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Protective lung strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453412/pulmonary-antigen-encounter-regulates-the-establishment-of-tissue-resident-cd8-memory-t-cells-in-the-lung-airways-and-parenchyma
#1
Sean R McMaster, Alexander N Wein, Paul R Dunbar, Sarah L Hayward, Emily K Cartwright, Timothy L Denning, Jacob E Kohlmeier
Resident memory CD8 T (T RM ) cells in the lung parenchyma (LP) and airways provide heterologous protection against influenza virus challenge. However, scant knowledge exists regarding factors necessary to establish and maintain lung CD8 T RM . Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to mechanisms described for other tissues, airway, and LP CD8 T RM establishment requires cognate antigen recognition in the lung. Systemic effector CD8 T cells could be transiently pulled into the lung in response to localized inflammation, however these effector cells failed to establish tissue residency unless antigen was present in the pulmonary environment...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445595/anesthesia-and-analgesia-how-does-the-role-of-anesthetists-changes-in-the-eras-program-for-vats-lobectomy
#2
Federico Piccioni, Riccardo Ragazzi
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are developed to prevent factors that delay postoperative recovery as well as issues that cause complications. The development of video-assist thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques favors the fast recovery after thoracic procedures. ERAS strategies are based on multidisciplinary approach in which the anesthetist plays an important role from the preoperative to the postoperative phase with several goals. After preoperative evaluation and medical optimization, the anesthetist must ensure a tailored anesthetic plan aiming to a fast recovery and adequate pain relief to reduce the response to the surgical stress...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444980/circulating-t-fh-cells-serological-memory-and-tissue-compartmentalization-shape-human-influenza-specific-b-cell-immunity
#3
Marios Koutsakos, Adam K Wheatley, Liyen Loh, E Bridie Clemens, Sneha Sant, Simone Nüssing, Annette Fox, Amy W Chung, Karen L Laurie, Aeron C Hurt, Steve Rockman, Martha Lappas, Thomas Loudovaris, Stuart I Mannering, Glen P Westall, Michael Elliot, Stuart G Tangye, Linda M Wakim, Stephen J Kent, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Immunization with the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) remains the most effective strategy to combat seasonal influenza infections. IIV activates B cells and T follicular helper (T FH ) cells and thus engenders antibody-secreting cells and serum antibody titers. However, the cellular events preceding generation of protective immunity in humans are inadequately understood. We undertook an in-depth analysis of B cell and T cell immune responses to IIV in 35 healthy adults. Using recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) probes to dissect the quantity, phenotype, and isotype of influenza-specific B cells against A/California09-H1N1, A/Switzerland-H3N2, and B/Phuket, we showed that vaccination induced a three-pronged B cell response comprising a transient CXCR5 - CXCR3 + antibody-secreting B cell population, CD21 hi CD27 + memory B cells, and CD21 lo CD27 + B cells...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439264/innate-immunity-of-the-lung-from-basic-mechanisms-to-translational-medicine
#4
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435993/different-role-of-tetrodotoxin-sensitive-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-subtypes-in-action-potential-initiation-and-conduction-in-vagal-airway-nociceptors
#5
M Kollarik, H Sun, R A Herbstsomer, F Ru, M Kocmalova, S N Meeker, B J Undem
The action potential (AP) initiation in the nerve terminals and AP conduction along the axons do not necessarily depend on the same subtypes of Na V 1s. We evaluated the role of tetrodotoxin(TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na V 1s in vagal afferent nociceptor nerves derived from jugular and nodose ganglia innervating the respiratory system. Single cell RT-PCR was performed on vagal afferent neurons retrogradely labelled from the guinea pig trachea. Virtually all the jugular neurons expressed the TTX-sensitive channel Na V 1...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434789/effects-of-pumpless-extracorporeal-lung-assist-on-hemodynamics-gas-exchange-and-inflammatory-cascade-response-during-experimental-lung-injury
#6
Zhihai Ju, Jinhui Ma, Chen Wang, Jie Yu, Yeru Qiao, Feilong Hei
Pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA) has been reported to efficiently remove the systemic CO 2 production and provide mild to moderate oxygenation, thereby allowing for ventilator settings and modes prioritizing oxygenation and lung protection. However, an adequate bypass flow, the capacity to provide respiratory support and the effect on the inflammatory cascade response and tissue perfusion require further study to be determined. After induction of acute lung injury (ALI) by oleic acid injection, pECLA was implemented in 12 anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs for 48 h...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431863/evaluation-of-target-coverage-and-margins-adequacy-during-cyberknife-lung-optimized-treatment
#7
Rosalinda Ricotti, Matteo Seregni, Delia Ciardo, Sabrina Vigorito, Elena Rondi, Gaia Piperno, Annamaria Ferrari, Maria Alessia Zerella, Simona Arculeo, Claudia Maria Francia, Daniela Sibio, Federica Cattani, Filippo De Marinis, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Roberto Orecchia, Marco Riboldi, Guido Baroni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
PURPOSE: Evaluation of target coverage and verification of safety margins, in motion management strategies implemented by Lung Optimezed Treatment (LOT) module in CyberKnife system. METHODS: Three fiducial-less motion management strategies provided by LOT can be selected according to tumour visibility in the X-ray images acquired during treatment. In 2-view modality the tumor is visible in both X-ray images and full motion tracking is performed. In 1-view modality the tumor is visible in a single X-ray image, therefore motion tracking is combined with an internal target volume (ITV)-based margin expansion...
February 12, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431734/disruption-of-staphylococcal-aggregation-protects-against-lethal-lung-injury
#8
Jaime L Hook, Mohammad N Islam, Dane Parker, Alice S Prince, Sunita Bhattacharya, Jahar Bhattacharya
Infection by Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 causes tissue injury, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adhere to, then stabilize on, mucosal surfaces before causing injury remain unclear. We addressed these issues through the first real-time determinations of USA300-alveolar interactions in live lungs. We found that within minutes, inhaled USA300 established stable, self-associated microaggregates in niches at curved, but not at flat, regions of the alveolar wall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430789/intratumoral-delivery-of-interferon-%C3%AE-secreting-mscs-repolarizes-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-suppresses-neuroblastoma-proliferation-in-vivo
#9
Theresa Relation, Tai Yi, Adam J Guess, Krista La Perle, Satoru Otsuru, Suheyla Hasgur, Massimo Dominici, Christopher Breuer, Edwin M Horwitz
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, remains a therapeutic challenge. However, one promising patient treatment strategy is the delivery of anti-tumor therapeutic agents via mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy. MSCs have been safely utilized to treat genetic bone diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has been shown to decrease tumor proliferation by altering the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430447/mechanisms-involved-in-brain-dysfunction-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-implications-and-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Marc Turon, Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Josefina López-Aguilar, Lluís Blanch
Critical illness may lead to significant long-term neurological morbidity and patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor to the development of adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Patients undergoing MV for long periods present neurologic impairment with memory and cognitive alteration. Delirium is considered an acute form of brain dysfunction and its prevalence rises in mechanically ventilated patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430444/heart-lung-interactions-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-pathophysiology-detection-and-management-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Fernando Suarez Sipmann, Arnoldo Santos, Gerardo Tusman
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe form of acute respiratory failure characterized by diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage. The severe pathophysiological changes in lung parenchyma and pulmonary circulation together with the effects of positive pressure ventilation profoundly affect heart lung interactions in ARDS. The term pulmonary vascular dysfunction (PVD) refers to the specific involvement of the vascular compartment in ARDS and is expressed clinically by an increase in pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance both affecting right ventricular (RV) afterload...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416730/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-acid-aspiration-induced-ali-ards
#12
Haitao Li, Xiaoting Zhou, Hongyi Tan, Yongbin Hu, Lemeng Zhang, Shuai Liu, Minhui Dai, Yi Li, Qian Li, Zhi Mao, Pinhua Pan, Xiaoli Su, Chengpin Hu
Background: Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a manifestation of systemic inflammation in the lungs, but the factors that trigger inflammation in ALI/ARDS are unclear. We hypothesized that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the pathogenesis of acid aspiration-induced ALI/ARDS. Results: Analysis of bronchial aspirates from ARDS patients showed that NETs were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS (r = -0...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406241/immunization-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-outer-membrane-vesicles-stimulates-protective-immunity-in-mice
#13
Xiaoli Zhang, Feng Yang, Jintao Zou, Weiru Wu, Haiming Jing, Qiang Gou, Haibo Li, Jiang Gu, Quanming Zou, Jinyong Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections, these infections are major health problems for cystic fibrosis patients and immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates highlights the need to develop alternative strategies for treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical nanometer-sized proteolipids that are secreted from numerous of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and a number of studies have confirmed the protective efficacy for use of OMVs as candidate vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394907/the-effect-of-an-intraoperative-lung-protective-ventilation-strategy-in-neurosurgical-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Liyong Zhang, Wei Xiong, Yuming Peng, Wei Zhang, Ruquan Han
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-induced lung injury is a major cause of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients undergoing neurosurgery after general anesthesia. However, there is no study on the effect of a lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients undergoing neurosurgery. METHODS: This is a single-center, randomized, parallel-group controlled trial which will be carried out at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Three hundred and thirty-four patients undergoing intracranial tumor surgery will be randomly allocated to the control group and the protective-ventilation strategy group...
February 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393209/therapeutic-role-for-tsp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#15
Kai Li, En Ping Huang, Jin Su, Ping Zhu, Jun Lin, Shen Qiu Luo, Cui Lan Yang
BACKGROUND: Specific immunotherapy, including agonists for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), have been shown to protect from allergies and to have a high immunomodulatory capacity. METHODS: A new antibody, TSP-2, reactive against an epitope of the extracellular domain of TLR2, was identified. The effect of the antibody on dendritic cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and flow cytometric analysis. The effect of TSP-2 in a murine asthma model induced with ovalbumin (OVA) was assessed...
January 27, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388718/neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-cloned-cattle
#16
Yifan Rao, Xiuzhu Sun, Na Yang, Fanyi Zhang, Xiaojing Jiang, Linhua Huang, Xiaogai Guo, Weihua Du, Haisheng Hao, Xueming Zhao, Qiuling Jiang, Yan Liu
Neonatal respiratory distress is a major mortality factor in cloned animals, but the pathogenesis of this disease is rarely investigated. In this study, four neonatal cloned cattle, born after full-term gestation, exhibited symptoms of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), which included symptoms of hyaline membrane disease as well as disordered surfactant homeostasis in their collapsed lungs. No differences in DNA methylation or histone modifications correlated with the suppressed SPB and SPC transcription observed in the cloned cattle group (P > 0...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383798/reverse-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-drug-resistance-induced-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-via-a-paracrine-pathway
#17
Quanhui Zhang, Junping Yang, Jie Bai, Jianzhuang Ren
Tumor microenvironment orchestrates the sustained growth, metastasis and recurrence of cancer. As an indispensable component of tumor microenvironment, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are considered as an essential synthetic machine producing various tumor components, leading to cancer sustained stemness, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we developed a sustainable primary culture of lung cancer cells fed with lung cancer associated fibroblasts, resulting in enrichment and acquisition of drug resistance in cancer cells...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383696/trap1-regulates-autophagy-in-lung-cancer-cells
#18
Ines A Barbosa, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Rute Loureiro, Ana F Branco, Rita Garcia, Patricia M Scott, Paulo J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Expression of TRAP1, a member of the HSP90 chaperone family, has been implicated in tumor protective effects, based on differential mitochondrial localization and function. DESIGN: This work was designed to provide new insights on the pathways involved in TRAP1-provided cytoprotection on NSCLC. For this, TRAP1-depleted A549 human NSCLC cells and MRC-5 normal lung fibroblasts were produced using a siRNA approach and main cellular quality control mechanisms were investigated...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380447/differential-impact-of-cx3cl1-on-lung-cancer-prognosis-in-smokers-and-non-smokers
#19
Ying-Chieh Su, Han Chang, Shih-Jung Sun, ChengYi Liao, Ling-Yi Wang, Jiunn-Lang Ko, Jinghua Tsai Chang
CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine, expressed in both soluble and membrane bound forms, which mediates different biological activities. Recent studies have revealed the potential of CX3CL1 signaling pathway as a target for the treatment of inflammation and cancer. The correlation between expression of CX3CL1 and prognosis of patients varies among cancers. In this study, based on CX3CL1 immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer, CX3CL1 levels were positively associated with cancer stage (Pearson chi-square, p = 0...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380446/sh2b1-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-irs1-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-axis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Sha Oqiang Wang, Yuanda Cheng, Yang Gao, Zhiwei He, Wolong Zhou, Ruimin Chang, Zhenzi Peng, Yingying Zheng, Chaojun Duan, Chunfang Zhang
Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most prevalent type of human lung cancer, is characterized by many molecular abnormalities. SH2B1, a member of the SH2-domain containing family, have recently been shown to act as tumor activators in multiple cancers, including LADC. However, the mechanisms underlying SH2B1 overexpression are not completely understood. Here, we reported that SH2B1 expression levels were significantly upregulated and positively associated with EMT markers and poor patient survival in LADC specimens...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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