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Protective lung strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230277/immune-checkpoint-blockade-biology-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#1
Alan T Yeo, Al Charest
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer that is associated with abysmal prognosis. The median survival of GBM patients is ∼15 months and there have not been any significant advance in therapies in over a decade, leaving treatment options limited. There is clearly an unmet need for GBM treatment. Immunotherapies are treatments based on usurping the power of the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. They have recently proven to be a successful strategy for combating a variety of cancers...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221171/pathogenesis-of-severe-pneumonia-advances-and-knowledge-gaps
#3
Joseph P Mizgerd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a common disease that becomes severe in a subset of patients, dependent on host biology including mechanisms of immune resistance and tissue resilience. This review emphasizes discoveries in pneumonia biology from 2016, highlighting questions and directions that are especially pressing or newly emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel cell-cell interactions mediating innate immune responses against microbes in the lung have been elucidated, between distinct leukocyte subtypes as well as between leukocytes and the structural cells of the lung...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218450/chromium-iv-exposure-via-src-ras-signaling-promotes-cell-transformation
#4
Suthakar Ganapathy, Ping Li, Jean Lafontant, Rui Xiong, Tianqi Yu, Guojun Zhang, Changyan Chen
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known environment carcinogen. The exposure of Cr(VI) through contaminated soil, air particles and drinking water is a strong concern for the public health worldwide. While many studies have been done, it remains unclear which intracellular molecules transduce Cr(VI)-mediated carcinogenic signaling in cells to promote cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that upon Cr(VI) treatment, the intracellular receptor src was activated, which further upregulated Ras activity, leading to the augmentation of ROS and onset of ER stress in human lung epithelial BEAS-2B or keratinocytes...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217046/effect-of-nebulized-budesonide-on-respiratory-mechanics-and-oxygenation-in-acute-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Hatem Saber Mohamed, Mona Mohamed Abdel Meguid
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that nebulized budesonide would improve lung mechanics and oxygenation in patients with early acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during protective mechanical ventilation strategy without adversely affecting systemic hemodynamics. METHODS: Patients with ALI/ARDS were included and assigned into two groups; budesonide group (30 cases) in whom 1 mg-2 ml budesonide suspension was nebulized through the endotracheal tube and control group (30 cases) in whom 2 ml saline (placebo) were nebulized instead of budesonide...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214928/dendritic-cell-rehab-new-strategies-to-unleash-therapeutic-immunity-in-ovarian-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Chang-Suk Chae, Eli Teran-Cabanillas, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz
Immune-based therapies that induce remarkable and durable responses against melanoma and lung cancer have unfortunately demonstrated limited success in ovarian cancer patients. This is likely due to the exceptional immunoregulatory nature of ovarian tumors, which employ numerous strategies to effectively suppress anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize a decade of research indicating that ovarian cancers possess an exquisite capacity to subvert the activity of host dendritic cells (DCs) as a key mechanism to impede the development and maintenance of protective T cell-based immune responses...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214650/2-methoxyestradiol-protects-against-igg-immune-complex-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-activities
#7
Chunguang Yan, Yanfei Shen, Qiqing Sun, Dong Yuan, Huifang Tang, Hongwei Gao
Increasing evidences indicate that 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) plays an essential role in protecting against inflammatory responses. However, its effect on IgG immune complex (IC)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains enigmatic. In the study, by using i.p. administration of 2ME2, we evaluated its influence on IgG IC-induced pulmonary injury in mice. We found that during IgG IC-induced ALI, mice treated by 2ME2 displayed a substantial decrease in vascular permeability and neutrophil influx (represented by myeloperoxidase activity) when compared with their counterparts receiving vehicle treatment...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212162/volume-and-pressure-delivery-during-pediatric-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#8
Ronald Wong, Timothy Deakers, Justin Hotz, Robinder G Khemani, Patrick A Ross, Christopher J Newth
OBJECTIVE: Identify variables independently associated with delivered tidal volume (VT) and measured mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation across the range of pediatric endotracheal tube sizes. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: Research laboratory. INTERVENTIONS: An in vitro bench model of the intubated pediatric respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was used to obtain delivered VT and mean airway pressure (in the distal lung) for various endotracheal tube sizes...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202526/radiation-resistance-in-kras-mutated-lung-cancer-is-enabled-by-stem-like-properties-mediated-by-an-osteopontin-egfr-pathway
#9
Meng Wang, Jing Han, Lynnette Marcar, Josh Black, Qi Liu, Xiangyong Li, Kshithija Nagulapalli, Lecia V Sequist, Raymond H Mak, Cyril H Benes, Theodore S Hong, Kristin Gurtner, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Jing X Kang, Johnathan Whetstine, Henning Willers
Lung cancers with activating KRAS mutations are characterized by treatment resistance and poor prognosis. In particular, the basis for their resistance to radiation therapy is poorly understood. Here we describe a radiation resistance phenotype conferred by a stem-like subpopulation characterized by mitosis-like condensed chromatin (MLCC), high CD133 expression, invasive potential, and tumor-initiating properties. Mechanistic investigations defined a pathway involving osteopontin and the EGFR in promoting this phenotype...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195392/relative-protein-quantification-and-accessible-biology-in-lung-tumor-proteomes-from-four-lc-ms-ms-discovery-platforms
#10
Paul A Stewart, Bin Fang, Robbert J C Slebos, Guolin Zhang, Adam L Borne, Katherine Fellows, Jamie K Teer, Y Ann Chen, Eric Welsh, Steven A Eschrich, Eric B Haura, John M Koomen
Discovery proteomics experiments include many options for sample preparation and mass spectrometry data acquisition, which are capable of creating datasets for quantifying thousands of proteins. To define a strategy that would produce a dataset with sufficient content while optimizing required resources, we compared 1) single sample liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with data dependent acquisition (DDA) to single sample LC-MS/MS with data independent acquisition (DIA) and 2) peptide fractionation with label-free quantification (LF) to isobaric labeling followed by peptide fractionation (TMT 6-plex)...
February 14, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192894/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-cardiac-anesthesia-a-review-focusing-on-translation
#11
Christian Stoppe, Patrick Meybohm, Carina Benstoem, Andreas Goetzenich
INTRODUCTION: Remote Ischaemic Conditioning (RIC) is a powerful cardioprotective strategy. Its clinical application is simple, cheap and so far free from secondary side effects. Given the heterogeneous results of recent large-scale clinical trials, its clinical relevant benefit is still doubted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Following a MEDLINE-based search on all publications concerning RIC in experimental or clinical settings, this review focuses on the translation from bench to bedside...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191007/antigen-exposure-history-defines-cd8-t-cell-dynamics-and-protection-during-localized-pulmonary-infections
#12
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, Matthew D Martin, Stacey M Hartwig, Kevin L Legge, Vladimir P Badovinac, John T Harty
Unlike systemic infections, little is known about the role of repeated localized infections on (re)shaping pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses. Here, we used primary (1°) and secondary (2°) intranasal influenza virus infections of mice as a model to study intrinsic memory CD8 T cell properties. We show that secondary antigen exposure, relative to a single infection, generates memory CD8 T cell responses of superior magnitude in multiple tissue compartments including blood, spleen, draining lymph nodes, and lung...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190740/protective-efficacy-of-a-lipid-antigen-vaccine-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-tuberculosis
#13
Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Emilie Layre, Simon Clark, Jacques Prandi, Emma Rayner, Marco Lepore, Gennaro de Libero, Ann Williams, Germain Puzo, Martine Gilleron
The bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the only licensed vaccine against TB, displays partial and variable efficacy, thus making the exploitation of novel vaccination strategies a major priority. Most of the current vaccines in pre-clinical or clinical development are based on the induction of T cells recognizing protein antigens. However, a large number of T cells specific for mycobacterial lipids are induced during infection, suggesting that lipid-based vaccines might represent an important component of novel sub-unit vaccines...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189055/the-protective-effect-of-dopamine-on-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#14
Xiaomei Yang, Xiaotong Sun, Hongli Chen, Guangmin Xi, Yonghao Hou, Jianbo Wu, Dejie Liu, Huanliang Wang, Yuedong Hou, Jingui Yu
Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter, was previously shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has not been explicitly demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of dopamine in VILI. Rats were treated with dopamine during mechanical ventilation. Afterwards, the influence of dopamine on histological changes, pulmonary edema, the lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, polymorphonuclear(PMN)counts, inflammatory cytokine levels, and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression were examined...
February 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188922/suplatast-tosilate-protects-the-lung-against-hyperoxic-lung-injury-by-scavenging-hydroxyl-radicals
#15
Kazuhide Fukuhara, Taku Nakashima, Manabu Abe, Takeshi Masuda, Hironobu Hamada, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Kazunori Fujitaka, Nobuoki Kohno, Noboru Hattori
Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lung and causes hyperoxic lung injury. Although supraphysiological oxygen is routinely administered for the management of respiratory failure, there is no effective strategy to prevent hyperoxic lung injury. In our previous study, we showed that suplatast tosilate, an asthma drug that inhibits T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, ameliorated bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis through Th2-independent mechanisms...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188062/mechanical-ventilation-in-patients-subjected-to-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo
#16
M L Sánchez
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a crucial element in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because there is high level evidence that a low tidal volume of 6ml/kg (protective ventilation) improves survival. In these patients with refractory respiratory insufficiency, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. This salvage technique improves oxygenation, promotes CO2 clearance, and facilitates protective and ultraprotective MV, potentially minimizing ventilation-induced lung injury...
February 7, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181294/adverse-outcomes-associated-with-postoperative-atrial-arrhythmias-after-lung-transplantation-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Nathan H Waldron, Rebecca Y Klinger, Matthew G Hartwig, Laurie D Snyder, James P Daubert, Joseph P Mathew
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial arrhythmias (AAs) are common after lung transplantation but studies are mixed regarding their impact on outcomes. We therefore performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether AAs after lung transplantation impede postoperative recovery. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Register were searched to identify studies comparing outcomes in adult patients undergoing lung transplantation who experienced postoperative AAs in the immediate postoperative period versus those without postoperative AAs...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178996/hemodynamic-effects-of-lung-recruitment-maneuvers-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Oana Cole, Wenfei Wang, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have, so far, failed to establish clear beneficial outcomes of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) on patient mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the effects of RMs on the cardiovascular system remain poorly understood. METHODS: A computational model with highly integrated pulmonary and cardiovascular systems was configured to replicate static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary data from clinical trials. Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) were executed in 23 individual in-silico patients with varying levels of ARDS severity and initial cardiac output...
February 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177129/role-of-parp-activity-in-lung-cancer-induced-cachexia-effects-on-muscle-oxidative-stress-proteolysis-anabolic-markers-and-phenotype
#19
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Mercè Mateu-Jimenez, Klaus Langohr, Clara Fermoselle, Elena García-Arumí, Antoni L Andreu, Jose Yelamos, Esther Barreiro
Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1(-/-) ) and Parp-2(-/-) mice...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168966/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for%C3%A2-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-after-pneumonectomy
#20
Jeremie Reeb, Anne Olland, Julien Pottecher, Xavier Delabranche, Mickael Schaeffer, Stephane Renaud, Nicola Santelmo, Romain Kessler, Gilbert Massard, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz
BACKGROUND: Postpneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ppARDS) is a life-threatening condition with a disastrous prognosis. This study assessed the efficacy of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in adult patients with unresponsive severe ppARDS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of all patients treated with VV-ECMO for ppARDS from January 2009 to December 2015. We calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score before ECMO insertion and monitored the subsequent mechanical ventilation settings...
March 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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