, Frank Reichenberger, Jürgen Behr, Oliver Eickelberg, Melanie Königshoff, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
BACKGROUND: Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2(+)CD4(+) T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2(+) cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777017/how-to-take-arms-against-central-apneas-in-heart-failure
#11
Chiara Borrelli, Alberto Aimo, Gianluca Mirizzi, Claudio Passino, Giuseppe Vergaro, Michele Emdin, Alberto Giannoni
Introduction Despite being a risk mediator in several observational studies, central apneas are currently orphan of treatment in heart failure. After the neutral effects on survival of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on the use of positive airway pressure (the CANPAP and SERVE-HF trials), two alternative hypotheses have been formulated: 1) Periodic breathing/Cheyne-Stokes respiration (PB/CSR) in HF is protective. Indeed, the Naughton's hypothesis assumes that hyperventilation leads to increased cardiac output, lung volume, oxygen storage and reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity and central apnea to respiratory muscle rest and hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis...
August 4, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771881/microrna-219-5p-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-by-targeting-lef1
#12
Lan-Xuan Huang, Chun-Yan Hu, Li Jing, Min-Cong Wang, Meng Xu, Jing Wang, Yu Wang, Ke-Jun Nan, Shu-Hong Wang
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors. miR-219-5p has been reported to be abnormally expressed in some types of human tumors. However, the mechanism between miR-219-5p and colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis remains unclear. In this study, miR-219-5p was found to be downregulated in CRC tissue compared with matched normal tissue. Through luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) as a direct target of miR-219-5p...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767735/engaging-the-cd40-cd40l-pathway-augments-t-helper-cell-responses-and-improves-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Jonathan Kevin Sia, Erica Bizzell, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Jyothi Rengarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) impairs dendritic cell (DC) functions and induces suboptimal antigen-specific CD4 T cell immune responses that are poorly protective. Mucosal T-helper cells producing IFN-γ (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) are important for protecting against tuberculosis (TB), but the mechanisms by which DCs generate antigen-specific T-helper responses during Mtb infection are not well defined. We previously reported that Mtb impairs CD40 expression on DCs and restricts Th1 and Th17 responses. We now demonstrate that CD40-dependent costimulation is required to generate IL-17 responses to Mtb...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759484/impact-of-different-ventilation-strategies-on-driving-pressure-mechanical-power-and-biological-markers-during-open-abdominal-surgery-in-rats
#14
Lígia de A Maia, Cynthia S Samary, Milena V Oliveira, Cintia L Santos, Robert Huhle, Vera L Capelozzi, Marcelo M Morales, Marcus J Schulz, Marcelo G Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery...
July 27, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757912/lung-protective-ventilation-strategies-for-relief-from-ventilator-associated-lung-injury-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-a-bicenter-randomized-parallel-and-controlled-trial
#15
Chaoliang Tang, Juan Li, Shaoqing Lei, Bo Zhao, Zhetao Zhang, Wenting Huang, Si Shi, Xiaoqing Chai, Chaoshi Niu, Zhongyuan Xia
Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV) minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group) or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group) ventilation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757418/obesity-paradox-in-lung-cancer-prognosis-evolving-biological-insights-and-clinical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Xueli Zhang, Yamin Liu, Hua Shao, Xiao Zheng
The survival rate of lung cancer remains low despite the progress of surgery and chemotherapy. With the increasing comorbidity of obesity in lung cancer patients, new challenges emerge in the management of this patient population. A key issue of interest is the prognostic effect of obesity on surgical and chemotherapeutical outcomes in lung cancer patients, which is fueled by the growing observation of survival benefits in overweight or obese patients. This unexpected inverse relation between obesity and lung cancer mortality, called 'obesity paradox', remains poorly understood...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756644/the-role-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-in-pediatric-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Junko Takita
The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was initially identified as a fusion partner of the nucleophosmin gene in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, and then described with different genetic abnormalities in a number of tumors. Although ALK is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma through activating mutations or gene amplification, its role in the pathogenesis of other pediatric cancers is still elusive. In addition to neuroblastoma, the high-grade amplification of ALK has been described in a subset of rhabdomyosarcoma cases...
July 30, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751894/transient-depletion-of-cd169-cells-contributes-to-impaired-early-protection-and-effector-cd8-t-cell-recruitment-against-mucosal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#18
Dong Sun Oh, Ji Eun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express CD169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. Therefore, we used CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice to explore the roles of CD169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal RSV infection. The administration of diphtheria toxin to CD169-DTR mice induced specific AM depletion and reduced the recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745029/adam10-and-notch1-on-murine-dendritic-cells-control-the-development-of-type-2-immunity-and-ige-production
#19
Sheela R Damle, Rebecca K Martin, Chelsea L Cockburn, Joseph C Lownik, Jason A Carlyon, Allen D Smith, Daniel H Conrad
BACKGROUND: Allergy and allergic asthma are significant health burdens in developed countries and are increasing in prevalence. Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate immune responses to common aeroallergens and ADAM10 has been demonstrated to be important for the development of adaptive responses. This study's objective was to understand the role of ADAM10 on DCs in the development of allergic and anaphylactic responses. METHODS: In this study we used mouse models of allergic airway inflammation (house dust mice and Alternaria alternata) and OVA-induced models of active anaphylaxis to determine the DC-specific function of ADAM10 and Notch signaling...
July 26, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742774/improving-adherence-to-intraoperative-lung-protective-ventilation-strategies-at-a-university-medical-center
#20
Sean A Josephs, Gretchen A Lemmink, Judith A Strong, Cassandra L Barry, William E Hurford
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative lung-protective ventilation (ILPV) is defined as tidal volumes <8 mL/kg ideal bodyweight and is increasingly a standard of care for major abdominal surgical procedures performed under general anesthesia. In this study, we report the result of a quality improvement initiative targeted at improving adherence to ILPV guidelines in a large academic teaching hospital. METHODS: We performed a time-series study to determine whether anesthesia provider adherence to ILPV was affected by certain improvement interventions and patient ideal body weight (IBW)...
July 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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